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1.  MicroRNA-7: a promising new target in cancer therapy 
The incidence of tumors with life-threatening effects has increased gradually over time; however, the mechanisms involved in tumor development have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies have shown that microRNA-7 (miR-7), which is endogenous non-coding RNA molecules of approximately 23 nucleotides, plays an important role in the occurrence and development of tumors as a key tumor suppressor. Mechanistic evidence showed that miR-7 is closely related to the growth, metastasis, and prognosis of various malignant tumors through regulating different target molecules, which suggest that miR-7 may be a new target for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of various tumors. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the relationship between miR-7 and tumor development, diagnosis, and treatment.
doi:10.1186/s12935-015-0259-0
PMCID: PMC4625531  PMID: 26516313
Tumors; MiR-7; Diagnosis; Treatment
2.  Characteristics of clinical studies of summer acupoint herbal patching: a bibliometric analysis 
Background
Summer acupoint herbal patching (SAHP) has been widely used in China for thousands of years. This bibliometric analysis aims to provide a comprehensive review of the characteristics of clinical studies on SAHP for any condition.
Methods
We included clinical studies such as randomized clinical trials (RCTs), controlled clinical studies (CCTs), case series (CSs), case reports (CRs), and cross-sectional studies on SAHP for any condition. Six databases were searched from date of inception to March 2015. Bibliometric information and study details such as study type, characteristics of participants, details of the intervention and comparison, and outcome were extracted and analyzed.
Results
A total of 937 clinical studies were identified and which were published between 1977 and 2015. This included 404 RCTs, 52 CCTs, 458 CSs, 19 CRs and 4 cross-sectional studies and involved 232,138 participants aged 2 to 90 years from two countries. Almost all studies were from China (936, 99.89 %). The five conditions most commonly treated by SAHP were asthma (401, 42.80 %), chronic bronchitis (146, 15.58 %), allergic rhinitis (117, 12.49 %), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (73, 7.79 %), and recurrent respiratory tract infection (42, 4.48 %). Among 502 controlled studies, the majority compared SAHP alone with different controls (16 categories, 275 comparisons). The most commonly used controls were western medicine, placebo, traditional Chinese medicine, no treatment and non-pharmaceutical traditional Chinese therapies. Composite outcome measures were the most frequently reported outcome (512, 69.19 %).
Conclusion
A substantial amount of research on SAHP has been published in China and which predominantly focuses on respiratory conditions. The findings from this study can be used to inform further research by highlighting areas of greatest impact for SAHP.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0905-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0905-z
PMCID: PMC4618877  PMID: 26492938
Summer acupoint herbal patching; Sanfutie; Traditional Chinese therapies; Bibliometrics; literature review
3.  Yiguanjian decoction and its ingredients inhibit angiogenesis in carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis mice 
Background
Cirrhosis is associated with angiogenesis and disruption of hepatic vascular architecture. Yiguanjian (YGJ) decoction, a prescription from traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used for treating liver diseases. We studied whether YGJ or its ingredients (iYGJ) had an anti-angiogenic effect and explored possible mechanisms underlying this process.
Methods
Cirrhosis was induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (ip) in C57BL/6 mice for 6 weeks. From week 4 to week 6, cirrhotic mice were randomly divided into four groups: sorafenib-treated, YGJ-treated and iYGJ-treated mice and placebo. Serum biochemistries, hydroxyproline (Hyp) content and histopathological changes of hepatic tissues were measured as were α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen I, CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α.
Results
Both YGJ and iYGJ improved serum biochemistries. Changes of histopathology showed that YGJ and iYGJ reduced hepatic tissue necroinflammatory and collagen fiber deposition in cirrhosis mice. Compared to the CCl4 treated animals, Hyp, α-SMA, collagen I, CD31, VEGF, VEGFR, and HIF-1α expression decreased in YGJ and iYGJ groups.
Conclusions
YGJ and iYGJ inhibited liver angiogenesis in cirrhotic mice treated with CCl4 by inhibiting the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway, suggesting that anti-angiogenic effects of YGJ and iYGJ are associated with improving the hepatic hypoxic microenvironment.
doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0862-6
PMCID: PMC4591631  PMID: 26427787
Cirrhosis; Angiogenesis; Yiguanjian
4.  The Anillin-Related Region of Bud4 Is the Major Functional Determinant for Bud4's Function in Septin Organization during Bud Growth and Axial Bud Site Selection in Budding Yeast 
Eukaryotic Cell  2015;14(3):241-251.
