Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for ~4% of all human malignancies and is the 9th leading cause of male cancer death in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of variation within microRNA (miRNA) binding sites of genes in the VHL-HIF1α pathway on RCC risk. We identified 429 miRNA binding site single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 102 pathway genes and assessed 53 tagging-SNPs for 31 of these genes for risk in a case-control study consisting of 894 RCC cases and 1,516 controls. Results showed that five SNPs were significantly associated with RCC risk. The most significant finding was rs743409 in MAPK1. Under the additive model, the variant was associated with a 10% risk reduction (OR: 0.90, 95% CI, 0.77-0.98). Other significant findings were for SNPs in CDCP1, TFRC, and DEC1. Cumulative effects analysis showed that subjects carrying four or five unfavorable genotypes had a 2.14-fold increase in risk (95% CI, 1.03-4.43, P = 0.04) than those with no unfavorable genotypes. Potential higher-order gene-gene interactions were identified and categorized subjects into different risk groups. The OR of the high-risk group defined by two SNPs: CDCP1:rs6773576 (GG) and DEC1:rs10982724 (GG) was 4.46-times higher than that of low-risk reference group (95% CI, 1.31-15.08). Overall, our study provides the first evidence supporting a connection between miRNA binding site SNPs within the VHL-HIF1α pathway and RCC risk. These novel genetic risk factors might help identify individuals at high risk to enable detection of tumors at an early, curable stage.
VHL-HIF1α pathway; microRNA; renal cell carcinoma
Successful adaptation of in vitro optimized polymeric gene delivery systems for in vivo use remains a significant challenge. Most in vivo applications require particles that are sterically stabilized but doing so significantly compromises transfection efficiency of materials shown to be effective in vitro. In this communication, we present a multi-functional well-defined block copolymer that forms particles with the following properties: cell targeting, reversible shielding, endosomal release, and DNA condensation. We show that targeted and stabilized particles retain transfection efficiencies comparable to the non-stabilized formulations. The block copolymers are synthesized using a novel, double-head agent (CPADB-SS-iBuBr) that combines a RAFT CTA and an ATRP initiator through a disulfide linkage. Using this double-head agent, a well-defined cationic block copolymer P(OEGMA)15-SS-P(GMA-TEPA)50 containing a hydrophilic oligoethyleneglycol (OEG) block and a tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA)-grafted polycation block was synthesized. This material effectively condenses plasmid DNA into salt-stable particles that deshield under intracellular reducing conditions. In vitro transfection studies showed that the reversibly shielded polyplexes afforded up 10-fold higher transfection efficiencies compared to the analogous stably-shielded polymer in four different mammalian cell lines. To compensate for reduced cell uptake caused by the hydrophilic particle shell, a neuron-targeting peptide was further conjugated to the terminus of theP(OEGMA) block. Transfection of neuron-like, differentiated PC-12 cells demonstrated that combining both targeting and deshielding in stabilized particles yields formulations that are suitable for in vivo delivery without compromising in vitro transfection efficiency. These materials are therefore promising carriers for in vivo gene delivery applications.
Deletion of ribosomal protein L32 genes resulted in a nonsexual flocculation of fission yeast. Nonsexual flocculation also occurred when two other ribosomal protein genes, rpl21-2 and rpl9-2, were deleted. However, deletion of two nonribosomal protein genes, mpg and fbp, did not cause flocculation. Overall transcript levels of rpl32 in rpl32-1Δ and rpl32-2Δ cells were reduced by 35.9% and 46.9%, respectively, and overall ribosome levels in rpl32-1Δ and rpl32-2Δ cells dropped 31.1% and 27.8%, respectively, compared to wild-type cells. Interestingly, ribosome protein expression levels and ribosome levels were also reduced greatly in sexually flocculating diploid YHL6381/WT (h+/h−) cells compared to a mixture of YHL6381 (h+) and WT (h−) nonflocculating haploid cells. Transcriptome analysis indicated that the reduction of ribosomal levels in sexual flocculating cells was caused by more-extensive suppression of ribosomal biosynthesis gene expression, while the reduction of ribosomal levels caused by deleting ribosomal protein genes in nonsexual flocculating cells was due to an imbalance between ribosomal proteins. We propose that once the reduction of ribosomal levels is below a certain threshold value, flocculation is triggered.
