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1.  Poetry, decisions, and societal need 
Canadian Family Physician  2014;60(5):489.
PMCID: PMC4020656  PMID: 24829013
4.  Finding the path together 
Canadian Family Physician  2014;60(4):393.
PMCID: PMC4046557  PMID: 24733334
5.  The CFPC and the SRPC 
Canadian Family Physician  2014;60(3):297.
PMCID: PMC3952769  PMID: 24627388
9.  An exciting time of year 
Canadian Family Physician  2014;60(1):93.
PMCID: PMC3994789  PMID: 24452572
11.  The Effect of Soil Texture and Irrigation on Rotylenchulus reniformis and Cotton 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(2):99-105.
The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is the most damaging nematode pathogen of cotton in Alabama. Soil texture is currently being explored as a basis for the development of economic thresholds and management zones within a field. Trials to determine the reproductive potential of R. reniformis as influenced by soil type were conducted in microplot and greenhouse settings during 2008 to 2010. Population density of R. reniformis was significantly influenced by soil texture and exhibited a general decrease with increasing median soil particle size (MSPS). As the MSPS of a soil increased from 0.04 mm in clay soil to > 0.30 mm in very fine sandy loam and sandy loam soils, R. reniformis numbers decreased. The R. reniformis population densities on all soil types were also greater with irrigation. Early season cotton development was significantly affected by increasing R. reniformis Pi, with plant shoot-weight-to-root-weight ratios increasing at low R. reniformis Pi and declining with increasing R. reniformis Pi. Plant height was increased by irrigation throughout the growing season. The results suggests that R. reniformis will reach higher population densities in soils with smaller MSPS; however, the reduction in yield or plant growth very well may be no greater than in a soil that is less preferential to the nematode.
PMCID: PMC3700743  PMID: 23833324
Gossypium hirsutum; median soil particle size (MSPS); soil moisture; soil texture; site-specific management
12.  Characterization of the Two Intra-Individual Sequence Variants in the 18S rRNA Gene in the Plant Parasitic Nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60891.
The 18S rRNA gene is fundamental to cellular and organismal protein synthesis and because of its stable persistence through generations it is also used in phylogenetic analysis among taxa. Sequence variation in this gene within a single species is rare, but it has been observed in few metazoan organisms. More frequently it has mostly been reported in the non-transcribed spacer region. Here, we have identified two sequence variants within the near full coding region of 18S rRNA gene from a single reniform nematode (RN) Rotylenchulus reniformis labeled as reniform nematode variant 1 (RN_VAR1) and variant 2 (RN_VAR2). All sequences from three of the four isolates had both RN variants in their sequences; however, isolate 13B had only RN variant 2 sequence. Specific variable base sites (96 or 5.5%) were found within the 18S rRNA gene that can clearly distinguish the two 18S rDNA variants of RN, in 11 (25.0%) and 33 (75.0%) of the 44 RN clones, for RN_VAR1 and RN_VAR2, respectively. Neighbor-joining trees show that the RN_VAR1 is very similar to the previously existing R. reniformis sequence in GenBank, while the RN_VAR2 sequence is more divergent. This is the first report of the identification of two major variants of the 18S rRNA gene in the same single RN, and documents the specific base variation between the two variants, and hypothesizes on simultaneous co-existence of these two variants for this gene.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060891
PMCID: PMC3623918  PMID: 23593343
14.  IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH ROTYLENCHULUS RENIFORMIS 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(4):313-318.
