Bovine CD1d is expressed on the cell surface but cannot present C26 α-galactosylceramide.
Although CD1d and NKT cells have been proposed to have highly conserved functions in mammals, data on functions of CD1d and NKT cells in species other than humans and rodents are lacking. Upon stimulation with the CD1d-presented synthetic antigen α-galactosylceramide, human and rodent type I invariant NKT cells release large amounts of cytokines. The two bovine CD1D (boCD1D) genes have structural features that suggest that they cannot be translated into functional proteins expressed on the cell surface. Here we provide evidence that despite an intron–exon structure and signal peptide that are different from all other known CD1 genes, boCD1D can be translated into a protein that is expressed on the cell surface. However, in vivo treatment of cattle (Bos taurus) with 0.1, 1, or 10 µg kg–1 of the most commonly used α-galactosylceramide, which has a C26 fatty acid, did not lead to an increase in body temperature and serum cytokine levels of the animals. This lack of reactivity is not due to a complete inability of boCD1d to present glycosphingolipids because α-galactosylceramide variants with shorter fatty acids could be presented by boCD1d to human NKT cells in vitro. This suggests that the natural ligands of boCD1d are smaller lipids.
animal models; CD1; immunogenetics; natural killer T cells (NKT cells)
Many analogues of the glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) are known to activate iNKT cells through their interaction with CD1d-expressing antigen-presenting cells, inducing the release of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Because of iNKT cell involvement and associated Th1/Th2 cytokine changes in a broad spectrum of human diseases, the design of iNKT cell ligands with selective Th1 and Th2 properties has been the subject of extensive research. This search for novel iNKT cell ligands requires refined structural insights. Here we will visualize the chemical space of 333 currently known iNKT cell activators, including several newly tested analogues, by more than 3000 chemical descriptors which were calculated for each individual analogue. To evaluate the immunological responses we analyzed five different cytokines in five different test-systems. We linked the chemical space to the immunological space using a system biology computational approach resulting in highly sensitive and specific predictive models. Moreover, these models correspond with the current insights of iNKT cell activation by α-GalCer analogues, explaining the Th1 and Th2 biased responses, downstream of iNKT cell activation. We anticipate that such models will be of great value for the future design of iNKT cell agonists.
We explored the influence of modifications of uridine 5’-methylenephosphonate on biological activity at the human P2Y2 receptor. Key steps in the synthesis of a series of 5-substituted uridine 5’-methylenephosphonates were the reaction of a suitably protected uridine 5’-aldehyde with [(diethoxyphosphinyl)methylidene]triphenylphosphorane, C-5 bromination and a Suzuki–Miyaura coupling. These analogues behaved as selective agonists at the P2Y2 receptor, with three analogues exhibiting potencies in the submicromolar range. Although maximal activities observed with the phosphonate analogues were much less than observed with UTP, high concentrations of the phosphonates had no effect on the stimulatory effect of UTP. These results suggest that these phosphonates bind to an allosteric site of the P2Y2 receptor.
P2Y2 receptor; G protein-coupled receptor; uracil nucleotides; nucleoside phosphonates; partial agonists
A synthetic approach is presented for the synthesis of galacturonic acid and d-fucosyl modified KRN7000. The approach allows for late-stage functionalisation of both the sugar 6”-OH and the sphingosine amino groups, which enables convenient synthesis of promising 6”-modified KRN7000 analogues.
NKT cells play important roles in immune surveillance. They rapidly respond to pathogens by detecting microbial glycolipids when presented by the non-classical MHC I homolog CD1d. Previously, ruminants were considered to lack NKT cells due to the lack of a functional CD1D gene. However, recent data suggest that cattle express CD1d with unknown function. In an attempt to characterize the function of bovine CD1d, we assessed the lipid binding properties of recombinant Bos taurus CD1d (boCD1d) in vitro. BoCD1d is able to bind glycosphingolipids (GSLs) with fatty acid chain lengths of C18, while GSLs with fatty acids of C24 do not bind. Crystal structures of boCD1d bound to a short-chain C12-di-sulfatide antigen, as well as short-chain C16-αGalCer revealed that the Á pocket of boCD1d is restricted in size compared to that of both mouse and human CD1d, explaining the inability of long chain GSL’s to bind to boCD1d. Moreover, while di-sulfatide is presented similarly compared to the presentation of sulfatide by mouse CD1d, αGalCer is presented differently at the cell surface, due to an amino acid Asp151Asn substitution that results in loss of intimate contacts between the αGalCer headgroup and CD1d. The altered αGalCer presentation by boCD1d also explains its lack of cross-activation of mouse iNKT cells and raises the interesting question of the nature and function of bovine lipid-reactive T cells.
