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1.  Control of Root-knot Nematodes on Tomato in Stone Wool Substrate with Biological Nematicides 
Journal of Nematology  2011;43(2):110-117.
The efficacy of four biological nematicides on root-galling, root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) reproduction, and shoot weight of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in stone wool substrate or in pots with sandy soil was compared to an oxamyl treatment and a non-treated control. In stone wool grown tomato, Avid® (a.i. abamectin) was highly effective when applied as a drench at time of nematode inoculation. It strongly reduced root-galling and nematode reproduction, and prevented a reduction in tomato shoot weight. However, applying the product one week before, or two weeks after nematode inoculation was largely ineffective. This shows that Avid® has short-lived, non-systemic activity. The effects of Avid® on nematode symptoms and reproduction on soil-grown tomato were only very minor, probably due to the known strong adsorption of the active ingredient abamectin to soil particles. The neem derived product Ornazin® strongly reduced tomato root-galling and nematode reproduction only in stone wool and only when applied as a drench one week prior to nematode inoculation, suggesting a local systemic activity or modification of the root system, rendering them less suitable host for the nematodes. This application however also had some phytotoxic effect, reducing tomato shoot weights. The other two products, Nema-Q™ and DiTera®, did not result in strong or consistent effects on nematode symptoms or reproduction.
PMCID: PMC3380465  PMID: 22791920
control; Meloidogyne incognita; Solanum lycopersicum; stone wool; substrate
2.  The Potential of Five Winter-grown Crops to Reduce Root-knot Nematode Damage and Increase Yield of Tomato 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(2):120-127.
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C).
PMCID: PMC3380475  PMID: 22736848
biofumigation; crop rotation; management; Meloidogyne incognita; Solanum lycopersicum
3.  Effect of Three Plant Residues and Chicken Manure used as Biofumigants at Three Temperatures on Meloidogyne incognita Infestation of Tomato in Greenhouse Experiments 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(4):489-494.
Plant residues of broccoli, melon, and tomato with or without addition of chicken manure were used as biofumigants in two pot experiments with Meloidogyne incognita-infested soils. The efficacy of these biofumigants in controlling M. incognita infestation in susceptible tomato bio-assay plants was studied at soil temperatures of 20º, 25º, and 30 ºC. None of the plant residues was effective at 20 ºC, and broccoli was more effective than tomato or melon at 25 ºC. At 30 ºC all three plant residues reduced M. incognita infestation of tomato to very low levels. Chicken manure was effective in one of two experiments at 20 ºC, and at 25 ºC enhanced the efficacy of tomato and melon residue in one of two experiments. At 30 ºC chicken manure was equally effective as the three plant residues but did not further decrease infestation levels in plant residue amended soils. It is concluded that biofumigation to control M. incognita is unlikely to be effective under cool conditions, that at soil temperatures around 25 ºC broccoli is more effective than melon and tomato, and that the addition of chicken manure at this soil temperature may enhance the efficacy. At high soil temperatures, of approximately 30 ºC, the biofumigant source seems of minor importance as strong reductions in tomato infestation by M. incognita were achieved by addition of each of the three plant residues as well as by addition of chicken manure.
PMCID: PMC2620994  PMID: 19262896
biofumigation; broccoli; chicken manure; control; melon; root-knot nematode; temperature; tomato

Results 1-3 (3)