AIM: To investigate the potential therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we transplanted MSCs into an experimental model of IBD.
METHODS: A rectal enema of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) (100 mg/kg body weight) was administered to female BALB/c mice. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were derived from male green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and were transplanted intravenously into the experimental animals after disease onset. Clinical activity scores and histological changes were evaluated. GFP and Sex determining region Y gene (SRY) expression were used for cell tracking. Ki67 positive cells and Lgr5-expressing cells were determined to measure proliferative activity. Inflammatory response was determined by measuring the levels of different inflammatory mediators in the colon and serum. The inflammatory cytokines included tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-17, IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF-β). Master regulators of Th1 cells (T-box expressed in T cells, T-bet), Th17 cells (retinoid related orphan receptor gamma(t), RORγt), Th2 cells (GATA family of transcription factors 3, GATA3) and regulatory T cells (forkhead box P3, Foxp3) were also determined.
RESULTS: Systemic infusion of GFP-BMSCs ameliorated the clinical and histopathologic severity of colitis, including body weight loss, diarrhea and inflammation, and increased survival (P < 0.05). The cell tracking study showed that MSCs homed to the injured colon. MSCs promoted proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and differentiation of intestinal stem cells (P < 0.01). This therapeutic effect was mainly mediated by down-regulation of both Th1-Th17-driven autoimmune and inflammatory responses (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, T-bet; IL-6, IL-17, RORγt), and by up-regulation of Th2 activities (IL-4, IL-10, GATA-3) (P < 0.05). MSCs also induced activated CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (TGF-β, IL-10, Foxp3) with a suppressive capacity on Th1-Th17 effecter responses and promoted Th2 differentiation in vivo (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: MSCs are key regulators of immune and inflammatory responses and may be an attractive candidate for cell-based therapy of IBD.
Mesenchymal stem cells; Transplantation; Inflammatory bowel disease; Inflammatory response; Immunomodulation; Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis; Therapy
To identify novel genetic factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), we conducted a genome-wide association study in East Asians. By analyzing genome-wide data in 2,098 cases and 5,749 controls, we selected 64 promising SNPs for replication in an independent set of samples including up to 5,358 cases and 5,922 controls. We identified four SNPs with a P-value of 8.58 × 10−7 to 3.77 × 10−10 in the combined analysis of all East Asian samples. Three of the four SNPs were replicated in a study conducted among 26,060 European descendants with a combined P-value of 1.22 × 10−10 for rs647161 (5q31.1), 6.64 × 10−9 for rs2423279 (20p12.3), and 3.06 × 10−8 for rs10774214 (12p13.32 near the CCND2 gene), respectively, derived from the meta-analysis of data from both East Asian and European populations. This study identified three new CRC susceptibility loci and provides additional insight into the genetics and biology of CRC.
In the anion of the title compound, (C12H13N2)[Ni(C4N2S2)2], the NiII atom is coordinated by four S atoms from two 1,2-dicyanoethene-1,2-dithiolate (mnt) ligands in a suqare-planar geometry. Weak C—H⋯N and C—H⋯S hydrogen bonds between the 1-ethyl-4,4′-bipyridin-1-ium cations and mnt anions and weak π–π interactions between the pyridine rings of the cations [centroid–centroid distances = 3.808 (3) and 3.972 (3) Å] lead to a two-dimensional network parallel to (010).
