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1.  CCL5 and CCR5 Interaction Promotes Cell Motility in Human Osteosarcoma 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e35101.
Background
Osteosarcoma is characterized by a high malignant and metastatic potential. CCL5 (previously called RANTES) was originally recognized as a product of activated T cells, and plays a crucial role in the migration and metastasis of human cancer cells. It has been reported that the effect of CCL5 is mediated via CCR receptors. However, the effect of CCL5 on migration activity and integrin expression in human osteosarcoma cells is mostly unknown.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Here we found that CCL5 increased the migration and expression of αvβ3 integrin in human osteosarcoma cells. Stimulation of cells with CCL5 increased CCR5 but not CCR1 and CCR3 expression. CCR5 mAb, inhibitor, and siRNA reduced the CCL5-enhanced the migration and integrin up-regulation of osteosarcoma cells. Activations of MEK, ERK, and NF-κB pathways after CCL5 treatment were demonstrated, and CCL5-induced expression of integrin and migration activity was inhibited by the specific inhibitor and mutant of MEK, ERK, and NF-κB cascades. In addition, over-expression of CCL5 shRNA inhibited the migratory ability and integrin expression in osteosarcoma cells.
Conclusions/Significance
CCL5 and CCR5 interaction acts through MEK, ERK, which in turn activates NF-κB, resulting in the activations of αvβ3 integrin and contributing the migration of human osteosarcoma cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035101
PMCID: PMC3323659  PMID: 22506069
2.  Probability of detecting nematode infestations for quarantine sampling with imperfect extraction efficacy 
Journal of Nematology  2011;43(1):16-24.
For quarantine sampling, it is of fundamental importance to determine the probability of finding an infestation when a specified number of units are inspected. In general, current sampling procedures assume 100% probability (perfect) of detecting a pest if it is present within a unit. Ideally, a nematode extraction method should remove all stages of all species with 100% efficiency regardless of season, temperature, or other environmental conditions; in practice however, no method approaches these criteria. In this study we determined the probability of detecting nematode infestations for quarantine sampling with imperfect extraction efficacy. Also, the required sample and the risk involved in detecting nematode infestations with imperfect extraction efficacy are presented. Moreover, we developed a computer program to calculate confidence levels for different scenarios with varying proportions of infestation and efficacy of detection. In addition, a case study, presenting the extraction efficacy of the modified Baermann's Funnel method on Aphelenchoides besseyi, is used to exemplify the use of our program to calculate the probability of detecting nematode infestations in quarantine sampling with imperfect extraction efficacy. The result has important implications for quarantine programs and highlights the need for a very large number of samples if perfect extraction efficacy is not achieved in such programs. We believe that the results of the study will be useful for the determination of realistic goals in the implementation of quarantine sampling.
PMCID: PMC3380480  PMID: 22791911
Quarantine sampling; detecting nematode infestations; modified Baermann's Funnel method; binomial distribution; hypergeometric distribution; Monte Carlo simulation method

Results 1-2 (2)