An alternative approach to overcome the inherent lack of specificity of conventional agonist therapy can be the reengineering of the GPCRs and their agonists. A reengineered receptor (neoceptor) could be selectively activated by a modified agonist, but not by the endogenous agonist. Assisted by rhodopsin-based molecular modeling, we pinpointed mutations of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) for selective affinity enhancement following complementary modifications of adenosine. Ribose modifications examined included, at 3′: amino, aminomethyl, azido, guanidino, ureido; and at 5′: uronamido, azidodeoxy. N6-variations included: 3-iodobenzyl, 5-chloro-2-methyloxybenzyl, and methyl. An N6-3-iodobenzyl-3′-ureido adenosine derivative 10 activated phospholipase C in COS-7 cells (EC50=0.18 μM) or phospholipase D in chick primary cardiomyocytes mediated by a mutant (H272E), but not the wild-type, A3AR. The affinity enhancements for 10 and the corresponding 3′-acetamidomethyl analogue 6 were >100-fold and >20-fold, respectively. 10 concentration-dependently protected cardiomyocytes transfected with the neoceptor against hypoxia. Unlike 10, adenosine activated the wild-type A3AR (EC50 of 1.0 μM), but had no effect on the H272E mutant A3AR (100 μM). Compound 10 was inactive at human A1, A2A, and A2BARs. The orthogonal pair comprising an engineered receptor and a modified agonist should be useful for elucidating signaling pathways and could be therapeutically applied to diseases following organ-targeted delivery of the neoceptor gene.
We studied the structural determinants of binding affinity and efficacy of adenosine receptor (AR) agonists. Substituents at the 2-position of adenosine were combined with N6-substitutions known to enhance human A3AR affinity. Selectivity of binding of the analogues and their functional effects on cAMP production were studied using recombinant human A1, A2A, A2B, and A3ARs. Mainly sterically small substituents at the 2-position modulated both the affinity and intrinsic efficacy at all subtypes. The 2-cyano group decreased hA3AR affinity and efficacy in the cases of N6-(3-iodobenzyl) and N6-(trans-2-phenyl-1-cyclopropyl), for which a full A3AR agonist was converted into a selective antagonist; the 2-cyano-N6-methyl analogue was a full A3AR agonist. The combination of N6-benzyl and various 2-substitutions (chloro, trifluoromethyl, and cyano) resulted in reduced efficacy at the A1AR. The environment surrounding the 2-position within the putative A3AR binding site was explored using rhodopsin-based homology modeling and ligand docking.
Purines; Cyclic AMP; Binding; Antagonists; Agonists; GPCR; Molecular modeling
In this paper we investigated the influence on affinity, selectivity and intrinsic activity upon modification of the adenosine agonist scaffold at the 3′- and 5′-positions of the ribofuranosyl moiety and the 2- and N6-positions of the purine base. This resulted in the synthesis of various analogues, that is, 3–12 and 24–33, with good hA3AR selectivity and moderate-to-high affinities (as in 32, Ki = 27 nM). Interesting was the ability to tune the intrinsic activity depending on the substituent introduced at the 3′-position.
