Purpose of review
Management of the epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a therapeutic challenge, with continued poor overall survival. Given low chemotherapy response rates for recurrent disease and short survival times, new treatment options with improved therapeutic indices for targeting cancer’s vulnerability are urgently needed in this patient population.
In this review, we summarize the recent development and clinical evaluations of inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) as novel targeting agents for EOC. PARP inhibitors exploit synthetic lethality to target DNA repair defects in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.
In recent clinical trials, EOC patients with BRCA mutations exhibited favorable responses to the PARP inhibitor olaparib compared with patients without BRCA mutations. Additionally, olaparib has been reported to augment the effects of cisplatin and carboplatin on recurrence-free survival and overall survival in mice bearing BRCA1/2-deficient tumors.
Given that hereditary EOC with deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations and BRCAness sporadic EOC are profoundly susceptible to synthetic lethality with PARP inhibition, it is imperative to identify a population of EOC patients that are likely to respond to PARP inhibitors. Recent studies have identified the gene expression profiles of DNA repair defects and BRCAness which predict clinical outcomes and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in EOC patients.
Ovarian cancer continues to carry the highest mortality among gynecologic cancers in the Western world. Clinical development of PARP inhibitors that target DNA repair defects in cancer is a novel and imperative stride in individualized identification of molecular characteristics in management of ovarian cancer.
ovarian cancer; PARP inhibitors; BRCA; overall survival; synthetic lethality
The efficacy of agents that alkylate the O-6 position of guanine is inhibited by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) which removes these lesions from the tumor DNA. To increase differential toxicity, inhibitors must selectively deplete AGT in tumors, while sparing normal tissues where this protein serves a protective function. A newly synthesized prodrug of the AGT inhibitor O6-benzylguanine (O6-BG) with an α,α-dimethyl-4-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl moiety masking the essential 2-amino group has demonstrated the feasibility of targeting hypoxic regions that are unique to solid tumors, for drug delivery. However, these modifications resulted in greatly decreased solubility. Recently, new potent global AGT inhibitors with improved formulatability such as O6-[(3-aminomethyl)benzylguanine (1) have been developed. However, acetylamino (N-(3-(((2-amino-9H-purin-6-yl)oxy)methyl)benzyl)acetamide) (2) exhibits a pronounced decrease in activity. Thus, 1 would be inactivated by N-acetylation and probably N-glucuronidation. To combat potential conjugational inactivation while retaining favorable solubility, we synthesized 6-((3-((dimethylamino)methyl)benzyl)oxy)-9H-purin-2-amine (3) in which the 3-aminomethyl moiety is protected by methylation; and to impart tumor selectivity we synthesized 2-(4-nitrophenyl)propan-2-yl(6-((3-((dimethylamino)methyl)benzyl)oxy)-9H-purin-2-yl)carbamate (7), a hypoxia targeted prodrug of 3 utilizing an α,α-dimethyl-4-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl moiety. Consistent with this design, 7 demonstrates both hypoxia selective conversion by EMT6 cells of 7 to 3 and hypoxic sensitization of AGT containing DU145 cells to the cytotoxic actions of laromustine, while exhibiting improved solubility.
Agents with selective toxicity to hypoxic cells have shown promise as adjuncts to radiotherapy. Our previous studies showed that the bioreductive alkylating agent KS119 had an extremely large differential toxicity to severely hypoxic and aerobic cells in cell culture, and was effective in killing the hypoxic cells of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors in vivo. However, the limited solubility of that compound precluded its development as an anticancer drug. Here we report our initial studies with KS119W, a water-soluble analog of KS119. The cytotoxicity of KS119W to EMT6 cells in vitro was similar to that of KS119, with both agents producing only minimal cytotoxicity to aerobic cells even after intensive treatments, while producing pronounced cytotoxicity to oxygen-deficient cells. This resulted in large differentials in the toxicities to hypoxic and aerobic cells (.1,000-fold at 10 μM). Low pH had only minimal effects on the cytotoxicity of KS119W. Under hypoxic conditions, EMT6 cells transfected to express high levels of either human or mouse versions of the repair protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase, which is also known as O6-methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase, were much more resistant to KS119W than parental EMT6 cells lacking O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase, confirming the importance of DNA O-6-alkylation to the cytotoxicity of this agent. Studies with EMT6 tumors in BALB/c Rw mice using both tumor cell survival and tumor growth delay assays showed that KS119W was effective as an adjunct to irradiation for the treatment of solid tumors in vivo, producing additive or supra-additive effects in most combination regimens for which the interactions could be evaluated. Our findings encourage additional preclinical studies to examine further the antineoplastic effects of KS119W alone and in combination with radiation, and to examine the pharmacology and toxicology of this new bioreductive alkylating agent so that its potential for clinical use as an adjuvant to radiotherapy can be evaluated.
