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1.  Effects of a Commercial Formulation of Bacillus firmus I-1582 on Golf Course Bermudagrass Infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(4):331-335.
One of the primary pests of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) on golf courses in the southeastern United States is Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode). In 2011, a commercial formulation of Bacillus firmus I-1582, Nortica 5WG, was launched in the United States for management of plant-parasitic nematodes on turfgrasses. To test the efficacy of late winter/early spring application of this biopesticide on B. longicaudatus, two field trials in 2009 compared B. firmus with fenamiphos and untreated control treatments. In 2011, two additional field trials compared treatment with B. firmus with untreated control only. These trials measured treatment effects on the population density of B. longicaudatus, turf root length, and turf percent green cover. In all four trials, treatment with B. firmus improved root length and decreased numbers of B. longicaudatus in contrast to the untreated. These results indicate that late winter/early spring application of B. firmus is an effective biopesticide treatment for management of B. longicaudatus on golf course bermudagrass.
PMCID: PMC4284084  PMID: 25580025
Bacillus firmus; Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; biopesticide; Cynodon spp.; management; sting nematode; turfgrass
2.  Effects of a Commercial Formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus Strain 251 on Overseeded Bermudagrass Infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):223-227.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus is an important parasite of both warm-season bermudagrass and winter overseed grasses used on golf courses in the southeastern United States. Field trials were conducted to study the effects of a commercial formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 applied to overseed grasses during the winter and early spring on population density of B. longicaudatus and bermudagrass health in late spring after bermudagrass broke dormancy. These studies found that P. lilacinus reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus in most cases, but not below damaging levels. Multiple applications of 1 × 1010 spores/m2 were generally more effective than 2 × 1010 spores/m2 in reducing nematode numbers and improving turf roots. These results indicate that application of this formulation of P. lilacinus strain 251 to overseeded turf in the spring may be a useful integrated pest management tool for B. longicaudatus on bermudagrass, but is not sufficient as a stand-alone nematode management tactic.
PMCID: PMC3792840  PMID: 24115787
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; biological control; Paecilomyces lilacinus, sting nematode; turfgrass
3.  Interaction Between Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus on Bermudagrass and Seashore Paspalum Hosts 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(1):17-20.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus are among the most common nematode parasites of turfgrasses in Florida. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) are the two turf species most commonly used on Florida golf courses. This paper explores the interactions between B. longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus on bermudagrass and seashore paspalum hosts. Data collected from thousands of nematode samples submitted to the Florida Nematode Assay Lab over a 8-yr period revealed a negative relationship between B. longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus on bermudagrass, but not seashore paspalum. In a multi-year field plot experiment using multiple cultivars of bermudagrass, and seashore paspalum B. longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus were negatively related on both turf species. Greenhouse trials where multiple cultivars of both turf species were inoculated with different combinations of B. longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus found that each nematode species was inhibitory to the other on both host species. Belonolaimus longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus clearly impact each other on turfgrass hosts, although the mechanism of the nematode-nematode interactions is unknown.
PMCID: PMC3625127  PMID: 23589655
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus; interaction; Paspalum vaginatum; seashore paspalum; spiral nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass
4.  Field Responses of Bermudagrass and Seashore paspalum Cultivars to Sting and Spiral Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2011;43(3-4):201-208.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus spp. are damaging nematode species on bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) in sandy soils of the southeastern United States. Eight bermudagrass and three seashore paspalum cultivars were tested for responses to both nematode species in field plots for two years in Florida. Soil samples were taken every three months and nematode population densities in soil were quantified. Turfgrass aboveground health was evaluated throughout the growing season. Results showed that all bermudagrass cultivars, except TifSport, were good hosts for B. longicaudatus, and all seashore paspalum cultivars were good hosts for H. pseudorobustus. Overall, bermudagrass was a better host for B. longicaudatus while seashore paspalum was a better host for H. pseudorobustus. TifSport bermudagrass and SeaDwarf seashore paspalum cultivars supported the lowest population densities of B. longicaudatus. Seashore paspalum had a higher percent green cover than bermudagrass in the nematode-infested field. Nematode intolerant cultivars were identified.
