b-Bilene hydrochlorides are shown to be improved intermediates for the synthesis of metallo-isoporphyrins in enhanced yields (28% vs. 6%). Several new diamagnetic zinc(II) and a novel paramagnetic copper(II) isoporphyrin salts were also obtained using this approach. Metal-free isoporphyrins were also isolated. In vitro studies using human carcinoma HEp2 cells show that all metallo-isoporphyrins accumulate within cells and localize partially in the mitochondria. The zinc-isoporphyrins were found to be moderately phototoxic while the copper complex showed the lowest phototoxicity, maybe as a result of its paramagnetic nature.
intracellular localization; metalloisoporphyrins; porphyrins; synthesis; toxicity
Porphyrin macrocycles have been the subject of intense study in the last century because they are widely distributed in nature, usually as metal complexes of either iron or magnesium. As such, they serve as the prosthetic groups in a wide variety of primary metabolites, such as hemoglobins, myoglobins, cytochromes, catalases, peroxidases, chlorophylls, and bacteriochlorophylls; these compounds have multiple applications in materials science, biology and medicine. This article describes current methodology for preparation of simple, symmetrical model porphyrins, as well as more complex protocols for preparation of unsymmetrically substituted porphyrin macrocycles similar to those found in nature. The basic chemical reactivity of porphyrins and metalloporphyrin is also described, including electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions, oxidations, reductions, and metal-mediated cross-coupling reactions. Using the synthetic approaches and reactivity profiles presented, eventually almost any substituted porphyrin system can be prepared for applications in a variety of areas, including in catalysis, electron transport, model biological systems and therapeutics.
Aromaticity; porphyrin; pyrrole; reactivity; substitutions; synthesis
Several 2-iodopyrroles are used in Pd(0) catalyzed homocoupling reactions at room temperature in the presence of water to efficiently synthesize 2,2′-bipyrroles. These 2,2′-bipyrroles are strongly luminous materials and have high fluorescence quantum yields.
bipyrrole; homocoupling; iodopyrrole; palladium
A novel method for the preparation of β-fused porphyrin dyads was developed that exploits a one-pot reaction of 2,3-diaminoporphyrins with diethyl oxalate. This approach provides good yields of the zinc β-fused dyad and the corresponding free-base, opening the way for preparation of several metal derivatives to permit modulation of optoelectronic characteristics for commercial applications.
β-fused-porphyrin; Dietyl oxalate; α-dione porphyrin; 2,3-Diaminoporphyrin; DSSC; Porphyrin dyad electrochemistry
There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an adequate substitute. We compared bacterial diversity and composition from rectal swabs and rectal mucosal biopsies in order to examine the viability of rectal swabs as an alternative to biopsies. Paired rectal swabs and mucosal biopsy samples were collected in un-prepped participants (n = 11) and microbial diversity was characterized by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial community composition from swab samples was different from rectal mucosal biopsies (p = 0.001). Overall the bacterial diversity was higher in swab samples than in biopsies as assessed by diversity indexes such as: richness (p = 0.01), evenness (p = 0.06) and Shannon’s diversity (p = 0.04). Analysis of specific bacterial groups by qPCR showed higher copy number of Lactobacillus (p < 0.0001) and Eubacteria (p = 0.0003) in swab samples compared with biopsies. Our findings suggest that rectal swabs and rectal mucosal samples provide different views of the microbiota in the large intestine.
colon cancer; adenomas; mucosal biopsies; rectal swabs; bacteria
The β-nitration reaction carried out on the corrole macrocycle has been shown to be extremely regioselective, although the reduced symmetry of the macrocycle could potentially lead to a huge number of possible regioisomers. We recently reported that the careful use of AgNO2/NaNO2 as a nitrating system enabled the achievement in good yields of mono- and dinitro-derivatives on both corrole free base and its copper complex, proving to be an efficient and cost-effective method. In this work, we present a detailed study of the scope of this method using TtBuCorrH3 as a model corrole. A further increase of the oxidant pushes the nitration up to the functionalization of three β-pyrrolic positions, although concomitant decomposition of the macrocycle is also observed. The application of the proven nitration method with a five-fold excess of both silver and sodium nitrites with respect to corrole, afforded the 2,3,17-(NO2)3-TtBuPCorrCu as the main product, in 25% yield, together with traces of another compound identified by X-ray crystallographic analysis as the 3,8,17-(NO2)3-TtBuPCorrCu isomer. In light of these recent results, we also reinvestigated the characterization of the nitration products obtained from bis-substitution reactions, allowing among others the identification of the copper 3,8-(NO2)2 corrolate.