The tumor selectivity of alkylating agents that produce guanine O6-chloroethyl (laromustine and carmustine) and O6-methyl (temozolomide) lesions, depends upon O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity being lower in tumor than in host tissue. Despite the established role of MGMT as a tumor resistance factor, consensus on how to assess MGMT expression in clinical samples is unsettled. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the values derived from distinctive MGMT measurements in 13, 12, 6 and 2 pairs of human tumors and matched normal adjacent tissue from the colon, kidney, lung and liver, respectively, and in human cell lines. The MGMT measurements included (a) alkyl-transfer assays using [benzene-3H]O6-benzylguanine as a substrate to assess functional MGMT activity, (b) methylation-specific PCR (MSP) to probe MGMT gene promoter CpG methylations as a measure of gene silencing, and (c) western immunoblots to analyze the MGMT protein. In human cell lines, a strict negative correlation existed between MGMT activity and the extent of promoter methylation. In tissue specimens, by contrast, the correlation between these two variables was low. Moreover, alkyl-transfer assays identified 3 pairs of tumors and normal tissue with tumor-selective reduction in MGMT activity in the absence of promoter methylation. Cell line MGMT migrated as a single band in western analyses, whereas tissue MGMT was heterogeneous around its molecular size and at much higher molecular masses, indicative of multi-layered post-translational modifications. Malignancy is occasionally associated with a mobility shift in MGMT. Contrary to the prevalent expectation that MGMT expression is governed at the level of gene silencing, these data suggest that other mechanisms that can lead to tumor-selective reduction in MGMT activity exist in human tissue.
O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT, O6-Alkylguanine-DNA Alkyltransferase, AGT); [Benzene-3H]O6-Benzylguanine; Methylation-Specific PCR (MSP); Laromustine (Onrigin, Cloretazine, VNP40101M, 101M); Temozolomide
Cellular resistance to chemotherapeutics that alkylate the O-6 position of guanine residues in DNA correlates with their O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) activity. In normal cells high [AGT] is benefical, sparing the host from toxicity, whereas in tumor cells high [AGT] prevents chemotherapeutic response. Therefore, it is necessary to selectively inactivate AGT in tumors. The oxygen deficient compartment unique to solid tumors is conducive to reduction, and could be utilized to provide this selectivity. Therefore, we synthesized 2-nitro-6-benzyloxypurine (2-NBP), an analog of O6-benzylguanine (O6-BG) in which the essential 2-amino group is replaced by a nitro moiety, 2-NBP is >2000-fold weaker than O6-BG as an AGT inhibitor. We demonstrate oxygen concentration sensitive net reduction of 2-NBP by cytochrome P450 reductase, xanthine oxidase and EMT6, DU145 and HL-60 cells to yield O6-BG. We show that 2-NBP treatment depletes AGT in intact cells under oxygen deficient conditions and selectively sensitizes cells to laromustine (an agent that chloroethylates the O-6 position of guanine) under oxygen deficient but not normoxic conditions. 2-NBP represents a proof of concept lead compound, however, its facile reduction (E1/2 – 177 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) may result in excessive oxidative stress and/or the generation of AGT inhibitors in normoxic regions in vivo.
2-Nitro-6-benzyloxypurine; O6-benzylguanine; prodrug; AGT; hypoxia; targeting; sensitization; chemotherapy
These studies explored questions related to the potential use of Laromustine in the treatment of solid tumors and in combination with radiotherapy.
Materials and Methods
These studies used mouse EMT6 cells [both parental and transfected with genes for O6-alkylguanine transferase (AGT)], repair-deficient human Fanconi Anemia C and Chinese hamster VC8 (BRCA2−/ −) cells and corresponding control cells, and EMT6 tumors in mice assayed using cell survival and tumor growth assays.