Adenosine receptors; Nucleoside analogues; Binding; Efficacy
Adenosine A3 receptors are of interest in the treatment of cardiac ischemia, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. In an effort to create a unique receptor mutant that would be activated by tailor-made synthetic ligands, we mutated the human A3 receptor at the site of a critical His residue in TM7, previously proposed to be involved in ligand recognition through interaction with the ribose moiety. The H272E mutant receptor displayed reduced affinity for most of the uncharged A3 receptor agonists and antagonists examined. For example, the nonselective agonist 1a was 19-fold less potent at the mutant receptor than at the wild-type receptor. The introduction of an amino group on the ribose moiety of adenosine resulted in either equipotency or enhanced binding affinity at the H272E mutant relative to wild-type A3 receptors, depending on the position of the amino group. 3′-Amino-3′-deoxyadenosine proved to be 7-fold more potent at the H272E mutant receptor than at the wild-type receptor, while the corresponding 2′- and 5′-amino analogues did not display significantly enhanced affinities. An 3′-amino-N6-iodobenzyl analogue showed only a small enhancement at the mutant (Ki = 320 nM) vs wild-type receptors. The 3′-amino group was intended for a direct electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged ribose-binding region of the mutant receptor, yet molecular modeling did not support this notion. This design approach is an example of engineering the structure of mutant receptors to recognize synthetic ligands for which they are selectively matched on the basis of molecular complementarity between the mutant receptor and the ligand. We have termed such engineered receptors “neoceptors”, since the ligand recognition profile of such mutant receptors need not correspond to the profile of the parent, native receptor.
A rhodopsin-based homology model of the nucleotide-activated human P2Y2 receptor, including loops, termini, and phospholipids, was optimized with Monte Carlo Multiple Minimum. Docked UTP formed a nucleobase π–π complex with conserved Phe3.32. Selectivity-enhancing 2′-amino-2′-deoxy substitution interacted through π-hydrogen bonding with aromatic Phe6.51 and Tyr3.33. A “sequential ligand composition” approach for docking the flexible dinucleotide agonist Up4U demonstrated a shift of conserved cationic Arg3.29 from the UTP γ position to δ position of Up4U and Up4ribose. Sysnthesized nucleotides were tested as agonists at human P2Y receptors expressed in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. 2′-Amino and 2-thio modifications synergized to enhance potency and selectivity; compound 8 (8 nM EC50) was 300-fold P2Y2-selective versus P2Y4. 2′-Amine acetylation reduced potency, and trifluoroacetylation produced intermediate potency. 5-Amino nucleobase substitution did not enhance potency through a predicted hydrophilic interaction, possibly because of destabilization of the receptor-favored (N)-ribose conformation. This detailed view of P2Y2 receptor recognition suggests mutations for model validation.
G protein–coupled receptor; nucleotides; docking; phospholipase C; pyrimidines; homology modeling
α-GalCer analogues featuring a phytoceramide 3- and 4-amino group have been synthesized. A Mitsunobu reaction involving phthalimide was employed for the introduction of the amino groups at the 3- and 4-positions of suitable phytosphingosine-derived precursors. The influence of these modifications on the interaction with the T-cell receptor of NKT cells was investigated, as well as the capacity of the amino-modified analogues to induce a cytokine response after in vivo administration.
Many bacteria, including Vibrio spp., regulate virulence gene expression in a cell-density dependent way through a communication process termed quorum sensing (QS). Hence, interfering with QS could be a valuable novel antipathogenic strategy. Cinnamaldehyde has previously been shown to inhibit QS-regulated virulence by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of the QS response regulator LuxR. However, little is known about the structure-activity relationship of cinnamaldehyde analogs.
By evaluating the QS inhibitory activity of a series of cinnamaldehyde analogs, structural elements critical for autoinducer-2 QS inhibition were identified. These include an α,β unsaturated acyl group capable of reacting as Michael acceptor connected to a hydrophobic moiety and a partially negative charge. The most active cinnamaldehyde analogs were found to affect the starvation response, biofilm formation, pigment production and protease production in Vibrio spp in vitro, while exhibiting low cytotoxicity. In addition, these compounds significantly increased the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio vulnificus.
Several new and more active cinnamaldehyde analogs were discovered and they were shown to affect Vibrio spp. virulence factor production in vitro and in vivo. Although ligands for LuxR have not been identified so far, the nature of different cinnamaldehyde analogs and their effect on the DNA binding ability of LuxR suggest that these compounds act as LuxR-ligands.