Domestic chickens are excellent models for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity, as numerous phenotypic changes in physiology, morphology, and behavior in chickens have been artificially selected. Genomic study is required to study genome-wide patterns of DNA variation for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. We sequenced the genomes of the Silkie and the Taiwanese native chicken L2 at ∼23- and 25-fold average coverage depth, respectively, using Illumina sequencing. The reads were mapped onto the chicken reference genome (including 5.1% Ns) to 92.32% genome coverage for the two breeds. Using a stringent filter, we identified ∼7.6 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8,839 copy number variations (CNVs) in the mapped regions; 42% of the SNPs have not found in other chickens before. Among the 68,906 SNPs annotated in the chicken sequence assembly, 27,852 were nonsynonymous SNPs located in 13,537 genes. We also identified hundreds of shared and divergent structural and copy number variants in intronic and intergenic regions and in coding regions in the two breeds. Functional enrichments of identified genetic variants were discussed. Radical nsSNP-containing immunity genes were enriched in the QTL regions associated with some economic traits for both breeds. Moreover, genetic changes involved in selective sweeps were detected. From the selective sweeps identified in our two breeds, several genes associated with growth, appetite, and metabolic regulation were identified. Our study provides a framework for genetic and genomic research of domestic chickens and facilitates the domestic chicken as an avian model for genomic, biomedical, and evolutionary studies.
single nucleotide polymorphism; whole genome resequencing; genetic variation; CNVs; chicken
Fusarium graminearum is a plant pathogen, which causes crop diseases and further leads to huge economic damage worldwide in past decades. Recently, the accumulation of different types of molecular data provides insights into the pathogenic mechanism of F. graminearum, and might help develop efficient strategies to combat this destructive fungus. Unfortunately, most available molecular data related to F. graminearum are distributed in various media, where each single source only provides limited information on the complex biological systems of the fungus. In this work, we present a comprehensive database, namely eFG (Electronic resource for Fusarium graminearum), to the community for further understanding this destructive pathogen. In particular, a large amount of functional genomics data generated by our group is deposited in eFG, including protein subcellular localizations, protein–protein interactions and orthologous genes in other model organisms. This valuable knowledge can not only help to disclose the molecular underpinnings of pathogenesis of the destructive fungus F. graminearum but also help the community to develop efficient strategies to combat this pathogen. To our best knowledge, eFG is the most comprehensive functional genomics database for F. graminearum until now. The eFG database is freely accessible at http://csb.shu.edu.cn/efg/ with a user-friendly and interactive interface, and all data can be downloaded freely.
Gene regulation remains one of the major challenges for gene therapy in clinical trials. In the present study, we first generated a binary tetracycline-on (Tet-On) system based on two lentivirus vectors, one expressing both human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF) and humanized recombinant green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) genes under second-generation tetracycline response element (TRE), and the other expressing the advanced reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator - rtTA2S-M2 under a human minimal cytomegalovirus immediate early (CMV-IE) promoter. This system allows simultaneous expression of hGDNF and hrGFP genes in the presence of doxycycline (Dox). Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were transduced with the binary Tet-On lentivirus vectors and characterized in vitro in the presence (On) or absence (Off) of Dox. The expression of hGDNF and hrGFP transgenes in transduced hMSCs was tightly regulated as determined by flow cytometry (FCM), GDNF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). There was a dose-dependent regulation for hrGFP transgene expression. The levels of hGDNF protein in culture medium were correlated with the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) units of hrGFP. The levels of transgene background expression were very low in the absence of Dox. The treatment of the conditioned medium from cultures of transduced hMSCs in the presence of Dox protected SH-SY5Y cells against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity as determined by cell viability using 3, [4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The treatment of the conditioned medium was also found to improve the survival of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of ventral mesencephalic (VM) tissue in serum-free culture conditions as assessed by cell body area, the number of neurites and dendrite branching points, and proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (IR) cells. Our inducible lentivirus-mediated hGDNF gene delivery system may provide useful tools for basic research on gene therapy for chronic neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Mendelian disorders are often caused by mutations in genes that are not lethal but induce functional distortions leading to diseases. Here we study the extent of gene duplicates that might compensate genes causing monogenic diseases. We provide evidence for pervasive functional redundancy of human monogenic disease genes (MDs) by duplicates by manifesting 1) genes involved in human genetic disorders are enriched in duplicates and 2) duplicated disease genes tend to have higher functional similarities with their closest paralogs in contrast to duplicated non-disease genes of similar age. We propose that functional compensation by duplication of genes masks the phenotypic effects of deleterious mutations and reduces the probability of purging the defective genes from the human population; this functional compensation could be further enhanced by higher purification selection between disease genes and their duplicates as well as their orthologous counterpart compared to non-disease genes. However, due to the intrinsic expression stochasticity among individuals, the deleterious mutations could still be present as genetic diseases in some subpopulations where the duplicate copies are expressed at low abundances. Consequently the defective genes are linked to genetic disorders while they continue propagating within the population. Our results provide insight into the molecular basis underlying the spreading of duplicated disease genes.