Hypoxia during Laromustine treatment did not protect EMT6 cells or human fibroblasts from this agent. Rapidly proliferating EMT6 cells were more sensitive than quiescent cultures. EMT6 cells expressing mouse or human AGT, which removes O6 -alkyl groups from DNA guanine, thereby protecting against G-C crosslink formation, increased resistance to Laromustine. Crosslink-repair-deficient Fanconi Anemia C and VC8 cells were hypersensitive to Laromustine, confirming the importance of crosslinks as lethal lesions. In vitro, Laromustine and radiation produced additive toxicities to EMT6 cells. Studies using tumor cell survival and tumor growth assays showed effects of regimens combining Laromustine and radiation that were compatible with additive or subadditive interactions.
The effects of Laromustine on solid tumors and with radiation are complex and are influenced by microenvironmental and proliferative heterogeneity within these malignancies.
Laromustine; Onrigin; radiation; O6-Alkylguanine transferase; combined modalities; experimental radiotherapy
Cloretazine [1, 2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-2-[(methylamino)carbonyl]-hydrazine; VNP40101M; 101M] is a relatively new prodrug with activity in elderly acute myelogenous leukemia patients. Its therapeutic action is due largely to the production of 1-(3-cytosinyl),2-(1-guanyl)ethane cross-links (G-C ethane cross-links) in DNA. The number of cross-links produced in three experimental leukemia lines (L1210, U937 and HL-60) were fewer than 10 per genome at their respective LC50 concentrations. Only 1 in approximately 20,000 90CE molecules produce a cross-link in the AGT (O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase) negative L1210 and U937 cell lines and 1 in 400,000 in the AGT positive HL-60 cell line.
Cloretazine; 90CE; BCNU; leukemia cell lines; O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase; G-C ethane cross-links
A series of 4-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl prodrug derivatives of O6-benzylguanine (O6-BG), conceived as prodrugs of O6-BG, an inhibitor of the resistance protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to undergo bioreductive activation by reductase enzymes under oxygen deficiency. Three agents of this class, 4-nitrobenzyl (6-(benzyloxy)-9H-purin-2-yl)carbamate (1), and its monomethyl (2) and gem-dimethyl analogues (3) were tested for activation by reductase enzyme systems under oxygen deficient conditions. Compound 3, the most water-soluble of these agents, gave the highest yield of O6-BG following reduction of the nitro group trigger. Compound 3 was also evaluated for its ability to sensitize 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-2-[(methylamino)carbonyl]hydrazine (laromustine)-resistant DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells, which express high levels of AGT, to the cytotoxic effects of this agent under normoxic and oxygen deficient conditions. While 3 had little or no effect on laromustine cytotoxicity under aerobic conditions, significant enhancement occurred under oxygen deficiency, providing evidence for the preferential release of the AGT inhibitor O6-BG under hypoxia.
O6-benzylguanine; O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase; laromustine; KS119; 1,2-bis(sulfonyl)hydrazines; oxygen deficiency
Cloretazine is an antitumor sulfonylhydrazine prodrug that generates both chloroethylating and carbamoylating species. The cytotoxic potency of these species was analyzed in L1210 leukemia cells using analogues with chloroethylating or carbamoylating function only. Clonogenic assays showed that the chloroethylating-only agent 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)hydrazine (90CE) produced marked differential cytotoxicity against wild-type and O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase–transfected L1210 cells (LC10, 1.4 versus 31 μmol/L), indicating that a large portion of the cytotoxicity was due to alkylation of DNA at the O-6 position of guanine. Consistent with the concept that O-6 chloroethylation of DNA guanine progresses to interstrand cross-links, the comet assay, in which DNA cross-links were measured by a reduction in DNA migration induced by strand breaks, showed that cloretazine and 90CE, but not the carbamoylating-only agent 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-[(methylamino)carbonyl]-hydrazine (101MDCE), produced DNA cross-links and that cloretazine caused more DNA cross-links than 90CE at equimolar concentrations. Cell cycle analyses showed that 90CE and 101MDCE at concentrations of 5 and 80 μmol/L, respectively, produced similar degrees of G2-M arrest. 90CE produced selective inhibition of DNA synthesis after overnight incubation, whereas 101MDCE caused rapid and nonselective inhibition of RNA, DNA, and protein syntheses. Both 90CE and 101MDCE induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX, albeit with distinct kinetics. These results indicate that (a) differential expression of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase in tumor and host cells seems to be responsible for tumor selectivity exerted by cloretazine; (b) 101MDCE enhances DNA cross-linking activity; and (c) 90CE induces cell death at concentrations lower than those causing alterations in the cell cycle and macromolecular syntheses.