PMCID: PMC3547344  PMID: 23430148
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon spp.; field; Helicotylenchus spp.; Paspalum vaginatum; resistance; seashore paspalum; spiral nematodes; sting nematodes
5.  Evaluation of Econem™, a Formulated Pasteuria sp. Bionematicide, for Management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Golf Course Turf1 
Journal of Nematology  2011;43(2):101-109.
In 2010, a turfgrass bionematicide containing in vitro produced Pasteuria sp. for management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus was launched under the tradename Econem™. Greenhouse pot studies and field trials on golf course fairways and tee boxes evaluated Econem at varied rates and application frequencies. Trials on putting greens compared efficacy of three applications of Econem at 98 kg/ha to untreated controls and 1,3-dichloropropene at 53 kg a.i/ha. Further putting green trials evaluated the ability of three applications of Econem at 98 kg/ha to prevent resurgence of population densities of B. longicaudatus following treatment with 1,3-dichloropropene at 53 kg a.i./ha. None of the Econem treatments in pot studies were effective at reducing B. longicaudatus numbers (P ≤ 0.05). Econem was associated with reduction in population densities of B. longicaudatus (P ≤ 0.1) on only a single sampling date in one of the eight field trials and did not improve turf health in any of the trials (P > 0.1). These results did not indicate that Econem is an effective treatment for management of B. longicaudatus on golf course turf.
PMCID: PMC3380457  PMID: 22791919
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; biological control; biopesticide; Cynodon spp.; nematode management; Pasteuria sp.; sting nematode; turfgrass
6.  Evaluation of Amino Acids as Turfgrass Nematicides1 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(4):292-297.
Laboratory experiments revealed that DL-methionine, sodium methionate, potassium methionate, and methionine hydroxyl analog at rates of 224 and 448 kg amino acid/ha reduced the number of Belonolaimus longicaudatus mixed life-stages and Meloidogyne incognita J2 in soil, whereas L-threonine and lysine were not effective in reducing the number of either nematode. Futhermore, greenhouse experiments demonstrated that DL-methionine, sodium methionate, potassium methionate, and methionine hydroxyl analog were equally effective against B. longicaudatus at rates of 112, 224, and 448 kg amino acid/ha, and the highest rate (448 kg amino acid/ha) of all amino acids was more effective in reducing the number of B. longicaudatus than the lower rate. However, phytotoxicity was observed on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) treated with 448 kg amino acid/ha of methionine hydroxyl analog and DL methionine. In addition, in one of two field experiments on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) turf percentage green cover was increased and the number of B. longicaudatus was reduced by 224 kg amino acid/ha of DL-methionine and potassium methionate compared to untreated controls in one of two trials.
PMCID: PMC3380522  PMID: 22736861
amino acid; Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon; methionine; nematode management; sting nematode; turfgrass
7.  Effects of Formulation and Host Nematode Density on the Ability of In Vitro-Produced Pasteuria Endospores to Control its Host Belonolaimus longicaudatus 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(2):87-90.
The effect of nematode population density at the time of application and formulations of in vitro-produced Pasteuria spp. endospores on the final population density of Belonolaimus longicaudatus was studied in an 84-d-long pot bioassay. The experiment utilized a factorial design consisting of 30 or 300 B. longicaudatus /100 cm3 of sandy soil and three formulations of in vitro-produced Pasteuria spp. endospores (nontreated, granular, or liquid). No differences were observed in percent endospore attachment between nematode inoculum levels during either trial. Granular and liquid formulations of in vitro-produced endospores suppressed nematode population densities by 22% and 59% in the first trial and 20% and 63% in the second, respectively compared with the nontreated control. The liquid formulation increased percent endospore attachment by 147% and 158%, respectively, compared with the granular formulation. The greatest root retention by the host plant was observed at the lower B. longicaudatus inoculation level following application of the liquid formulation. While both the granular and liquid formulations reduced B. longicaudatus population densities in the soil, the liquid spore suspension was most effective.