Duplicated genes, as opposed to singletons, are genes that have additional copies in a genome due to evolutionary mechanisms such as whole genome duplication, homologous recombination or retrotransposition events. Duplicates can have similar functions and thus mask the phenotypic consequences when one copy is mutated. Conversely, the corresponding phenotypes would manifest themselves when mutations occur in singletons, since functional compensation is rare among non-duplicated genes. It would thus be expected that the primary source of monogenic diseases, diseases caused by mutations within a single gene, is singletons. However, the opposite was found to be true. Additionally, we found the functional similarity of duplicated disease genes to be greater than that of duplicated non-disease genes of an equivalent duplication age. So how could the stronger functional compensation among duplicates increase their likelihood to associate with diseases? We propose that due to functional compensation in duplicates, disease-causing mutations are less likely to be removed from a human population in large scale since the phenotypes are masked; however, the functional compensation could be lost in a subpopulation, perhaps due to intrinsic variation in gene expression, and therefore lead to diseases. As a result, the duplicated disease genes are linked to genetic diseases, yet they continue to spread within the human population.
Cardiac KATP channels link metabolism with electrical activity. They are implicated in arrhythmias, secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide and protection of the heart from hypertrophy and failure. These processes may involve mechanosensitivity. KATP channels can be activated by mechanical stimulation and disrupting the cortical actin increases the activity. We propose that KATP channels are modulated by local bilayer tension and this tension is affected by cortical F-actin. Here we measured KATP background activity and stretch sensitivity with inside-out patches of rat ventricular myocytes before and after disrupting F-actin. Disrupting F-actin potentiated background activity but did not influence the slope sensitivity in the semilog relationship of NPo vs. suction that is a measure of the change in dimensions between closed and open states. Thus actin alters prestress on the channel probably by parallel elastic sharing of mean cortical tension with the bilayer.
We have recently demonstrated that adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-mediated human erythropoietin (hEPO) gene delivery into the brain protects dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we examined whether pre-exposure to AAV9-hEPO vectors with an intramuscular or intrastriatal injection would reduce AAV9-mediated hEPO transduction in rat brain. We first characterized transgene expression and immune responses against AAV9-hEPO vectors in rat striatum at 4 days, 3 weeks and 6 months, and with doses ranging from 1011 to 1013 viral genomes. To sensitize immune system, rats received an injection of AAV9-hEPO into either the muscle or the left striatum, and then sequentially an injection of AAV9-hEPO into the right striatum 3 weeks later. We observed that transgene expression exhibited in a time course and dose dependent manner, and inflammatory and immune responses displayed in a time course manner. Intramuscular, but not intrastriatal injections of AAV9-hEPO resulted in reduced levels of hEPO transduction and increased levels of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II antigen expression in the striatum following AAV9-hEPO re-administration. There were infiltration of the cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)-and CD8-lymphacytes, and accumulation of activated microglial cells and astrocytes in the virally injected striatum. In addition, the sera from the rats with intramuscular injections of AAV9-hEPO contained greater levels of antibodies against both AAV9 capsid protein and hEPO protein than the other treatment groups. hEPO gene expression was negatively correlated with the levels of circulating antibodies against AAV9 capsid protein. Intramuscular and intrastriatal re-administration of AAV9-hEPO led to increased numbers of red blood cells in peripheral blood. Our results suggest that pre-immunization with an intramuscular injection can lead to the reduction of transgene expression in the striatal re-administration.