The objective of this work was to isolate and identify fungi associated with R. reniformis in cotton roots. Soil samples were collected in cotton fields naturally infested with R. reniformis and from cotton stock plants cultured in the greenhouse. Nematodes extracted from the soil were observed under the stereoscope, and discolored eggs and vermiform stages colonized with mycelia were cultured on 1.5% water agar supplemented with antibiotics, and incubated at 27°C. Identification of the nematophagous fungi was based on the morphological characters, and the ITS regions and 5.8S rDNA amplified by PCR using the primers ITS1 and ITS4. The parasitism percentage on vermiform nematodes from greenhouse samples was 21.2%, and the percentages from cotton fields in Limestone, Henry, and Baldwin counties in Alabama were 3%, 23.2%, and 5.6%, respectively. A total of 12 fungi were identified from R. reniformis vermiform stages and eggs. The most frequently isolated fungi were Arthrobotrys dactyloides (46%) and Paecilomyces lilacinus (14%), followed by Phoma exigua (4.8%), Penicillium waksmanii and Dactylaria brochophaga (3.6%), Aspergillus glaucus group (2.4%). Cladosporium herbarum, Cladosporium cladiosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Torula herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and an unidentified basidiomycete were less frequent (1.2%). A high percentage (16.8%) of fungi from colonized nematodes was not cultivable on our media. Out of those 12 fungi, only four have been previously reported as nematophagous fungi: three isolates of Arthrobotrys dactyloides, and one isolate of Dactylaria brochopaga, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Fusarium oxysporum. Molecular identification of Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Dactylaria brochopaga was consistent with the morphological identification, placing these two fungi in the new genus Drechslerella as proposed in the new Orbilaceae classification.
PMCID: PMC3380521  PMID: 22736864
Arthrobotrys dactyloides; Dactylaria brochopaga; Paecilomyces lilacinus; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis
15.  Natural Migration of Rotylenchulus reniformis In a No-Till Cotton System 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(4):307-312.
Rotylenchulus reniformis is the most damaging nematode pathogen of cotton in Alabama. It is easily introduced into cotton fields via contaminated equipment and, when present, is difficult and costly to control. A trial to monitor the natural migration of R. reniformis from an initial point of origin was established in 2007 and studied over two growing seasons in both irrigated and non-irrigated no-till cotton production systems. Vermiform females, juveniles and males reached a horizontal distance of 200 cm from the initial inoculation point, and a depth of 91 cm in the first season in both systems. Irrigation had no effect on the migration of vermiform females and juveniles, but males migrated faster in the irrigated trial than in the non-irrigated trial. Population density increased steadily in the irrigated trial during both years, exceeding the economic threshold of 1,000 per 150 cm3, but was highly correlated with rainfall in the non-irrigated trial. The average speed of migration ranged from 0- to 3.3-cm per day over 150 days. R. reniformis was able to establish in both the irrigated and non-irrigated trials in one season and to increase population density significantly.
PMCID: PMC3380523  PMID: 22736863
Behavior; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; host-parasite relationship; movement; no-till; population dynamics; root growth; Rotylenchulus reniformis
16.  Using FAME Analysis to Compare, Differentiate, and Identify Multiple Nematode Species 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):163-173.
We have adapted the Sherlock® Microbial Identification system for identification of plant parasitic nematodes based on their fatty acid profiles. Fatty acid profiles of 12 separate plant parasitic nematode species have been determined using this system. Additionally, separate profiles have been developed for Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita based on their host plant, four species and three races within the Meloidogyne genus, and three life stages of Heterodera glycines. Statistically, 85% of these profiles can be delimited from one another; the specific comparisons between the cyst and vermiform stages of H. glycines, M. hapla and M. arenaria, and M. arenaria and M. javanica cannot be segregated using canonical analysis. By incorporating each of these fatty acid profiles into the Sherlock® Analysis Software, 20 library entries were created. While there was some similarity among profiles, all entries correctly identified the proper organism to genus, species, race, life stage, and host at greater than 86% accuracy. The remaining 14% were correctly identified to genus, although species and race may not be correct due to the underlying variables of host or life stage. These results are promising and indicate that this library could be used for diagnostics labs to increase response time.
PMCID: PMC3380492  PMID: 22736811
biochemistry; FAME analysis; identification; Meloidogyne spp.; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne hapla; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; Rotylenchulus reniformis; Heterodera glycines

Results 1-16 (16)