The anticancer prodrug 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-2-[[1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethoxy]carbonyl]hydrazine (KS119) selectively releases a short-lived cytotoxin following enzymatic reduction in hypoxic environments found in solid tumors. KS119, in addition to two enantiomers, has two stable atropisomers (conformers differing in structure owing to hindered bond rotation) that interconvert at 37 °C in aqueous solution by first order kinetics with t1/2 values of ~50 and ~64 hours. The atropisomers differ in physical properties such as partition coefficients that allow their chromatographic separation on non-chiral columns. A striking difference in the rate of metabolism of the two atropisomers occurs in intact EMT6 murine mammary carcinoma cells under oxygen deficient conditions. A structurally related molecule, 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-2-[[1-(3-hydroxy-4-nitrophenyl)ethoxy]carbonyl]hydrazine (KS119WOH), was also found to exist in similar stable atropisomers. The ratio of the atropisomers of KS119 and structurally related agents has the potential to impact the bioavailability, activation and therapeutic activity. Thus, thermally stable atropisomers/conformers in small molecules can result in chemically and enantiomerically pure compounds having differences in biological activities.
KS119; prodrug; atropisomers; conformers; hypoxia; targeting; cytotoxicity; chemotherapy
To most effectively treat cancer it may be necessary to preferentially destroy tumor tissue while sparing normal tissues. One strategy to accomplish this is to selectively cripple the involved tumor resistance mechanisms, thereby allowing the affected anticancer drugs to gain therapeutic efficacy. Such an approach is exemplified by our design and synthesis of the intracellular hypoxic cell activated methylating agent, 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-methyl-2-[[1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethoxy]carbonyl]hydrazine (KS900) that targets the O-6 position of guanine in DNA. KS900 is markedly more cytotoxic in clonogenic experiments under conditions of oxygen deficiency than the non-intracellularly activated agents KS90, and 90M, when tested in O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) non-expressing cells (EMT6 mouse mammary carcinoma, CHO/AA8 hamster ovary, and U251 human glioma), and than temozolomide when tested in AGT expressing cells (DU145 human prostate carcinoma). Furthermore, KS900 more efficiently ablates AGT in HL-60 human leukemia and DU145 cells than the spontaneous globally activated methylating agent KS90, with an IC50 value over 9-fold lower than KS90. Finally, KS900 under oxygen-deficient conditions selectively sensitizes DU145 cells to the chloroethylating agent, onrigin, through the ablation of the resistance protein AGT. Thus, under hypoxia, KS900 is more cytotoxic at substantially lower concentrations than methylating agents such as temozolomide that are not preferentially activated in neoplastic cells by intracellular reductase catalysts. The necessity for intracellular activation of KS900 permits substantially greater cytotoxic activity against cells containing the resistance protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) than agents such as temozolomide. Furthermore, the hypoxia-directed intracellular activation of KS900 allows it to preferentially ablate AGT pools under the oxygen-deficient conditions that are present in malignant tissue.
Oxygen-deficient cells; O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase; 1, 2-Bis(sulfonyl)hydrazines; KS900; Onrigin™
O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) mediates tumor resistance to alkylating agents that generate guanine O6-chloroethyl (Onrigin™ and carmustine) and O6-methyl (temozolomide) lesions; however, the relative efficiency of AGT protection against these lesions and the degree of resistance to these agents that a given number of AGT molecules produces are unclear. Measured from differential cytotoxicity in AGT-ablated and AGT-intact HL-60 cells containing 17,000 AGT molecules/cell, AGT produced 12- and 24-fold resistance to chloroethylating (90CE) and methylating (KS90) analogs of Onrigin™, respectively. For 50% growth inhibition, KS90 and 90CE generated 5,600 O6-methylguanines/cell and ~300 O6-chloroethylguanines/cell, respectively. AGT repaired O6-methylguanines until the AGT pool was exhausted, while its repair of O6-chloroethylguanines was incomplete due to progression of the lesions to AGT-irreparable interstrand DNA cross-links. Thus, the smaller number of O6-chloroethylguanine lesions needed for cytotoxicity accounted for the marked degree of resistance (12-fold) to 90CE produced by AGT. Transfection of human or murine AGT into AGT deficient transplantable tumor cells (i.e., EMT6, M109 and U251) generated transfectants expressing AGT ranging from 4,000 to 700,000 molecules/cell. In vitro growth inhibition assays using these transfectants treated with 90CE revealed that AGT caused a concentration dependent resistance up to a level of ~10,000 AGT molecules/cell. This finding was corroborated by in vivo studies where expression of 4,000 and 10,000 murine AGT molecules/cell rendered EMT6 tumors partially and completely resistant to Onrigin™, respectively. These studies imply that the antitumor activity of Onrigin™ stems from guanine O6-chloroethylation and define the threshold concentration of AGT that negates its antineoplastic activity.
