To determine the presence and level of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) infestation in Southern California bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) fields, soil and root samples were collected in April and May 2012 and analyzed for the presence of root-knot nematodes. The earlier samples were virtually free of root-knot nematodes, but the later samples all contained, sometimes very high numbers, of root-knot nematodes. Nematodes were all identified as M. incognita. A nematode population from one of these fields was multiplied in a greenhouse and used as inoculum for two repeated pot experiments with three susceptible and two resistant bell pepper varieties. Fruit yields of the resistant peppers were not affected by the nematodes, whereas yields of two of the three susceptible pepper cultivars decreased as a result of nematode inoculation. Nematode-induced root galling and nematode multiplication was low but different between the two resistant cultivars. Root galling and nematode reproduction was much higher on the three susceptible cultivars. One of these susceptible cultivars exhibited tolerance, as yields were not affected by the nematodes, but nematode multiplication was high. It is concluded that M. incognita is common in Southern California bell pepper production, and that resistant cultivars may provide a useful tool in a nonchemical management strategy.
bell pepper; Capsicum annuum; Meloidogyne incognita; resistance; root-knot nematode
Brassicaceous cover crops can be used for biofumigation after soil incorporation of the mowed crop. This strategy can be used to manage root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), but the fact that many of these crops are host to root-knot nematodes can result in an undesired nematode population increase during the cultivation of the cover crop. To avoid this, cover crop cultivars that are poor or nonhosts should be selected. In this study, the host status of 31 plants in the family Brassicaceae for the three root-knot nematode species M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla were evaluated, and compared with a susceptible tomato host in repeated greenhouse pot trials. The results showed that M. incognita and M. javanica responded in a similar fashion to the different cover cultivars. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and turnip (B. rapa) were generally good hosts, whereas most oil radish cultivars (Raphanus. sativus ssp. oleiferus) were poor hosts. However, some oil radish cultivars were among the best hosts for M. hapla. The arugula (Eruca sativa) cultivar Nemat was a poor host for all three nematode species tested. This study provides important information for chosing a cover crop with the purpose of managing root-knot nematodes.
biofumigation; Brassica; host status; Meloidogyne hapla; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica, root-knot nematode
The efficacy of four biological nematicides on root-galling, root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) reproduction, and shoot weight of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in stone wool substrate or in pots with sandy soil was compared to an oxamyl treatment and a non-treated control. In stone wool grown tomato, Avid® (a.i. abamectin) was highly effective when applied as a drench at time of nematode inoculation. It strongly reduced root-galling and nematode reproduction, and prevented a reduction in tomato shoot weight. However, applying the product one week before, or two weeks after nematode inoculation was largely ineffective. This shows that Avid® has short-lived, non-systemic activity. The effects of Avid® on nematode symptoms and reproduction on soil-grown tomato were only very minor, probably due to the known strong adsorption of the active ingredient abamectin to soil particles. The neem derived product Ornazin® strongly reduced tomato root-galling and nematode reproduction only in stone wool and only when applied as a drench one week prior to nematode inoculation, suggesting a local systemic activity or modification of the root system, rendering them less suitable host for the nematodes. This application however also had some phytotoxic effect, reducing tomato shoot weights. The other two products, Nema-Q™ and DiTera®, did not result in strong or consistent effects on nematode symptoms or reproduction.
control; Meloidogyne incognita; Solanum lycopersicum; stone wool; substrate
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C).
biofumigation; crop rotation; management; Meloidogyne incognita; Solanum lycopersicum
Brassicas have been used frequently for biofumigation, a pest-management strategy based on the release of biocidal volatiles during decomposition of soil-incorporated tissue. However, the role of such volatiles in control of plant-parasitic nematodes is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the direct localized and indirect volatile effects of amending soil with broccoli tissue on root-knot nematode populations. Meloidogyne incognita-infested soil in 50-cm-long tubes was amended with broccoli tissue, which was mixed throughout the tube or concentrated in a 10-cm layer. After three weeks at 28°C, M. incognita populations in the amended tubes were 57 to 80% smaller than in non-amended tubes. Mixing broccoli throughout the tubes reduced M. incognita more than concentrating broccoli in a 10-cm layer. Amending a 10-cm layer reduced M. incognita in the non-amended layers of those tubes by 31 to 71%, probably due to a nematicidal effect of released volatiles. However, the localized direct effect was much stronger than the indirect effect of volatiles. The strong direct effect may have resulted from the release of non-volatile nematicidal compounds. Therefore, when using biofumigation with broccoli to control M. incognita, the tissue should be thoroughly and evenly mixed through the soil layer(s) where the target nematodes occur. Effects on saprophytic nematodes were the reverse. Amended soil layers had much greater numbers of saprophytic nematodes than non-amended layers, and there was no indirect effect of amendments on saprophytic nematodes in adjacent non-amended layers.
amendment; biofumigation; broccoli; Brassica oleracea; management; Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode; soil
Plant residues of broccoli, melon, and tomato with or without addition of chicken manure were used as biofumigants in two pot experiments with Meloidogyne incognita-infested soils. The efficacy of these biofumigants in controlling M. incognita infestation in susceptible tomato bio-assay plants was studied at soil temperatures of 20º, 25º, and 30 ºC. None of the plant residues was effective at 20 ºC, and broccoli was more effective than tomato or melon at 25 ºC. At 30 ºC all three plant residues reduced M. incognita infestation of tomato to very low levels. Chicken manure was effective in one of two experiments at 20 ºC, and at 25 ºC enhanced the efficacy of tomato and melon residue in one of two experiments. At 30 ºC chicken manure was equally effective as the three plant residues but did not further decrease infestation levels in plant residue amended soils. It is concluded that biofumigation to control M. incognita is unlikely to be effective under cool conditions, that at soil temperatures around 25 ºC broccoli is more effective than melon and tomato, and that the addition of chicken manure at this soil temperature may enhance the efficacy. At high soil temperatures, of approximately 30 ºC, the biofumigant source seems of minor importance as strong reductions in tomato infestation by M. incognita were achieved by addition of each of the three plant residues as well as by addition of chicken manure.