The progressive restriction of cell fate during lineage differentiation is a poorly understood phenomenon despite its ubiquity in multicellular organisms. We recently used a cell fusion assay to define a mode of epigenetic silencing that we termed “occlusion”, wherein affected genes are silenced by cis-acting chromatin mechanisms irrespective of whether trans-acting transcriptional activators are present. We hypothesized that occlusion of lineage-inappropriate genes could contribute to cell fate restriction. Here, we test this hypothesis by introducing bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), which are devoid of chromatin modifications necessary for occlusion, into mouse fibroblasts. We found that BAC transgenes corresponding to occluded endogenous genes are expressed in most cases, whereas BAC transgenes corresponding to silent but non-occluded endogenous genes are not expressed. This indicates that the cellular milieu in trans supports the expression of most occluded genes in fibroblasts, and that the silent state of these genes is solely the consequence of occlusion in cis. For the BAC corresponding to the occluded myogenic master regulator Myf5, expression of the Myf5 transgene on the BAC triggered fibroblasts to acquire a muscle-like phenotype. These results provide compelling evidence for a critical role of gene occlusion in cell fate restriction.
cell fate restriction; occlusion; bacterial artificial chromosome
Fun30 is a Swi2/Snf2 homolog in budding yeast that has been shown to remodel chromatin both in vitro and in vivo. We report that Fun30 plays a key role in homologous recombination, by facilitating 5′-to-3′ resection of double-strand break (DSB) ends, apparently by facilitating exonuclease digestion of nucleosome-bound DNA adjacent to the DSB. Fun30 is recruited to an HO endonuclease-induced DSB and acts in both the Exo1-dependent and Sgs1-dependent resection pathways. Deletion of FUN30 slows the rate of 5′-to-3′ resection from 4 kb/h to about 1.2 kb/h. We also found that the resection rate is reduced by DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of histone H2A-S129 (γ-H2AX) and that Fun30 interacts preferentially with nucleosomes in which H2A-S129 is not phosphorylated. Fun30 is not required for later steps in homologous recombination. Like its homolog Rdh54/Tid1, Fun30 is required to allow the adaptation of DNA damage checkpoint-arrested cells with an unrepaired DSB to resume cell cycle progression.
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) remains a major cause of severe brain damage and is often associated with high mortality and lifelong disability. Immature brains are extremely sensitive to hypoxia-ischemia, shown as prolonged mitochondrial neuronal death. Sodium pyruvate (SP), a substrate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and an extracellular antioxidant, has been considered as a potential treatment for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), but its effects have not been evaluated in appropriate animal models for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).
This investigation employed primary cortical neuron cultures derived from neonatal rats subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and a well-established neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia model.
HI caused brain tissue loss and impaired sensorimotor function and spatial memory while SP significantly reduced brain damage and improved neurological performance. These neuroprotective effects of SP are likely the result of improved cerebral metabolism as demonstrated by maintaining ATP levels and preventing an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. SP treatment also decreased levels of Bax, a death signal for immature neurons, blocked caspases-3 activation, and activated a key survival signaling kinase, Akt, both in vitro and in vivo.