Ribose-based nucleoside 5′-diphosphates and triphosphates and related nucleotides were compared in their potency at the P2Y receptors with the corresponding nucleoside 5′-phosphonate derivatives. Phosphonate derivatives of UTP and ATP activated the P2Y2 receptor but were inactive or weakly active at P2Y4 receptors. Uridine 5′-(diphospho)phosphonate was approximately as potent at the P2Y2 receptor as at the UDP-activated P2Y6 receptor. These results suggest that removal of the 5′-oxygen atom from nucleotide agonist derivatives reduces but does not prevent interaction with the P2Y2 receptor. Uridine 5′-(phospho)phosphonate as well as the 5′-methylphosphonate equivalent of UMP were inactive at the P2Y4 receptor and exhibited maximal effects at the P2Y2 receptor that were ≤50% of that of UTP suggesting novel action of these analogues.
The phosphate, uracil, and ribose moieties of uracil nucleotides were varied structurally for evaluation of agonist activity at the human P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 receptors. The 2-thio modification, found previously to enhance P2Y2 receptor potency, could be combined with other favorable modifications to produce novel molecules that exhibit high potencies and receptor selectivities. Phosphonomethylene bridges introduced for stability in analogues of UDP, UTP and uracil dinucleotides markedly reduced potency. Truncation of dinucleotide agonists of the P2Y2 receptor, in the form of Up4-sugars, indicated that a terminal uracil ring is not essential for moderate potency at this receptor and that specific SAR patterns are observed at this distal end of the molecule. Key compounds reported in this study include: 9, α,β-methylene-UDP, a P2Y6 receptor agonist; 30, Up4-phenyl ester and 34, Up4-glucose, selective P2Y2 receptor agonists; 43, the 2-thio analogue of INS37217 (P1-(uridine 5′)-P4- (2′-deoxycytidine 5′) tetraphosphate), a potent and selective P2Y2 receptor agonist.
To date, only few compounds targeting the AI-2 based quorum sensing (QS) system are known. In the present study, we screened cinnamaldehyde and substituted cinnamaldehydes for their ability to interfere with AI-2 based QS. The mechanism of QS inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in several Vibrio harveyi mutants. We also studied in vitro the ability of these compounds to interfere with biofilm formation, stress response and virulence of Vibrio spp. The compounds were also evaluated in an in vivo assay measuring the reduction of Vibrio harveyi virulence towards Artemia shrimp.
Our results indicate that cinnamaldehyde and several substituted derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS without inhibiting bacterial growth. The active compounds neither interfered with the bioluminescence system as such, nor with the production of AI-2. Study of the effect in various mutants suggested that the target protein is LuxR. Mobility shift assays revealed a decreased DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The compounds were further shown to (i) inhibit biofilm formation in several Vibrio spp., (ii) result in a reduced ability to survive starvation and antibiotic treatment, (iii) reduce pigment and protease production in Vibrio anguillarum and (iv) protect gnotobiotic Artemia shrimp against virulent Vibrio harveyi BB120.
Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS in various Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The use of these compounds resulted in several marked phenotypic changes, including reduced virulence and increased susceptibility to stress. Since inhibitors of AI-2 based quorum sensing are rare, and considering the role of AI-2 in several processes these compounds may be useful leads towards antipathogenic drugs.
We present a scalable synthesis of a versatile MTX reagent with an azide ligation handle that allows rapid γ-selective conjugation to yield MTX fusion compounds (MFCs) appropriate for MASPIT, a three-hybrid system that enables the identification of mammalian cytosolic proteins that interact with a small molecule of interest. We selected three structurally diverse pharmacologically active compounds (tamoxifen, reversine, and FK506) as model baits. After acetylene functionalization of these baits, MFCs were synthesized via a CuAAC reaction, demonstrating the general applicability of the MTX reagent. In analytical mode, MASPIT was able to give concentration-dependent reporter signals for the established target proteins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the sensitivity obtained with the new MTX reagent was significantly stronger than that of a previously used non-regiomeric conjugate mixture. Finally, the FK506 MFC was explored in a cellular array screen for targets of FK506. Out of a pilot collection of nearly 2000 full-length human ORF preys, FKBP12, the established target of FK506, emerged as the prey protein that gave the highest increase in luciferase activity. This indicates that our newly developed synthetic strategy for the straightforward generation of MFCs is a promising asset to uncover new intracellular targets using MASPIT cellular array screening.
click chemistry; MASPIT; methotrexate conjugates; profiling; target identification; three-hybrid