The anillin-related protein Bud4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for axial bud site selection by linking the axial landmark to the septins, which localize at the mother bud neck. Recent studies indicate that Bud4 plays a role in septin organization during cytokinesis. Here we show that Bud4 is also involved in septin organization during bud growth prior to cytokinesis, as bud4Δ shs1Δ cells displayed an elongated bud morphology and defective septin organization at 18°C. Bud4 overexpression also affected septin organization during bud growth in shs1Δ cells at 30°C. Bud4 was previously thought to associate with the septins via its central region, while the C-terminal anillin-related region was not involved in septin association. Surprisingly, we found that the central region of Bud4 alone targets to the bud neck throughout the cell cycle, unlike full-length Bud4, which localizes to the bud neck only during G2/M phase. We identified the anillin-related region to be a second targeting domain that cooperates with the central region for proper septin association. In addition, the anillin-related region could largely mediate Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and bud site selection. We show that this region interacts with the C terminus of Bud3 and the two segments depend on each other for association with the septins. Moreover, like the bud4Δ mutant, the bud3Δ mutant genetically interacts with shs1Δ and cdc12-6 mutants in septin organization, suggesting that Bud4 and Bud3 may cooperate in septin organization during bud growth. These observations provide new insights into the interaction of Bud4 with the septins and Bud3.
doi:10.1128/EC.00268-14
PMCID: PMC4346561  PMID: 25576483
5.  Hemophagocyte Lymphohistiocytosis Secondary to Bilateral Epididymal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma 
We report a rare case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) secondary to bilateral epididymal lymphoma. The patient is a man of 46 years old. He suffered fever 5 months before the admission. Physical examination shows splenohepatomegalia without lymphadenopathy. Laboratory studies revealed pancytopenia and coagulopathy, hyper ferritin level, large foamy macrophages containing other hematopoietic elements in bone marrow. After treatment with HLH-04 protocol, the patient recovered, but relapsed 1 month later and suffered pudendal pain. A color Doppler of the scrotum shows bilateral epididymis swollen. Pathological diagnosis of biopsy is diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). After two cycles cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone plus rituximab together with intrathecal injections, the tumors on the epididymides disappeared, but relapsed intracalvarium. The patient stopped treatment due to financial reasons. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary lymphoma in a sanctuary site has not been reported before and should not be ignored. Transplantation is necessary for long-time survival.
doi:10.1007/s12288-013-0271-2
PMCID: PMC4192208  PMID: 25332548
6.  Antisense oligonucleotides against microRNA-21 reduced the proliferation and migration of human colon carcinoma cells 
Background
Colon carcinoma is one of the commonly tumors that threaten human beings as its highly morbidity and mortality. Recent evidences suggested that microRNA-21 (miR-21) played an important role in the development of colon carcinoma and might be a potential biological marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of colon carcinoma. However, the potential effect of miR-21 based therapeutic studies in colon carcinoma remains to be fully elucidated.
Methods
In present study, we constructed an eukaryotic expression vector encoding antisense oligonucleotides against miR-21 (termed as p-miR-21-ASO) and the expression of miRNA-21 in human colon cancer was detected by Real-time PCR. To assess its possible effect on the proliferation and migration capacity of human colon carcinoma cells in vitro, CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay and cell invasion, as well as migration assay, were performed respectively. Moreover, PTEN, one of target molecules of miRNA-21, was analyzed by Western blot and Fluorescence activated cell sorter assay. Finally, the transduction of AKT and ERK pathways in human colon carcinoma cells was determined by Western blot.
Results
We found that transiently transfection of p-miR-21-ASO could efficiently decrease the relative expression of miR-21 in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells, accompanied by impaired proliferation and clone formation. Furthermore, we found that down-regulation of miR-21 also could significantly abrogate the invasion and migration capacity in vitro, as well as the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor which is critical for the metastatic capacity of colon carcinoma cells. Mechanistic evidence showed that down-regulation of miR-21 increased the expression of its target molecule PTEN in HCT116 cells. Finally, we revealed that the expression level of both phosphor-ERK1/2 and phosphor-AKT also were altered.