Onrigin™ (laromustine; cloretazine; VNP40101M; 101M); O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT); O6-Benzylguanine; Guanine O6-chloroethyl and O6-methyl lesions; Carmustine (BCNU); Temozolomide
Although the prognostic value of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C (ABCC) transporters in childhood neuroblastoma is usually attributed to their role in cytotoxic drug efflux, certain observations have suggested that these multidrug transporters might contribute to the malignant phenotype independent of cytotoxic drug efflux.
A v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived (MYCN)–driven transgenic mouse neuroblastoma model was crossed with an Abcc1-deficient mouse strain (658 hMYCN1/−, 205 hMYCN+/1 mice) or, alternatively, treated with the ABCC1 inhibitor, Reversan (n = 20). ABCC genes were suppressed using short interfering RNA or overexpressed by stable transfection in neuroblastoma cell lines BE(2)-C, SH-EP, and SH-SY5Y, which were then assessed for wound closure ability, clonogenic capacity, morphological differentiation, and cell growth. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the clinical significance of ABCC family gene expression in a large prospectively accrued cohort of patients (n = 209) with primary neuroblastomas. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used to test for associations with event-free and overall survival. Except where noted, all statistical tests were two-sided.
Inhibition of ABCC1 statistically significantly inhibited neuroblastoma development in hMYCN transgenic mice (mean age for palpable tumor: treated mice, 47.2 days; control mice, 41.9 days; hazard ratio [HR] = 9.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.65 to 32; P < .001). Suppression of ABCC1 in vitro inhibited wound closure (P < .001) and clonogenicity (P = .006); suppression of ABCC4 enhanced morphological differentiation (P < .001) and inhibited cell growth (P < .001). Analysis of 209 neuroblastoma patient tumors revealed that, in contrast with ABCC1 and ABCC4, low rather than high ABCC3 expression was associated with reduced event-free survival (HR of recurrence or death = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.2; P = .001), with 23 of 53 patients with low ABCC3 expression experiencing recurrence or death compared with 31 of 155 patients with high ABCC3. Moreover, overexpression of ABCC3 in vitro inhibited neuroblastoma cell migration (P < .001) and clonogenicity (P = .03). The combined expression of ABCC1, ABCC3, and ABCC4 was associated with patients having an adverse event, such that of the 12 patients with the “poor prognosis” expression pattern, 10 experienced recurrence or death (HR of recurrence or death = 12.3, 95% CI = 6 to 27; P < .001).
ABCC transporters can affect neuroblastoma biology independently of their role in chemotherapeutic drug efflux, enhancing their potential as targets for therapeutic intervention.
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces granulocytic maturation of WEHI-3B D+ leukemia cells and LiCl enhances this maturation, while WEHI-3B D− cells are non-responsive to ATRA. Transfection of SCL, expressed in D− but absent in D+ cells, into D+ cells, caused resistance to ATRA, while transfection of GATA-1 into D+ cells produced resistance to the combination of ATRA and LiCl. SCL expression in D+ cells did not induce the expression of c-Kit, a putative target gene for SCL. LiCl, known to inhibit some kinases by displacing Mg2+, did not affect tyrosine kinase activity of the cytoplasmic domain of c-Kit.