PMCID: PMC3380477  PMID: 22736843
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; biological control; formulation; management; Pasteuria spp.; sting nematode; suppression; turfgrass
8.  Assessment of calvarial structure motion by MRI 
Background
Practitioners of manual medicine/manual therapy (MM/MT) who utilize techniques thought to have some impact upon and move the solid structures of the human head have been criticized for lack of evidence of cranial bone motion. The present study utilized magnetic resonance imagery (MRI) technology to address the question of whether or not inherent (non-operator initiated) calvarial structure motion can be assessed.
Methods
Subjects: Twenty healthcare professionals, (physicians, nurses, medical students, pharmacists) between the ages of 24 and 52 were recruited. Seven females (ages 25-47, mean age 36.7) and 13 males (ages 25-53, mean age 31.2) volunteered. Technology: MRI scans were acquired at 450 ms per slice, in a 1.5 Tesla Signa Excite HD closed MRI system. The same scan prescription was repeated serially every 45 seconds to obtain eight serial slices for each subject. Image analysis was accomplished using ImageJ software (ImageJ 1.33 u National Institutes of Health, USA). Data from all eight images for each of the 20 subjects were analyzed to determine the two images with the largest differences in the parameters measured.
Results
Difference values for the measures of area, width, height, major axis, and feret were statistically different whereas the measures for perimeter and minor axis were not. However, only the difference values for area were both statistically different (p < 0.003) and exceeded the resolution threshold of 0.898 mm/pixel.
Discussion
The statistically significant difference value for area is suggestive of inherent motion in calvarial structures, and adds to the body of evidence supportive of biomechanically measurable calvarial structure motion in general. That the total intracranial area appeared to expand and recede was consistent with theory and prior studies suggestive of calvarial structure motion due to intracranial fluid volume changes.
Conclusion
The use of MRI technology was able to demonstrate calvarial structure motion at a level exceeding the resolution threshold, and provides a means for further research on phenomena related to the cranial concept. It may be just a matter of time until increased resolution of MRI technology and image analysis provide the ability to examine more detailed areas of specific cranial bone motion.
doi:10.1186/1750-4732-3-8
PMCID: PMC2743699  PMID: 19732453
9.  Efficacy of Methionine Against Ectoparasitic Nematodes on Golf Course Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):217-220.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are important pathogens of intensely-managed turf used on golf courses. Two of these nematodes that are common in the southeastern US are Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Mesocriconema ornata. Currently, there is a lack of effective treatments that can be used to manage these important pests. Turfgrass field trials evaluated DL-methionine as a turfgrass nematicide against B. longicaudatus and M. ornata. One trial was on a bermudagrass putting green, the other was on zoysiagrass maintained under putting-green conditions. Two rates of methionine, 1120 kg/ha in a single application, and 112 kg/ha applied twice four weeks apart, were compared with untreated control and fenamiphos treatments. Measurements collected included soil nematode counts, turf density, and root lengths. In both trials, 1120 kg/ha of methionine reduced numbers of both nematode species (P ≤ 0.1), and 112 kg/ha of methionine reduced numbers of both nematode species after two applications. Bermudagrass turf density responded favorably to both methionine rates and root lengths were improved by the 1120 kg/ha rate. Zoysiagrass showed short-term phytotoxicity to methionine, but quickly recovered and treated plots were improved compared to the untreated controls by the end of the trial. These trials indicated that methionine has potential for development as a turfgrass nematicide, but further research is needed to determine how it can best be used.
PMCID: PMC3380498  PMID: 22736817
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon; Mesocriconema ornata; nematode management; ring nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass; Zoysia; zoysiagrass
10.  Painful red nodules in female patient with recent travel history: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8248.
Introduction
Dermatologic pathology can be both challenging and frustrating in the Family Practice setting.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 38-year-old female that presented initially with a few, small red nodules on both the upper and lower extremities, which were painful to touch. This patient had an extremely vague picture, which included recent upper respiratory infection and recent travel to Europe. Erythema Nodosum was suspected and work-up initiated to determine underlying cause. ASO titer ultimately confirmed recent Streptococcal infection. Although the primary diagnosis was not made until follow-up visit, treatment was started based on understanding of common causes of Erythema Nodosum.
Conclusion
Using the patient's history, a differential diagnosis knowing the common causes of EN can help direct diagnostic evaluation.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-8248
PMCID: PMC2740280  PMID: 19830062

Results 1-10 (10)