Conclusions
Therefore, our data suggested miR-21 ASO against miR-21 might be a useful strategy to alter the expression of miR-21 in colon carcinoma cells, which was helpful for the development of miR-21-based therapeutic strategies against clinical colon carcinoma.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12935-015-0228-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12935-015-0228-7
PMCID: PMC4522075  PMID: 26236156
MicroRNA-21; Colon carcinoma; Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO); Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)
7.  Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation 
Neural Regeneration Research  2015;10(8):1305-1311.
Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administration via the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve fibers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and fluorogold-labeled nerve fibers were increased and hindlimb motor function of spinal cord-injured rats was markedly improved. These improvements were more prominent in rats subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation combined with propofol administration than in rats receiving monotherapy. These results indicate that propofol can enhance the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on spinal cord injury in rats.
doi:10.4103/1673-5374.162765
PMCID: PMC4590245  PMID: 26487860
nerve regeneration; bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; stem cell transplantation; propofol; spinal cord injury; repair; neuroprotection; anesthesia; neural regeneration
8.  Association between angiotensinogen M235T polymorphism and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 
Background: To investigate the relationship between angiotensinogen (AGT) gene M235T polymorphism and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) to explore the potential role of the AGT polymorphism in HCM. Methods: PubMed, Embase, OVID, Cochrane library, CNKI, Wan Fang Database were searched to identify the studies involving AGT M235T polymorphism and HCM. Two authors performed independent literature review and study quality assessment using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) checklist. A random-effects model was used to calculate the overall combined risk estimates. Results: Nine studies involving 887 cases and 1407 controls were included in our meta-analysis. No significant associations were found between AGT M235T polymorphism and HCM (allele model T vs M: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.95-1.45; dominant model TT vs (MM/MT): OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.00-1.45; recessive model (TT/MT) vs MM: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.87-1.45; heterozygous comparison MT vs MM: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.82-1.41; homozygous comparison TT vs MM OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.88-1.61. In subgroup analysis, the significant difference of association between AGT M235T polymorphism and HCM existed in Asian and sporadic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (SHCM), but no significant difference was found in Europeans and familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM). Conclusions: There is no association between AGT M235T polymorphism and HCM in general populations, but such a relationship exists in Asians and SHCM.
PMCID: PMC4538133  PMID: 26309528
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; angiotensinogen; gene polymorphism; meta-analysis
9.  miR-125a inhibits the migration and invasion of liver cancer cells via suppression of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway 
Oncology Letters  2015;10(2):681-686.
In order to explore the regulation of the invasive ability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanism, mimics sequences of microRNA (miR)-125a (miR-125a-3p/5p) and scramble sequences (miR-125a-3p-s/5p-s) were transfected into human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, HCC-LM3 and HepG2, and the non-malignant epithelioid hepatic cell line QZG. To inhibit and upregulate the expression of miR-125a individually. Protein expression was detected by western blotting, and the cell proliferation and migration abilities were evaluated by soft agar colony formation and Transwell assay, respectively. It was revealed that the expression of miR-125a was downregulated in HepG2 and HCC-LM3 cells compared with that of QZG cells, and expression was markedly lower in HCC-LM3 cells than that in HepG2 cells (P<0.01). The colony formation and migration rates of the cells transfected with miR-125a-3p/5p were decreased compared with negative controls, but were increased in cells transfected with miR-125a-3p-3/5p-s (P<0.01). The protein and messenger RNA expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was decreased following transfection with miR-125a-5p, whereas expression was increased compared with negative controls following transfection with miR-125a-5p-s (P<0.01). Furthermore, the proliferation and migration abilities of cells were attenuated following inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by LY294002. The results of the present study indicated that miR-125a inhibits the invasive ability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via regulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.
doi:10.3892/ol.2015.3264
PMCID: PMC4509408  PMID: 26622553
microRNA-125a; hepatocellular carcinoma; invasion; phosphoinositide 3-kinase; AKT; mammalian target of rapamycin
10.  Propofol injection combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation better improves electrophysiological function in the hindlimb of rats with spinal cord injury than monotherapy 
Neural Regeneration Research  2015;10(4):636-643.