WEHI-3B D+; WEHI-3B D−; SCL (TAL1); GATA-1; All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA); Lithium chloride (LiCl); c-Kit
The multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) has been closely linked to poor treatment response in several cancers, most notably neuroblastoma. Homozygous deletion of the MRP1 gene in primary murine neuroblastoma tumors resulted in increased sensitivity to MRP1 substrate drugs (vincristine, etoposide, doxorubicin) compared to tumors containing both copies of wild-type MRP1, indicating that MRP1 plays a significant role in the drug resistance in this tumor type and defining this multidrug transporter as a target for pharmacological suppression. Cell-based readout system was created to functionally determine intracellular accumulation of MRP1 substrates using p53-responsive reporter as an indicator of drug-induced DNA damage. Screening of small molecule libraries in this readout system revealed pyrazolopyrimidines as a prominent structural class of potent MRP1 inhibitors. Reversan, the lead compound of this class, increased the efficacy of both vincristine and etoposide in murine models of neuroblastoma (syngeneic and human xenografts). As opposed to the majority of inhibitors of multidrug transporters, Reversan was not toxic by itself nor did it increase the toxicity of chemotherapeutic drug exposure in mice. Therefore, Reversan represents a new class of non-toxic MRP1 inhibitor, which may be clinically useful for the treatment of neuroblastoma and other MRP1 over-expressing drug refractory tumors by increasing their sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy.
multidrug resistance; neuroblastoma; vincristine; etoposide
1,2-Bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-2-[[1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethoxy]carbonyl]hydrazine (KS119) is a prodrug of the 1,2-bis(sulfonyl)hydrazine class of antineoplastic agents designed to exploit the oxygen-deficient regions of cancerous tissue. Thus, under reductive conditions in hypoxic cells this agent decomposes to produce the reactive intermediate 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)hydrazine (90CE), which in turn generates products that alkylate the O6-position of guanine in DNA. Comparison of the cytotoxicity of KS119 in cultured cells lacking O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) to an agent such as Onrigin™, which through base catalyzed activation produces the same critical DNA G-C cross-link lesions by the generation of 90CE, indicates that KS119 is substantially more potent than Onrigin™ under conditions of oxygen deficiency, despite being incompletely activated. In cell lines expressing relatively large amounts of AGT, the design of the prodrug KS119, which requires intracellular activation by reductase enzymes to produce a cytotoxic effect, results in an ability to overcome resistance derived from the expression of AGT. This appears to derive from the ability of a small portion of the chloroethylating species produced by the activation of KS119 to slip through the cellular protection afforded by AGT to generate the few DNA G-C cross-links that are required for tumor cell lethality. The findings also demonstrate that activation of KS119 under oxygen-deficient conditions is ubiquitous, occurring in all of the cell lines tested thus far, suggesting that the enzymes required for reductive activation of this agent are widely distributed in many different tumor types.
Oxygen-deficient cells; O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase; 1,2-Bis(sulfonyl)hydrazines; KS119; Onrigin™
Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4; ABCC4) is a member of the MRP/ATP-binding cassette family serving as a transmembrane transporter involved in energy-dependent efflux of anticancer/antiviral nucleotide agents and of physiological substrates, including cyclic nucleotides and prostaglandins (PGs). Phenotypic consequences of mrp4 deficiency were investigated using mrp4-knockout mice and derived immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Mrp4 deficiency caused decreased extracellular and increased intracellular levels of cAMP in MEF cells under normal and forskolin-stimulated conditions. Mrp4 deficiency and RNA interference-mediated mrp4 knockdown led to a pronounced reduction in extracellular PGE2 but with no accumulation of intracellular PGE2 in MEF cells. This result was consistent with attenuated cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression in mrp4-deficient MEF cells, suggesting that PG synthesis is restrained along with a lack of PG transport caused by mrp4 deficiency. Mice lacking mrp4 exhibited no outward phenotypes but had a decrease in plasma PGE metabolites and an increase in inflammatory pain threshold compared with wild-type mice. Collectively, these findings imply that mrp4 mediates the efflux of PGE2 and concomitantly modulates cAMP mediated signaling for balanced PG synthesis in MEF cells. Abrogation of mrp4 affects the regulation of peripheral PG levels and consequently alters inflammatory nociceptive responses in vivo.
The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) and hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), which lacks HDAC inhibitory activity, both possess the capacity to induce leukemia cell differentiation and to enhance the expression of a wide range of transiently transfected reporter genes in 3T3 Swiss cells. In addition, known inducers of leukemia cell differentiation, including hypoxanthine, diazepam, 6-thioguanine and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, also exhibited the ability to enhance reporter gene expression, while randomly chosen compounds that did not induce leukemia cell differentiation did not enhance reporter gene expression. The activity of TSA in the transfection system was modified by co-expression of histone acetyltransferase p300 and HDAC1; whereas, that of HMBA was enhanced by co-expression of the TATA-binding protein TBP. The stimulatory effects of diverse chemical inducers on transiently transfected genes suggest the existence of multiple exploitable targets for the selection of novel inducers of differentiation that function as modulators of gene activity.