corrole; β-functionalization; nitration; AgNO2
Functionalization of the β-pyrrolic positions of the corrole macrocycle with –NO2 groups is limited at present to metallocorrolates due to of the instability exhibited by corrole free bases under oxidizing conditions. A careful choice of the oxidant can limit the transformation of corroles into decomposition products or isocorrole species, preserving the corrole aromaticity, and thus allowing the insertion of nitro groups onto the corrole framework. Here we report results obtained by reacting 5,10,15-tritolylcorrole (TTCorrH3) with the AgNO2/NaNO2 system, to give mono- and di-nitrocorrole derivatives when stoichiometry is carefully controlled. Reactions were found to be regioselective, affording the 3-NO2TTCorrH3 and 3,17-(NO2)2TTCorrH3 isomers as the main products in the case of mono- and di-substitution, in 53 and 20% yields, respectively. In both cases, traces of other mono- and di-substituted isomers were detected, which were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The influence of the β-nitro substituents on the corrole properties is studied in detail by UV-visible, electrochemical, and spectroelectrochemical characterization of these functionalized corroles. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations of the ground and excited state properties of these β-nitrocorrole derivatives also afforded significant information, closely matching the experimental observations. It is found that the β-NO2 substituents conjugate with the π-aromatic system of the macrocycle, which initiates significant changes in both the spectroscopic and redox properties of the so functionalized corroles. This effect is more pronounced when the nitro group is introduced at the 2-position, because in this case the conjugation is, for steric reasons, more efficient than in the 3-nitro isomer.
Two different methods for the regioselective nitration of different meso-triarylcorroles leading to the corresponding β-substituted nitrocorrole iron complexes have been developed. A two-step procedure affords three Fe(III) nitrosyl products - the unsubstituted corrole, the 3-nitrocorrole and the 3,17-dinitrocorrole. In contrast, a one-pot synthetic approach drives the reaction almost exclusively to formation of the iron nitrosyl 3,17-dinitrocorrole. Electron-releasing substituents on the meso-aryl groups of the triarylcorroles induce higher yields and longer reaction times than what is observed for the synthesis of similar triarylcorroles with electron-withdrawing functionalities, and these results can be confidently attributed to the facile formation and stabilization of an intermediate iron corrole π-cation radical. Electron-withdrawing substituents on the meso-aryl groups of triarylcorrole also seem to labilize the axial nitrosyl group which, in the case of the pentafluorophenylcorrole derivative, results in the direct formation of a disubstituted iron μ-oxo dimer complex. The influence of meso-aryl substituents on the progress and products of the nitration reaction was investigated. In addition, to elucidate the most important factors which influence the redox reactivity of these different iron nitrosyl complexes, selected compounds were examined by cyclic voltammetry and thin-layer UV-visible or FTIR spectroelectrochemistry in CH2Cl2.
Several procedures for the demetalation of silver(III) corrolates have been tested. Acidic conditions induce removal of the silver ion but they can also promote concomitant oxidation of the corrole nucleus to an isocorrole species, the degree of which will depend upon the specific acidic media. This oxidation cannot be completely avoided by addition of hydrazine, particularly in the case of 3-NO2 substituted complexes which are quantitatively converted into the corresponding 3-NO2, 5-hydroxy isocorroles upon silver ion removal. Several β-nitro isocorrole products were isolated, and one was structurally characterized. Electrochemical and chemical reductive methods for silver(III) corrolates demetalation were then tested with the aim to avoid the formation of isocorroles. While reaction with sodium borohydride was shown to be quite effective to demetalate unsubstituted silver corrolates this was not the case for the β-nitro derivatives where the peripheral nitro group is reduced by borohydride giving the corresponding 3-amino free base corrole species. For the β-nitro corrole silver complexes, a successful approach was obtained using DBU/THF solutions which afforded the 3-NO2 corrole free-base compound as a single reaction product in good yield. These conditions were also effective for unsubstituted corroles although longer reaction times were necessary in this case. To study in greater detail the corrole demetalation behavior, selected Ag(III) derivatives were characterized by cyclic voltammetry in pyridine, and the demetalation products spectrally characterized after controlled potential reduction in a thin-layer spectroelectrochemical cell.