The repair effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on nervous system damage are not satisfactory. Propofol has been shown to protect against spinal cord injury. Therefore, this study sought to explore the therapeutic effects of their combination on spinal cord injury. Rat models of spinal cord injury were established using the weight drop method. Rats were subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation via tail vein injection and/or propofol injection via tail vein using an infusion pump. Four weeks after cell transplantation and/or propofol treatment, the cavity within the spinal cord was reduced. The numbers of PKH-26-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers apparently increased in the spinal cord. Latencies of somatosensory evoked potentials and motor evoked potentials in the hindlimb were noticeably shortened, amplitude was increased and hindlimb motor function was obviously improved. Moreover, the combined effects were better than cell transplantation or propofol injection alone. The above data suggest that the combination of propofol injection and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation can effectively improve hindlimb electrophysiological function, promote the recovery of motor funtion, and play a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury in rats.
doi:10.4103/1673-5374.155440
PMCID: PMC4424759  PMID: 26170827
nerve regeneration; bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; propofol; spinal cord injury; cell transplantation; electrophysiology; motor function; stem cells; neuroprotection; neural regeneration
11.  Regional effects of endocannabinoid, BDNF and FGF receptor signalling on neuroblast motility and guidance along the rostral migratory stream 
During development and after birth neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) generate neuroblasts that migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to populate the olfactory bulb (OB) with neurons. Multiple factors promote neuroblast migration, but the contribution that many of these make to guidance within the intact RMS is not known. In the present study we have characterised in detail how endocannabinoid (eCB), BDNF and FGF receptor (FGFR) signalling regulates motility and guidance, and also determined whether any of these receptors operate in a regionally restricted manner. We used in vivo electroporation in postnatal mice to fluorescently label neuroblasts, and live cell imaging to detail their migratory properties. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists rendered neuroblasts less mobile, and when they did move guidance was lost. Similar results were obtained when eCB synthesis was blocked with diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) inhibitors, and importantly eCB function is required for directed migration at both ends of the RMS. Likewise, inhibition of BDNF signalling disrupted motility and guidance in a similar manner along the entire RMS. In contrast, altering FGFR signalling inhibits motility and perturbs guidance, but only at the beginning of the stream. Inhibition of FGFR signalling in vivo also reduces the length of the leading process on migratory neuroblasts in a graded manner along the RMS. These results provide evidence for a guidance function for all three of the above receptor systems in the intact RMS, but show that FGFR signalling is unique as it is required in a regionally specific manner.
Highlights
•Live imaging is used to characterise neuroblast migration in the intact RMS.•Endocannabinoids are required for motility and guidance throughout the RMS.•BDNF regulates guidance in a similar manner.•FGFR signalling is also required for guidance, but only at the beginning of the stream.•FGFR regulates neuroblasts morphology in a graded manner along the RMS in vivo.
doi:10.1016/j.mcn.2014.12.001
PMCID: PMC4324876  PMID: 25481343
Neuroblast migration rostral migratory stream; Endocannabinoid; BDNF; FGF
12.  Exploration of Allosteric Agonism Structure-Activity Relationships within an Acetylene Series of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (mGlu5) Positive Allosteric Modulators (PAMs): discovery of 5-((3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl)-N-(3-methyloxetan-3-yl)picolinamide (ML254) 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2013;56(20):7976-7996.
Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Both allosteric agonism and high glutamate fold-shift have been implicated in the neurotoxic profile of some mGlu5 PAMs; however, these hypotheses remain to be adequately addressed. To develop tool compounds to probe these hypotheses, the structure-activity relationship of allosteric agonism was examined within an acetylenic series of mGlu5 PAMs exhibiting allosteric agonism in addition to positive allosteric modulation (ago-PAMs). PAM 38t, a low glutamate fold-shift allosteric ligand (maximum fold-shift ~3.0), was selected as a potent PAM with no agonism in the in vitro system used for compound characterization and in two native electrophysiological systems using rat hippocampal slices. PAM 38t (ML254) will be useful to probe the relative contribution of cooperativity and allosteric agonism to the adverse effect liability and neurotoxicity associated with this class of mGlu5 PAMs.
doi:10.1021/jm401028t
PMCID: PMC3908770  PMID: 24050755
13.  Splenectomy improves anaemia but does not reduce iron burden in patients with haemoglobin H Constant Spring disease 
Blood Transfusion  2014;12(4):471-478.
Background
Splenectomy is reported to increase the haemoglobin level in patients with haemoglobin H Constant Spring (HbH CS) disease; however, its impact on iron burden and the underlying mechanism remains unclear.