SP protected neonatal brain from hypoxic-ischemic injury through maintaining cerebral metabolism and mitochondrial function.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a squamous cell cancer endemic in Southern China and Southeast Asia. It has been shown that inflammatory and immune responses during EBV infection contribute to the development of NPC. The complement receptor 2 (CR2) gene plays central roles during inflammatory and immune responses and, therefore, is a good candidate susceptibility gene for NPC. We performed PCR-based sequencing to identify multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the exon regions of the CR2 gene in a Cantonese population. Two SNPs were screened in 528 NPC patients and 408 normal individuals to perform a case-control study matched according to age, gender and residence. Furthermore, we cloned the entire 5′-UTR and entire CR2 promoter into a luciferase report system and compared the luciferase activities between the different allelic constructs. A SNP in the 5′-UTR of CR2 (24 T/C, rs3813946) showed a significant association (P<0.01) with NPC in the Cantonese population studied. The subjects were categorized into 2 age groups: group 1, age ≤45 years and group 2, age >45 years. In group 1, the allelic frequencies of 24 T/C in the patients were significantly different from those of the controls (P=0.0034). The odds ratio (OR=1.81) also indicated a higher risk of NPC in individuals who carried the minor allele C. All constructs exerted allelic differences on luciferase activities, but only the susceptible allele +24C construct showed increased activity. Our findings implicate CR2 as a susceptibility gene for NPC and suggest that enhanced CR2 expression may be involved in the oncogenesis and development of NPC.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma; complement receptor 2; single-nucleotide polymorphism; susceptibility; case-control study
A previous study comparing the performance of different platforms for DNA microarray found that the oligonucleotide (oligo) microarray platform containing 385K isothermal probes had the best performance when evaluating dosage sensitivity, precision, specificity, sensitivity and copy number variations border definition. Although oligo microarray platform has been used in some research fields and clinics, it has not been used for aneuploidy screening in human embryos. The present study was designed to use this new microarray platform for preimplantation genetic screening in the human. A total of 383 blastocysts from 72 infertility patients with either advanced maternal age or with previous miscarriage were analyzed after biopsy and microarray. Euploid blastocysts were transferred to patients and clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were measured. Chromosomes in some aneuploid blastocysts were further analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to evaluate accuracy of the results. We found that most (58.1%) of the blastocysts had chromosomal abnormalities that included single or multiple gains and/or losses of chromosome(s), partial chromosome deletions and/or duplications in both euploid and aneuploid embryos. Transfer of normal euploid blastocysts in 34 cycles resulted in 58.8% clinical pregnancy and 54.4% implantation rates. Examination of abnormal blastocysts by FISH showed that all embryos had matching results comparing microarray and FISH analysis. The present study indicates that oligo microarray conducted with a higher resolution and a greater number of probes is able to detect not only aneuploidy, but also minor chromosomal abnormalities, such as partial chromosome deletion and/or duplication in human embryos. Preimplantation genetic screening of the aneuploidy by DNA microarray is an advanced technology used to select embryos for transfer and improved embryo implantation can be obtained after transfer of the screened normal embryos.
AIM: To assess the diagnostic value of a combination of intragastric bile acids and hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the detection of duodenogastric reflux (DGR).
METHODS: The study contained 99 patients with DGR and 70 healthy volunteers who made up the control group. The diagnosis was based on the combination of several objective arguments: a long history of gastric symptoms (i.e., nausea, epigastric pain, and/or bilious vomiting) poorly responsive to medical treatment, gastroesophageal reflux symptoms unresponsive to proton-pump inhibitors, gastritis on upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and/or at histology, presence of a bilious gastric lake at > 1 upper GI endoscopy, pathologic 24-h intragastric bile monitoring with the Bilitec device. Gastric juice was aspirated in the GI endoscopy and total bile acid (TBA), total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) were tested in the clinical laboratory. Continuous data of gastric juice were compared between each group using the independent-samples Mann-Whitney U-test and their relationship was analysed by Spearman’s rank correlation test and Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis. Histopathology of DGR patients and 23 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis was compared by clinical pathologists. Using the Independent-samples Mann-Whitney U-test, DGR index (DGRi) was calculated in 28 patients of DGR group and 19 persons of control group who were subjected to hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Receiver operating characteristic curve was made to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these two methods in the diagnosis of DGR.
RESULTS: The group of patients with DGR showed a statistically higher prevalence of epigastric pain in comparison with control group. There was no significant difference between the histology of gastric mucosa with atrophic gastritis and duodenogastric reflux. The bile acid levels of DGR patients were significantly higher than the control values (Z: TBA: -8.916, DBIL: -3.914, TBIL: -6.197, all P < 0.001). Two of three in the DGR group have a significantly associated with each other (r: TBA/DBIL: 0.362, TBA/TBIL: 0.470, DBIL/TBIL: 0.737, all P < 0.001). The Fisher’s discriminant function is followed: Con: Y = 0.002TBA + 0.048DBIL + 0.032TBIL - 0.986; Reflux: Y = 0.012TBA + 0.076DBIL + 0.089TBIL - 2.614. Eighty-four point zero five percent of original grouped cases were correctly classified by this method. With respect to the DGR group, DGRi were higher than those in the control group with statistically significant differences (Z = -5.224, P < 0.001). Twenty eight patients (59.6%) were deemed to be duodenogastric reflux positive by endoscopy, as compared to 37 patients (78.7%) by hepatobiliary scintigraphy.