In previous studies, we demonstrated that elongation of side chains of several sensitizers endowed them with higher affinity for artificial and natural membranes and caused their deeper localization in membranes. In the present study, we employed eight hematoporphyrin and protoporphyrin analogs and four groups containing three chlorin analogs each, all synthesized with variable numbers of methylenes in their alkyl carboxylic chains. We show that these tetrapyrroles’ affinity for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and their localization in the binding site are also modulated by chain lengths. The binding constants of the hematoporphyrins and protoporphyrins to BSA increased as the number of methylenes was increased. The binding of the chlorins depended on the substitution at the meso position opposite to the chains. The quenching of the sensitizers’ florescence by external iodide ions decreased as the side chains became longer, indicating to deeper insertion of the molecules into the BSA binding pocket. To corroborate this conclusion, we studied the efficiency of photodamage caused to tryptophan in BSA upon illumination of the bound sensitizers. The efficiency was found to depend on the side-chain lengths of the photosensitizer. We conclude that the protein site that hosts these sensitizers accommodates different analogs at positions that differ slightly from each other. These differences are manifested in the ease of access of iodide from the external aqueous phase, and in the proximity of the photosensitizers to the tryptophan. In the course of this study, we developed the kinetic equations that have to be employed when the sensitizer itself is being destroyed.
Albumin; Binding; Chlorin; Hematoporphyrin; Protoporphyrin; Photosensitization
Heme oxygenase, HO, cleaves hemin into biliverdin, iron and CO. For mammalian HOs, both native hemin propionates are required for substrate binding and activity. The HO from the pathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, NmHO, possesses a crystallographically undetected C-terminal fragment that by solution 1H NMR is found to fold and interact with the active site. One of the substrate propionates has been proposed to form a salt bridge to the C-terminus rather than to the conventional buried cationic side chain in other HOs. Moreover, the C-terminal dipeptide Arg208His209 cleaves spontaneously over ~24 hours at a rate dependent on substituent size. 2D 1H NMR of NmHO azide complexes with hemins with selectively deleted or rearranged propionates all bind to NmHO with a structurally conserved active site as reflected in optical spectra and NMR NOESY cross peak and hyperfine shift patterns. In contrast to mammalian HOs, NmHO requires only a single propionate interacting with the buried terminus of Lys16 to exhibit full activity and tolerates the existence of a propionate at the exposed 8-position. The structure of the C-terminus is qualitatively retained upon deletion of the 7-propionate but a dramatic change in the 7-propionate carboxylate 13C chemical shift upon C-terminal cleavage confirms its role in the interaction with the C-terminus. The stronger hydrophobic contacts between pyrroles A and B with NmHO contribute more substantially to the substrate binding free energy than in mammalian HOs, “liberating” one propionate to stabilize the C-terminus. The functional implications of the C-terminus in product release are discussed.
A series of amino acid conjugates of chlorin e6, containing lysine or aspartic acid residues in positions 173, 152 or 131 of the macrocycle were synthesized and investigated as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy of tumors. All three regioisomers were synthesized in good yields and in 5 steps or less from pheophytin a (1). In vitro investigations using human carcinoma HEp2 cells show that the 152-lysyl regioisomers accumulate the most within cells, and the most phototoxic are the 131 regioisomers. The main determinant of biological efficacy appears to be the conjugation site, probably because of molecular conformation. Molecular modeling investigations reveal that the 173-substituted chlorin e6 conjugates are L-shaped, the 152 and 131 regioisomers assume extended conformations, and the 131 derivatives are nearly linear. It is hypothesized that the 131-aspartylchlorin e6 conjugate may be a more efficient photosensitizer for PDT than the commercial currently used 152 derivative.