Materials and methods
From March through to May 2013, a total of 50 adults with HbH CS disease (25 cases splenectomised and 25 cases non-splenectomised) were enrolled. The patients’ general conditions, history of blood transfusion and iron chelator treatment were investigated. Levels of haemoglobin, nucleated red blood cell counts, and serum ferritin were measured. The percentage of apoptotic erythroid precursor cells in bone marrow, an index representing ineffective erythropoiesis, was determined in some cases.
Results
There were no significant differences in age, blood transfusion volume, and use of iron chelator drugs between the splenectomised group and the non-splenectomised group. Significantly higher haemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels and nucleated red blood cell counts as well as a higher percentage of apoptotic erythroid progenitor cells were detected in the splenectomised group. Regression analysis revealed that age and nucleated red blood cell counts were independent risk factors affecting the serum ferritin level.
Discussion
Despite improving the haemoglobin level, splenectomy is associated with greater iron burden in HbH CS disease. A high nucleated red blood cell count is predictive of the risk of severe iron overload.
doi:10.2450/2014.0247-13
PMCID: PMC4212026  PMID: 24960653
haemoglobin H Constant Spring disease; splenectomy; serum ferritin; ineffective erythropoiesis
14.  MicroRNAs expression profile in CCR6+ regulatory T cells 
PeerJ  2014;2:e575.
Backgroud. CCR6+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (CCR6+ Tregs), a distinct Tregs subset, played an important role in various immune diseases. Recent evidence showed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are vital regulators in the function of immune cells. However, the potential role of miRNAs in the function of CCR6+ Tregs remains largely unknown. In this study, we detected the expression profile of miRNAs in CCR6+ Tregs.
Materials and Methods. The expression profile of miRNAs as well as genes in CCR6+ Tregs or CCR6- Tregs from Balb/c mice were detected by microarray. The signaling pathways were analyzed using the Keggs pathway library.
Results. We found that there were 58 miRNAs significantly upregulated and 62 downregulated up to 2 fold in CCR6+ Tregs compared with CCR6- Tregs. Moreover, 1,391 genes were observed with 3 fold change and 20 signaling pathways were enriched using the Keggs pathway library.
Conclusion. The present data showed CCR6+ Tregs expressed specific miRNAs pattern, which provides insight into the role of miRNAs in the biological function of distinct Tregs subsets.
doi:10.7717/peerj.575
PMCID: PMC4179613  PMID: 25279261
CCR6; miRNAs; Regulatory T cell; Microarray
15.  Preventive effect of insect tea against reserpine-induced gastric ulcers in mice 
The aim of the present study was to determine the preventive effect of insect tea against reserpine-induced gastric ulcers in ICR mice. A high (800 mg/kg) dose of insect tea reduced the serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ compared with those in mice treated with a low (400 mg/kg) dose and the control mice. The serum levels of somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in mice treated with insect tea were higher compared with those in the control mice; however, the serum levels of motilin (MOT) and substance P (SP) were lower in mice treated with insect tea than in the control mice. Gastric ulcer inhibitory rate of the insect tea treatment group of mice were much lower compared to the control mice, and the high concentration treated mice were similar to the ranitidine treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in mice treated with insect tea were higher compared with those in control mice, and similar to those in normal mice and ranitidine-treated mice. The nitric oxide (NO) and maleic dialdehyde (MDA) levels of mice treated with a high concentration of insect tea compared with the normal group were close. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, the present study revealed that insect tea significantly induced inflammation in the tissues of mice by downregulating the expression of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and upregulating the expression of nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor α (IκB-α). These results suggest that insect tea is as effective at preventing gastric ulcers as the gastric ulcer drug, ranitidine and it can be used as medicine.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.1859
PMCID: PMC4151677  PMID: 25187847
insect tea; gastric ulcer; cytokine; ICR mice; quantitative polymerase chain reaction
16.  Preventive Effect of Polysaccharide of Larimichthys crocea Swim Bladder on Reserpine Induced Gastric Ulcer in ICR Mice 
This project's aim was to determine the reserpine-induced gastric ulcer preventive effect of polysaccharide of Larimichthys crocea swim bladder (PLCSB) in ICR mice. The anti-gastric ulcer effects of polysaccharide of Larimichthys crocea swim bladder was evaluated in mice model using morphological test, serum levels assay, cytokine levels assay, tissue contents analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and western bolt assay. High concentration (50 mg/kg dose) of PLCSB reduced IFN-γ as compared to low concentration (25 mg/kg dose) and control mice. SS and VIP serum levels of PLCSB treated mice were higher than those of control mice, and MOT and SP serum levels were lower than control mice. Gastric ulcer inhibitory index of PLCSB treatment groups mice were much lower than control mice, and the high concentration treated mice were similar to the ranitidine treated mice. The SOD and GSH-Px activities of PLCSB treated mice were higher than control mice, close to normal mice and ranitidine treated mice. PLCSB treated mice also showed the similar contents of NO and MDA to normal group. By RT-PCR and western blot assay, PLCSB significantly induced inflammation in tissues of mice by downregulating NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2, and upregulating IκB-α. These results suggest that PLCSB showed a good gastric ulcer preventive effect as the gastric ulcer drug of ranitidine. Polysaccharide of Larimichthys crocea swim bladder may be used as a drug material from marine products.