biofumigation; broccoli; chicken manure; control; melon; root-knot nematode; temperature; tomato
Root-knot nematode-susceptible melons (Cantaloupe) were grown in pots with varying levels of Meloidogyne incognita and were compared to susceptible melons that were grafted onto Cucumis metuliferus or Cucurbita moschata rootstocks. In addition, the effect of using melons as transplants in nematode-infested soil was compared to direct seeding of melons in nematode-infested soil. There were no differences in shoot or root weight, or severity of root galling between transplanted and direct-seeded non-grafted susceptible melon in nematode-infested soil. Susceptible melon grafted on C. moschata rootstocks had lower root gall ratings and, at high nematode densities, higher shoot weights than non-grafted susceptible melons. However, final nematode levels were not lower on the grafted than on the non-grafted plants, and it was therefore concluded that grafting susceptible melon on to C. moschata rootstock made the plants tolerant, but not resistant, to the nematodes. Grafting susceptible melons on C. metuliferus rootstocks also reduced levels of root galling, prevented shoot weight losses, and resulted in significantly lower nematode levels at harvest. Thus, C. metuliferus may be used as a rootstock for melon to prevent both growth reduction and a strong nematode buildup in M. incognita-infested soil.
Cucumis melo; Cucumis metuliferus; cucurbita moschata; grafting; Meloidogyne incognita; melon; reproduction; resistance; rootstock
Needle nematodes, Longidorus africanus, were added to carrot and lettuce seedlings in a range of inoculum levels and at various times after seeding. The effects of inoculum density and delayed inoculation on plant growth were analyzed according to Seinhorst's damage function. Growth of both lettuce and carrot was severely affected by L. africanus, but delaying nematode inoculation until 10 days after seeding significantly increased estimated minimum yields in both crop species. Tolerance levels of lettuce and carrot for L. africanus were approximately 10 times lower than those reported for other longidorid-crop associations. We conclude that methods aimed at avoiding immediate exposure of germinating seeds to L. africanus may significantly reduce crop damage.
carrot; damage; lettuce; Longidorus africanus; needle nematode; tolerance
The suppression of Meloidogyne incognita by marigolds differed among six marigold cultivars and five soil temperatures. Tagetes signata (syn. T. tenuifolia) cv. Tangerine Gem and the Tagetes hybrid Polynema allowed reproduction and root galling when grown at 30 °C, and should not be used for control of M. incognita at temperatures close to 30 °C. Tagetes patula cultivars Single Gold and Tangerine and T. erecta Flor de Muerto, when grown within a 20-30 °C soil temperature range, significantly reduced root galling and nematode infestation of subsequent tomato compared to tomato following fallow. When grown at 10 °C or 15 °C, only one of the tested marigold cultivars (T. erecta CrackerJack at 15 °C) reduced M. incognita infection of subsequent tomato compared to tomato after fallow. Marigolds should be grown at soil temperatures above 15 °C to suppress M. incognita infection of a subsequent crop.
marigold; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; root-knot nematodes; suppression; Tagetes; temperature
The effects of preplanted marigold on tomato root galling and multiplication of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla were studied. Marigold cultivars of Tagetes patula, T. erecta, T. signata, and a Tagetes hybrid all reduced galling and numbers of second-stage juveniles in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. All four Meloidogyne spp. reproduced on T. signata 'Tangerine Gem'. Several cultivars of T. patula and T. erecta suppressed galling and reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. on tomato to levels lower than or comparable to a fallow control. Phytotoxic effects of marigold on tomato were not observed. Several of the tested marigold cultivars are ready for full-scale field evaluation against Meloidogyne spp.
control; marigold; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne hapla; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; nematode; root-knot nematodes; Tagetes erecta; Tagetes patula; Tagetes signata
Longidorus africanus multiplication on tomato was highest at 29 °C. Few nematodes were recovered after 6 weeks at soil temperatures of 35 °C or below 23 °C. The time to egg hatching was shortest and the percentage of eggs hatching was highest at 29 °C. The minimum temperature and the heat sum above this temperature required for egg development were calculated to be 14.3 °C and 94.08 degree-days, respectively. The thermal times required for egg development by L. africanus and L. elongatus were nearly identical. For both species the product of the base temperature and the heat sum was near constant, and at a temperature of 22.3 °C the rates of egg development were equal.
egg development; Longidorus africanus; Longidorus elongatus; nematode; thermal time relationships
The horizontal and vertical distribution of the needle nematode Longidorus africanus was studied in a bermudagrass field in the Imperial Valley in southern California. A geostatistical method involving the use of semi-variograms was used to quantify the relationship between sampling distance and variation in L. africanus population levels. Semi-variance between nematode numbers from different samples was very low when samples were taken close together, increased with sampling distances up to ca. 15 m, and fluctuated around a sill value at distances greater than 15 m. At very large sampling distances the semi-variance increased further. It was concluded that patches with fairly similar numbers of L. africanus were elongated and up to 15 m long. Seasonal fluctuations over a 2-year period, in total numbers of L. africanus extracted from three depths, were large and highly correlated with soil temperature. Population densities were greatest during the summer months and lowest during the winter. Averaged over the 2-year period, L. africanus population densities increased with increasing depth. Chances for detecting this nematode are greatest in summer at depths of 60 to 90 cm.
distribution; geostatistics; horizontal distribution; Longidorus africanus; nematode; sampling; temperature; vertical distribution