Copper and germanium complexes of β-substituted nitrocorroles were reacted with 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole to give the corresponding β-amino-β-nitro derivatives, in moderate to good yields. This is the first successful example of a vicarious nucleophilic substitution performed on corrole derivatives, because the same reaction carried out on silver complexes afforded the corresponding 6-azahemiporphycenes by way of corrole ring expansion. The first step of this work is related to the modification of a synthetic protocol for preparation of the β-substituted nitro corroles. The nitration reaction was carried out on a copper corrole using NaNO2 as the primary source of NO2− coupled with AgNO2 used as oxidant. By variation of the molar ratio of the reagents it was possible to direct the product distribution towards mono- and di-nitro derivatives. The reaction between mono- and di-nitro derivatives of (TtBuCorrCu) with 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole gave good results, leading to the isolation of 2,3-(NH2)(NO2)-TtBuCorrCu and 2,18-(NH2)2-3,17-(NO2)2-TtBuCorrCu in moderate yields. To elucidate factors that influence the reaction, and to highlight the different behavior observed for different metal complex substrates, the electrochemistry of three copper complexes, TtBuPCorrCu, (NO2)TtBuPCorrCu and (NO2)2TtBuPCorrCu, were studied by cyclic voltammetry and thin-layer UV-visible spectroelectrochemistry. The nitro groups on (NO2)xTtBuPCorrCu are highly electron-withdrawing, which leads not only to a substantial positive shift of all redox potentials, but also to a unique redox behavior and UV-vis spectrum of the singly reduced product as compared to the parent compound, TtBuPCorrCu. Finally, the amination reaction was carried out on a Ge(IV) nitrocorrolate, giving in good yield the 2-amino-3-nitroderivative, which was structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography.
The modification of peripheral positions of corroles by introduction of nitro groups is an important functionalization of this macrocycle. The nitro substituent strongly influences the corrole behavior leading to the preparation of macrocycles with different properties, which can be of interest for their exploitation as catalysts, sensing layers in chemical sensors or in the field of supramolecular chemistry. In the last few years we have developed different routes for the β-nitration of the corrole ring, and we report here novel synthetic protocols which can allow the formation of tri- and tetranitro derivatives, as demonstrated by X-ray analysis. In all of the methodologies used, the presence of isocorrole species as reaction intermediates was established, which regenerated the corresponding corrole by metal insertion.
corrole; nitration; isocorrole
Heme oxygenase, HO, from the pathogenic bacterium N. meningitidis, NmHO, which secures host iron, shares many properties with mammalian HOs, but also exhibits some key differences. The crystal structure appears more compact and the crystal-undetected C-terminus interacts with substrate in solution. The unique nature of substrate-protein, specifically pyrrole-I/II-helix-2, peripheral interactions in NmHO are probed by 2D 1H NMR to reveal unique structural features controlling substrate orientation. The thermodynamics of substrate orientational isomerism are mapped for substrates with individual vinyl → methyl → hydrogen substitutions and with enzyme C-terminal deletions. NmHO exhibits significantly stronger orientational preference, reflecting much stronger and selective pyrrole-I/II interactions with the protein matrix, than in mammalian HOs. Thus, replacing bulky vinyls with hydrogens results in a 180° rotation of substrate about the α,γ-meso axis in the active site. A "collapse" of the substrate pocket as substrate size decreases is reflected in movement of helix-2 toward the substrate as indicated by significant and selective increased NOESY cross peak intensity, increase in steric Fe-CN tilt reflected in the orientation of the major magnetic axis, and decrease in steric constraints controlling the rate of aromatic ring reorientation. The active site of NmHO appears "stressed" for native protohemin and its "collapse" upon replacing vinyls by hydrogen leads to a factor ~102 increase in substrate affinity. Interaction of the C-terminus with the active site destabilizes the crystallographic protohemin orientation by ~0.7 kcal/mol, which is consistent with optimizing the His207-Asp27 H-bond. Implications of the active site "stress" for product release are discussed.