CONCLUSION: The integrated use of intragastric bile acid examination and scintigraphy can greatly improve the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of DGR.
Duodenogastric reflux; Diagnosis; Intragastric bile acids; Hepatobiliary scintigraphy
Fission yeast cells express Rpl32-2 highly while Rpl32-1 lowly in log phase; in contrast, expression of Rpl32-1 raises and reaches a peak level while Rpl32-2 is downregulated to a low basic level when cells enter into stationary phase. Overexpression of Rpl32-1 inhibits cell growth while overexpression of Rpl32-2 does not. Deleting rpl32-2 impairs cell growth more severely than deleting rpl32-1 does. Cell growth impaired by deleting either paralog can be rescued completely by reintroducing rpl32-2, but only partly by rpl32-1. Overexpression of Rpl32-1 inhibits cell division, yielding 4c DNA and multiple septa, while overexpressed Rpl32-2 promotes it. Transcriptomics analysis proved that Rpl32 paralogs regulate expression of a subset of genes related with cell division and stress response in a distinctive way. This functional difference of the two paralogs is due to their difference of 95th amino acid residue. The significance of a competitive inhibition between Rpl32 paralogs on their expression is discussed.
Aged (20–22 months) male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to sedentary (A-SED), environmentally enriched (A-ENR) or exercise (A-EX) conditions. After 10–12 weeks of differential experience, the three groups of aged rats and young sedentary controls were tested for physical and cognitive function. Spatial discrimination learning and memory consolidation, tested on the water maze, were enhanced in A-ENR compared to A-SED. A-EX exhibited improved and impaired performance on the cue and spatial task, respectively. Impaired spatial learning in A-EX was likely due to a bias in response selection associated with exercise training, as object recognition memory improved for A-EX rats. An examination of senescent hippocampal physiology revealed that enrichment and exercise reversed age-related changes in long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP). Rats in the enrichment group exhibited an increase in cell excitability compared to the other two groups of aged animals. The results indicate that differential experience biased the selection of a spatial or a response strategy and factors common across the two conditions, such as increased hippocampal activity associated with locomotion, contribute to reversal of senescent synaptic plasticity.
Aging; enrichment; exercise; hippocampus; learning and memory; synaptic plasticity; after hyperpolarization; cell excitability
The development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) provided a useful tool for investigating plant genetic diversity. In the present study, 22 polymorphic EST-SSRs from grain soybean were identified and used to assess the genetic diversity in 48 vegetable soybean accessions. Among the 22 EST-SSR loci, tri-nucleotides were the most abundant repeats, accounting for 50.00% of the total motifs. GAA was the most common motif among tri-nucleotide repeats, with a frequency of 18.18%. Polymorphic analysis identified a total of 71 alleles, with an average of 3.23 per locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.144 to 0.630, with a mean of 0.386. Observed heterozygosity (H
o) values varied from 0.0196 to 1.0000, with an average of 0.6092, while the expected heterozygosity (H
e) values ranged from 0.1502 to 0.6840, with a mean value of 0.4616. Principal coordinate analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the accessions could be assigned to different groups based to a large extent on their geographic distribution, and most accessions from China were clustered into the same groups. These results suggest that Chinese vegetable soybean accessions have a narrow genetic base. The results of this study indicate that EST-SSRs from grain soybean have high transferability to vegetable soybean, and that these new markers would be helpful in taxonomy, molecular breeding, and comparative mapping studies of vegetable soybean in the future.
Expressed sequence tag (EST); Simple sequence repeat (SSR); Genetic diversity; Microsatellites; Vegetable soybean
In patients with coronary disease and aneurysm, ventricular reconstruction with revascularization is a surgical option. Details of patient selection and optimal surgical technique are still debated. We report our results with off-pump aneurysm plication after ventricular aneurysm with relative wall thinning.