doi:10.4196/kjpp.2014.18.2.183
PMCID: PMC3994307  PMID: 24757382
Cytokine; Gastric ulcer; ICR mice; Larimichthys crocea swim bladder; Polysaccharide
17.  Discovery, synthesis, and structure-based optimization of a series of N-(tert-butyl)-2-(N-arylamido)-2-(pyridin-3-yl) acetamides (ML188) as potent non-covalent small molecule inhibitors of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3CL protease 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2013;56(2):534-546.
A high-throughput screen of the NIH molecular libraries sample collection and subsequent optimization of a lead dipeptide-like series of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) main protease (3CLpro) inhibitors led to the identification of probe compound ML188 (16-(R), (R)-N-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-N-(2-(tert-butylamino)-2-oxo-1-(pyridin-3-yl)ethyl)furan-2-carboxamide, Pubchem CID: 46897844). Unlike the majority of reported coronavirus 3CLpro inhibitors that act via covalent modification of the enzyme, 16-(R) is a non-covalent SARS-CoV 3CLpro inhibitor with moderate MW and good enzyme and antiviral inhibitory activity. A multi-component Ugi reaction was utilized to rapidly explore structure activity relationships within S1′, S1, and S2 enzyme binding pockets. The X-ray structure of SARS-CoV 3CLpro bound with 16-(R) was instrumental in guiding subsequent rounds of chemistry optimization. 16-(R) provides an excellent starting point for the further design and refinement of 3CLpro inhibitors that act by a non-covalent mechanism of action.
doi:10.1021/jm301580n
PMCID: PMC3569073  PMID: 23231439
18.  Discovery and SAR of a novel series of non-MPEP site mGlu5 PAMs based on an aryl glycine sulfonamide scaffold 
Herein we report the discovery and SAR of a novel series of non-MPEP site metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on an aryl glycine sulfonamide scaffold. This series represents a rare non-MPEP site mGlu5 PAM chemotype.
doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.10.068
PMCID: PMC3539767  PMID: 23142615
metabotropic glutamate receptor 5; mGlu5; positive allosteric modulator (PAM); non-MPEP
19.  The Invasive Wetland Plant Alternanthera philoxeroides Shows a Higher Tolerance to Waterlogging than Its Native Congener Alternanthera sessilis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81456.
Plant invasion is one of the major threats to natural ecosystems. Phenotypic plasticity is considered to be important for promoting plant invasiveness. High tolerance of stress can also increase survival of invasive plants in adverse habitats. Limited growth and conservation of carbohydrate are considered to increase tolerance of flooding in plants. However, few studies have examined whether invasive species shows a higher phenotypic plasticity in response to waterlogging or a higher tolerance of waterlogging (lower plasticity) than native species. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to compare the growth and morphological and physiological responses to waterlogging of the invasive, clonal, wetland species Alternanthera philoxeroides with those of its co-occurring, native, congeneric, clonal species Alternanthera sessilis. Plants of A. philoxeroides and A. sessilis were subjected to three treatments (control, 0 and 60 cm waterlogging). Both A. philoxeroides and A. sessilis survived all treatments. Overall growth was lower in A. philoxeroides than in A. sessilis, but waterlogging negatively affected the growth of A. philoxeroides less strongly than that of A. sessilis. Alternanthera philoxeroides thus showed less sensitivity of growth traits (lower plasticity) and higher waterlogging tolerance. Moreover, the photosynthetic capacity of A. philoxeroides was higher than that of A. sessilis during waterlogging. Alternanthera philoxeroides also had higher total non-structural and non-soluble carbohydrate concentrations than A. sessilis at the end of treatments. Our results suggest that higher tolerance to waterlogging and higher photosynthetic capacity may partly explain the invasion success of A. philoxeroides in wetlands.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081456
PMCID: PMC3841148  PMID: 24303048
20.  Optimization of an ether series of mGlu5 positive allosteric modulators: Molecular determinants of MPEP-site interaction crossover 
We report the optimization of a series of non-MPEP site metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a simple acyclic ether series. Modifications led to a gain of MPEP site interaction through incorporation of a chiral amide in conjunction with a nicotinamide core. A highly potent PAM, 8v (VU0404251), was shown to be efficacious in a rodent model of psychosis. These studies suggest that potent PAMs within topologically similar chemotypes can be developed to preferentially interact or not interact with the MPEP allosteric binding site.
doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.08.043
PMCID: PMC3755010  PMID: 22981332
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5; mGlu5; Positive allosteric modulator (PAM); Non-MPEP
21.  TLR9 signaling repressed tumor suppressor miR-7 expression through up-regulation of HuR in human lung cancer cells 
Background
Our recent evidence showed that Toll like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling could enhance the growth and metastatic potential of human lung cancer cells through repressing microRNA-7 (miR-7) expression. Human antigen R (HuR) has been involved in stabilizing multiple mRNAs in cellular biology. However, whether HuR also contributed to the altered expression of miR-7 in TLR9 signaling stimulated human lung cancer cells remains to be elucidated.
Methods
The expression of HuR in human lung cancer 95D cells treated with TLR9 agonist CpG Oligonucleotides (ODNs) was detected by Real-time PCR and Western blot assay. To explore the possible role of HuR on miR-7 expression, eukaryotic expression vector encoding HuR was transiently transfected into 95D cells and then the expression of miR-7 was detected by Real-time PCR assay. Moreover, RNA interference, western blot, Real-time PCR, MTT assay, BrdU labeling, invasion assay and scratch assay were employed to examine the disrupt effect of HuR on miR-7 expression in human lung cancer cells treated with CpG ODNs. Finally, inhibitors for PI3K, Akt or Erk respectively, and western blot were performed to explore the possible signaling pathway related to HuR expression in CpG ODNs treated human lung cancer cells.
Results
Our data showed that TLR9 agonist CpG ODNs could induce the expression of HuR in human lung cancer cells. Moreover, overexpression of HuR could reduce the expression of miR-7 in lung cancer cells. Notably, down-regulation of HuR using RNA interference restored miR-7 expression in CpG ODNs treated lung cancer cells, accompanied by enhanced growth and metastatic potential. Finally, CpG ODNs could induce HuR expression through Akt pathway.
Conclusion
Our findings indicated that HuR could act as regulator in regulating TLR9 signaling associated biological effect in human lung cancer cells, which might be helpful for the understanding of the potential role of HuR in tumor biology.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-13-90
PMCID: PMC3847485  PMID: 24004462
Toll like receptor-9; miR-7; Human antigen R; Human lung cancer cell
22.  Sonographic evaluation of proximal gastric accommodation in patients with functional dyspepsia 
AIM: To assess the value of ultrasonography (US) in evaluation of proximal gastric accommodation disorder in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD).
METHODS: Between April 2011 and March 2012, 45 patients with FD and 27 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) were performed sequentially to measure proximal gastric area (PGA), maximal proximal gastric diameter (MPGD), and proximal gastric volume (PGV). These values were measured separately in the two groups every other 5 min for a duration of 25 min after the beginning of ingestion of a test meal. Air pocket grading was done separately for images of 2DUS and blocks of 3DUS obtained at five scanning time points.