Five cationic porphyrins bearing one to four -N(CH3)3+ groups linked to the p-phenyl positions of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) were synthesized in order to study the effect of overall charge and its distribution on the cellular uptake, phototoxicity and intracellular localization using human carcinoma HEp2 cells. The di-cationic porphyrins DADP-o and DADP-a accumulated the most within cells and preferentially localize within vesicular compartments and in mitochondria. Of these two only DADP-a was phototoxic to the cells (IC50 = 3 µM at 1 J/cm2). The mono-cationic porphyrin MAP was found to be the most phototoxic of the series, and it localized mainly in lipid membranes, including the plasma membrane, ER, mitochondria, and Golgi. Both the tri-cationic porphyrin TRAP and the tetra-cationic porphyrin TEAP localized subcellularly mainly in the mitochondria, but of the two only TEAP showed moderate phototoxicity (IC50 = ~8 µM at 1 J/cm2). Our results suggest that MAP is the most promising PDT photosensitizer, and that both DADP-o and TRAP might find application as transport vehicles for therapeutics into cells.
cationic porphyrin; PDT; cytotoxicity; cellular uptake; subcellular localization
Various dipyrroles possess important motifs for construction of pyrrole-containing pigments. A series of 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes (4a–d) has been efficiently synthesized using an improved one-pot double Sonagashira coupling from trimethylsilylethyne and various 2-iodopyrroles. The resulting 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes were further transformed into novel indolyl-, ethenyl- and carboranyl-dipyrroles (5–7) using the Larock indole synthesis, stereoselective catalytic hydrogenation, or B10H14. Indolyl-dipyrroles were found to selectively bind fluoride ions using one pyrrolic and the indolyl NHs, whereas the carboranyl- and ethenyl-dipyrroles are potentially valuable precursors for the synthesis of porphyrin isomers and expanded pigments.
carborane; dipyrrole; indole; Larock; Sonagashira
A series of free-base and metalated isocorroles represented as (TT-n-iso-Cor)H2 and (TT-n-iso-Cor)MII, where n = 5 or 10 and M = Ni or Cu, were synthesized and characterized by electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry in CH2Cl2 containing 0.1 M TBAP. A metalation of the free-base macrocycles with CoII, MnIII or ZnII was also attempted but was unsuccessful. Five isocorroles were isolated and shown to undergo two stepwise oxidations to give π-cation radicals and dications in CH2Cl2, with the most stable products being obtained in the case of the 10-substituted derivatives. The same isocorroles could also be reduced by one or two electrons but the initial one-electron addition products are unstable and undergo a rapid chemical reaction giving a reduced corrole or corrole-like product, which could be reoxidized to the corresponding (TTCor)M at a controlled positive potential. This series of reactions effectively gives an isocorrole to corrole conversion upon reduction and reoxidation and was monitored by both electrochemistry and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry.
Mono- and di-substituted β-nitro derivatives have been obtained from the reaction of ttcorrFeCl with sodium nitrite in refluxing DMF. This result is unprecedented for iron corrolates and further evidences the non-innocent character of the corrole ligand.
Bromination of 3-nitro-5,10,15-triarylcorrole selectively provides two regioisomers, depending on the reaction pathway. An isocorrole species is the key intermediate to drive the reaction towards the 2-Br-17-nitro regioisomer.
The structure of the ring-opened product from direct oxidation of meso-tetraarylporphyrins has been controversial for three decades. Herein we show that bilitrienones 2 are obtained from oxidation of metal-free dodecasubstituted porphyrins 1 in the presence of sodium nitrite, trifluoroacetic acid and air oxygen. The presence of the para-nonyl groups in 1b stabilized the corresponding bilitrienone 2b, which was characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the absence of the para-nonyl groups bilitrienone 2a undergoes a rapid hydration reaction, giving biladienone 3a as the major isolated product. The molecular structures of 2b and 3a, and. the photochemical isomerization of 3a are discussed.
