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author:("Jia, tingling")
1.  In Vitro Activity of Daclatasvir on Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 3 NS5A 
The NS5A replication complex inhibitor daclatasvir (DCV; BMS-790052) inhibits hybrid replicons containing hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3a (HCV3a) NS5A genes with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 120 to 870 pM. Selection studies with a hybrid HCV3a replicon identified NS5A residues 31 and 93 as sites for DCV-selected resistance. Our results support the potential use of DCV as a component in combination therapies for HCV3a chronic infection.
PMCID: PMC3535966  PMID: 23089758
2.  In Vitro Activity of BMS-790052 on Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 NS5A 
The antiviral profile of BMS-790052, a potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication complex inhibitor targeting nonstructural protein NS5A, is well characterized for HCV genotype-1. Here, we report that BMS-790052 inhibits hybrid replicons containing HCV genotype-4 NS5A genes with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 7 to 13 pM. NS5A residue 30 was an important site for BMS-790052-selected resistance in the hybrid replicons. Our results support the potential of BMS-790052 as a valuable component of combination therapy for HCV genotype-4 chronic infection.
PMCID: PMC3294917  PMID: 22203595
3.  Hepatitis C Virus RNA Elimination and Development of Resistance in Replicon Cells Treated with BMS-790052 
BMS-790052, a first-in-class hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication complex inhibitor, targeting nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A), displays picomolar to nanomolar potency against genotypes 1 to 5. This exceptional potency translated into robust anti-HCV activity in clinical studies with HCV genotype 1-infected subjects. To date, all BMS-790052-associated resistance mutations have mapped to the N-terminal region of NS5A. To further characterize the antiviral activity of BMS-790052, HCV replicon elimination and colony formation assays were performed. Replicon was cleared from genotype 1a and 1b replicon cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Elimination of the genotype 1a replicon required longer treatment durations and higher concentrations of BMS-790052 than those for the genotype1b replicon. Single amino acid substitutions that conferred relatively low levels of resistance were observed at early time points and at low doses. Higher doses and longer treatment durations yielded mutations that conferred greater levels of resistance, including linked amino acid substitutions. Replicon cells that survived inhibitor treatment remained fully sensitivity to pegylated alpha interferon (pegIFN-α) and other HCV inhibitors. Moreover, genotype 1a replicon elimination was markedly enhanced when pegIFN-α and BMS-790052 were combined. Resistant variants observed in this study were very similar to those observed in a multiple ascending dose (MAD) monotherapy trial of BMS-790052, validating replicon elimination studies as a model to predict clinical resistance. Insights gained from the in vitro anti-HCV activity and resistance profiles of BMS-790052 will be used to help guide the clinical development of this novel HCV inhibitor.
PMCID: PMC3294925  PMID: 22214777
4.  The Effects of Root-knot Nematode Infection and Mi-mediated Nematode Resistance in Tomato on Plant Fitness 
Journal of Nematology  2011;43(2):82-89.
The Mi-1.2 resistance gene in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) confers resistance against several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). This study examined the impact of M. javanica on the reproductive fitness of near-isogenic tomato cultivars with and without Mi-1.2 under field and greenhouse conditions. Surprisingly, neither nematode inoculation or host plant resistance impacted the yield of mature fruits in field microplots (inoculum=8,000 eggs/plant), or fruit or seed production in a follow-up greenhouse bioassay conducted with a higher inoculum level (20,000 eggs/plant). However, under heavy nematode pressure (200,000 eggs/plant), greenhouse-grown plants carrying Mi-1.2 had more than ten-fold greater fruit production than susceptible plants and nearly forty-fold greater estimated lifetime seed production, confirming prior reports of the benefits of Mi-1.2. In all cases Mi-mediated resistance significantly reduced nematode reproduction. These results indicated that tomato can utilize tolerance mechanisms to compensate for moderate levels of nematode infection, but that the Mi-1.2 resistance gene confers a dramatic fitness benefit under heavy nematode pressure. No significant cost of resistance was detected in the absence of nematode infection.
PMCID: PMC3380456  PMID: 22791916
costs and benefits of resistance; Meloidogyne javanica; Mi-1; Mi-1.2; nematode resistance; plant reproductive fitness; R gene; root-knot nematode; Solanum lycopersicum; tomato

Results 1-4 (4)