RESULTS: Both PGA and PGV of patients were significantly smaller than healthy controls (P = 0.000 and 0.002, respectively). Comparing the two parameters between the groups at each time point, the differences were also statistically significant (P = 0.000-0.013), except at 10 min for the PGV (P = 0.077). However, no overall difference was found between the groups in the MPGD measurements (P = 0.114), though it was statistically significant at a 20-minute examination point (P = 0.026). A total of 360 sets or blocks of images were obtained for both 2DUS and 3DUS. For the images analyzed by 2DUS, none were excluded because of gastric gas, and 50 (13.9%) and 310 (86.1%) sets were determined as air pockets grades 1 and 2, respectively. For the images analyzed by 3DUS, 23 (6.4%) blocks were excluded from the measurement due to presence of a large fundus air pocket (grade 3); fifty (13.9%) and 287 (79.7%) blocks were also graded as 1 and 2, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Measurement of both PGA and PGV by 2DUS and 3DUS could be useful for assessment of the proximal gastric accommodation.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i29.4774
PMCID: PMC3732851  PMID: 23922476
Functional dyspepsia; Gastric accommodation; Ultrasonography; Diagnosis; 2-dimensional ultrasound; 3-dimensional ultrasound
23.  Antisense Oligonucleotide Treatment Enhances the Recovery of Acute Lung Injury through IL-10–Secreting M2-like Macrophage-Induced Expansion of CD4+ Regulatory T Cells 
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown as an important regulator in the pathologies of acute lung injury (ALI). However, the potential effect of miRNA-based therapeutic studies in ALI remains poorly understood. We assessed the effect of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) against miR-155 on the development of ALI using a murine ALI model. We found that miR-155 ASO treatment could enhance the recovery of ALI as evidenced by accelerated body weight back, reduced level of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and proinflammatory cytokines, and reduced number of BAL cells. Adoptive cell transfer assay in RAG1−/− mice showed that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediated the enhanced recovery of ALI. Mechanistic evidence showed that enhanced expansion of Tregs in vivo, dominantly induced by IL-10–secreting M2-like macrophages, was critical for their elevated proportion in miR-155 ASO-treated ALI mice. Finally, we report that C/EBPβ, a target molecule of miR-155, was upregulated and associated with IL-10 secretion and M2-like phenotype of macrophages. These data provided a previously unknown mechanism for miRNA-based therapy against ALI, which could ultimately aid the understanding of recovery of ALI and the development of new therapeutic strategies against clinical inflammatory lung disease.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1203233
PMCID: PMC3619531  PMID: 23514739
24.  MicroRNA-7–regulated TLR9 signaling–enhanced growth and metastatic potential of human lung cancer cells by altering the phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 3/Akt pathway 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2013;24(1):42-55.
This article reports that TLR9 signaling can reduce intrinsic microRNA-7 (miR-7) expression in human lung cancer cells and that overexpression of miR-7 can significantly inhibit TLR9 signaling–enhanced growth and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Recent evidence shows that microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the biological effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling on various cells. Our previous data showed that TLR9 signaling could enhance the growth and metastatic potential of human lung cancer cells. However, the potential role of miRNAs in the effects of TLR9 signaling on tumor biology remains unknown. In this paper, we first report that TLR9 signaling could reduce intrinsic miR-7 expression in human lung cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-7 can significantly inhibit TLR9 signaling–enhanced growth and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Notably, we identify phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 3 (PIK3R3) as a novel target molecule of miR-7 in lung cancer cells by Western blotting and luciferase report assay. Further study shows that miR-7 inhibits the effects of TLR9 signaling on lung cancer cells through regulation of the PIK3R3/Akt pathway. These data suggest that miR-7 could act as a fine-tuner in regulating the biological effects of TLR9 signaling on human lung cancer cells, which might be helpful to the understanding of the potential role of miRNAs in TLR signaling effects on tumor biology.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E12-07-0519
PMCID: PMC3530778  PMID: 23135998
25.  Serum inducible kinase is a positive regulator of cortical dendrite development and is required for BDNF-promoted dendritic arborization 
Cell Research  2011;22(2):387-398.
Serum inducible kinase (SNK), also known as polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), is a known regulator of mitosis, synaptogenesis and synaptic homeostasis. However, its role in early cortical development is unknown. Herein, we show that snk is expressed in the cortical plate from embryonic day 14, but not in the ventricular/subventricular zones (VZ/SVZ), and SNK protein localizes to the soma and dendrites of cultured immature cortical neurons. Loss of SNK impaired dendritic but not axonal arborization in a dose-dependent manner and overexpression had opposite effects, both in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of SNK also caused abnormal branching of the leading process of migrating cortical neurons in electroporated cortices. The kinase activity was necessary for these effects. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activity downstream of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulation led to increases in SNK protein expression via transcriptional regulation, and this upregulation was necessary for the growth-promoting effect of BDNF on dendritic arborization. Taken together, our results indicate that SNK is essential for dendrite morphogenesis in cortical neurons.
doi:10.1038/cr.2011.100
PMCID: PMC3271584  PMID: 21691298
PLK2; morphogenesis; BDNF; ERK; transcription

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