The reaction of 5,10,15-tritolylcorrole with EtMgBr opens the way for novel functionalizations of the corrole ring. DDQ oxidation of the macrocycle, followed by addition of the Grignard reagent, led to the formation of 5- and 10-alkyl substituted isocorroles in satisfying yields. Together with the one-pot formation of these isocorrole isomers, the use of such a nucleophile evidenced the competitive reactivity of the macrocycle β-positions, leading to the formation of 2-bromo- and 3-bromo-5,10,15-tritolylcorrole. While the formation of these monobromocorrole derivatives is not unprecedented, this is the first time the isomers have been separated and fully characterized. Furthermore, the higher yields of the 2-substituted species highlight a useful regioselectivity for the substitution reaction.
corrole; isocorrole; oxidation; synthesis
The reaction of 5,10,15-triarylcorrole with 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole provides another example of corrole ring expansion to give the corresponding 6-azahemiporphycene, a novel porphyrin analogue. The facile oxidation of the corrole ring is a required step for the ring expansion and for this reason the reaction fails in the case of corroles bearing meso-phenyl groups carrying electron-withdrawing substituents. Steric requirements also limited the scope of the reaction, which is not successful in the case of 2,6-disubstituted meso-aryl corroles. The occurrence of an initial oxidation is further supported by formation of the 6-azahemiporphycene derivative when the reaction is carried out under the same conditions, using a 5- or a 10-isocorrole as starting material. 1H NMR spectra and X-ray crystal characterization of 6-azahemiporphycene evidenced the presence of an intramolecular N–H··· N hydrogen bond in the inner core of the macrocycle, while photophysical characterization confirmed the aromatic character of the novel macrocycle, showing an intense Soret-like band around 410 nm in the absorption spectrum. The fluorescence emission is very modest, and 6-azahemiporphycene showed higher photostability than the corresponding corrole species. Different metal complexes of 6-azahemiporphycene were prepared following synthetic protocols usually exploited for the preparation of metalloporphyrins, demonstrating good coordination properties for the macrocycle. Both the free-base and metal derivatives were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry in dichloromethane and benzonitrile. To further detail the behavior of this novel macrocycle, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out on the basic structure of 6-azahemiporphycene with the aim of assessing aromaticity and tautomerism, as well as calculating its stability with respect to the 5-aza isomer.
Numerous reports of atlantooccipital dislocations (AODs) have been described in frontal impacts and vehicle versus pedestrian collisions. Reports of survival after AOD in conjunction with side impacts have infrequently been reported in the literature. The objective of this study is to present a case of an AOD from a side impact vehicle collision, and deduce the mechanism of injury. A clinical and biomechanical reconstruction of the collision was performed to investigate the mechanism of the dislocation. A 51-year-old female was traveling in a four-door sedan and sustained a side impact collision with a compact pickup truck. At the time of extrication, the patient was neurologically intact with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. After admittance to the hospital, the patient developed a decline in respiratory status, right mild hemiparesis, and left sixth-nerve palsy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) reconstructions indicated a craniocervical dislocation. Surgical fixation was performed and all extra-axial hemorrhaging was evacuated. At discharge, the patient was neurologically intact on the left side, had right mild hemiparesis, left sixth-nerve palsy, and minor dysarthria. Survival rates of AODs have recently been increasing. Morbidity is still more prevalent, however. Due to the variety of symptoms that accompany AODs and the inconsistency of diagnostic imaging techniques, a thorough history of the etiology may lead to increased clinical suspicion of this injury and further raise survival rates.
Atlantooccipital dislocation; cervical spine injury; side impact collision
In order to investigate the relationship between depth within membranes of singlet oxygen generation and effectiveness of photodynamic therapy of tumors, analogs of protoporphyrin-IX 1 bearing five 4 and seven 5 carbon atoms (in place of the 3-carbon atom chain in 1) were synthesized from monopyrrole precursors.
Lipid bilayer; photodynamic therapy; protoporphyrin analogs; singlet oxygen