We retrospectively reviewed the records of 248 patients who had an operation for postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm. Reconstruction was accomplished by off-pump anteroapical aneurysm plication. The following variables were recorded: preoperative clinical, angiographic and echocardiographic findings and operative procedures. Outcomes were early mortality, long-term survival and poor 5-year result, defined as the need for transplantation or repeated hospitalization for congestive heart failure. Risk factors were pinpointed using the t test and survival curves. Independent risk factors were identified using Cox regression methods.
Hospital mortality was low (2.0%). Mean follow-up was 5.8 (standard deviation [SD] 3.8) years. Actuarial survival at 1 and 5 years was 94% and 84%. Among the 232 survivors, 200 were in functional class I or II, and the average increase in ejection fraction was 14.0% (SD 3.1%). As determined by multivariable analysis, factors predicting poor outcome were advanced age, ejection fraction less than 0.35, conicity index less than 1, end-systolic volume index greater than 80 mL/m2, advanced New York Heart Association functional class and congestive heart failure.
Using wall thinning as a criterion for patient selection, the technique of off-pump anteroapical aneurysm plication can be performed with low operative mortality and provides good symptomatic relief and long-term survival.
Ossifying fibroma is a rare benign tumor of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinus, and is easily misdiagnosed. In the present study, we report the clinical data in the case of a 46-year-old female patient, treated due to 5-day forehead swelling accompanied by dizziness. CT examination revealed dilation of the right frontal sinus, bone wall integration, dense masses in the cavity, multiple punctate calcification foci internally and no nasal obstruction, nasal mucus or epistaxis. After hospitalization, a right frontal sinus fenestration and tumor resection plus nasofrontal duct reconstruction combined with nasal endoscopic frontal recess open surgery was conducted under general anesthesia. Following the tumor resection, the frontal sinus bone lamella was reset and fixed with a titanium bone fixation set. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was of ossifying fibroma. At the postoperative 5-year follow-up there was no tumor recurrence and nasal endoscopy revealed an unobstructed nasofrontal duct opening.
ossifying fibroma; benign tumors; nasal cavity; paranasal sinus
The N-terminal protein processing mechanism (NPM) including N-terminal Met excision (NME) and N-terminal acetylation (Nα-acetylation) represents a common protein co-translational process of some eukaryotes. However, this NPM occurred in woody plants yet remains unknown.
To reveal the NPM in poplar, we investigated the Nα-acetylation status of poplar proteins during dormancy by combining tandem mass spectrometry with TiO2 enrichment of acetylated peptides. We identified 58 N-terminally acetylated (Nα-acetylated) proteins. Most proteins (47, >81%) are subjected to Nα-acetylation following the N-terminal removal of Met, indicating that Nα-acetylation and NME represent a common NPM of poplar proteins. Furthermore, we confirm that poplar shares the analogous NME and Nα-acetylation (NPM) to other eukaryotes according to analysis of N-terminal features of these acetylated proteins combined with genome-wide identification of the involving methionine aminopeptidases (MAPs) and N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nat) enzymes in poplar. The Nα-acetylated reactions and the involving enzymes of these poplar proteins are also identified based on those of yeast and human, as well as the subcellular location information of these poplar proteins.
This study represents the first extensive investigation of Nα-acetylation events in woody plants, the results of which will provide useful resources for future unraveling the regulatory mechanisms of Nα-acetylation of proteins in poplar.
Techniques for assembly of designed DNA sequences are important for synthetic biology. So far, a few methods have been developed towards high-throughput seamless DNA assembly in vitro, including both the homologous sequences-based system and the type IIS-mediated system. Here, we describe a novel method designated ‘MASTER Ligation’, by which multiple DNA sequences can be seamlessly assembled through a simple and sequence-independent hierarchical procedure. The key restriction endonuclease used, MspJI, shares both type IIM and type IIS properties; thus, it only recognizes the methylation-specific 4-bp sites, mCNNR (R = A or G), and cuts DNA outside of the recognition sequences. This method was tested via successful assembly of either multiple polymerase chain reaction amplicons or restriction fragments of the actinorhodin biosynthetic cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor (∼29 kb), which was further heterologously expressed in a fast-growing and moderately thermophilic strain, Streptomyces sp. 4F.