Induction of differentiation; Hexamethylene bisacetamide; Diazepam; 6-Thioguanine; Trichostatin A; Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; Reporter gene expression
Although it is known that (i) O6-alkylguanine—DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) confers tumor cell resistance to guanine O6-targeting drugs such as cloretazine, carmustine, and temozolomide and that (ii) AGT levels in tumors are highly variable, measurement of AGT activity in tumors before treatment is not a routine clinical practice. This derives in part from the lack of a reliable clinical AGT assay; therefore, a simple AGT assay was devised based on transfer of radioactive benzyl residues from [benzene-3H]O6-benzylguanine ([3H]BG) to AGT. The assay involves incubation of intact cells or cell homogenates with [3H]BG and measurement of radioactivity in a 70% methanol precipitable fraction. Approximately 85% of AGT in intact cells was recovered in cell homogenates. Accuracy of the AGT assay was confirmed by examination of AGT levels by Western blot analysis with the exception of false-positive results in melanin-containing cells due to [3H]BG binding to melanin. Second-order kinetic constants for human and murine AGT were 1100 and 380 M-1 s-1, respectively. AGT levels in various human cell lines ranged from less than 500 molecules/cell (detection limit) to 45,000 molecules/cell. Rodent cell lines frequently lacked AGT expression, and AGT levels in rodent cells were much lower than in human cells.
O6-alkylguanine—DNA alkyltransferase; assay; [Benzene-3H]O6-benzylguanine; Cloretazine; Carmustine; Temozolomide; AGT-positive and -negative cells; B16F10 melanoma; Drug binding to melanin
The poor and aberrant vascularization of solid tumors makes them susceptible to localized areas of oxygen deficiency that can be considered sites of tumor vulnerability to pro-drugs that are preferentially activated to cytotoxic species under conditions of low oxygenation. To readily facilitate the selection of agents targeted to oxygen-deficient cells in solid tumors, we have developed a simple and convenient two-enzyme system to generate oxygen deficiency in cell cultures. Glucose oxidase is employed to deplete oxygen from the medium by selectively oxidizing glucose and reducing molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide; an excess of catalase is also used to scavenge the peroxide molecules. Rapid and sustained depletion of oxygen occurs in medium or buffer, even in the presence of oxygen at the liquid/air interface. Studies using CHO/AA8 Chinese hamster cells, EMT6 murine mammary carcinoma cells, and U251 human glioma cells indicate that this system generates an oxygen deficiency that produces activation of the hypoxia-targeted prodrug KS119. This method of generating oxygen deficiency in cell culture is inexpensive, does not require cumbersome equipment, permits longer incubation times to be used without the loss of sample volume, and should be adaptable for high-throughput screening in 96-well plates.
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase orchestrates nuclear DNA damage responses but is proposed to be involved in other important and clinically relevant functions. Here, we provide evidence for what we believe are 2 novel and intertwined roles for ATM: the regulation of ribonucleotide reductase (RR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, and control of mitochondrial homeostasis. Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patient fibroblasts, wild-type fibroblasts treated with the ATM inhibitor KU-55933, and cells in which RR is inhibited pharmacologically or by RNA interference (RNAi) each lead to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion under normal growth conditions. Disruption of ATM signaling in primary A-T fibroblasts also leads to global dysregulation of the R1, R2, and p53R2 subunits of RR, abrogation of RR-dependent upregulation of mtDNA in response to ionizing radiation, high mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA)/mtDNA ratios, and increased resistance to inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration and translation. Finally, there are reduced expression of the R1 subunit of RR and tissue-specific alterations of mtDNA copy number in ATM null mouse tissues, the latter being recapitulated in tissues from human A-T patients. Based on these results, we propose that disruption of RR and mitochondrial homeostasis contributes to the complex pathology of A-T and that RR genes are candidate disease loci in mtDNA-depletion syndromes.
Produced by dietary fiber, butyrate is a potential chemopreventive agent against colon cancer. It stimulates proliferation of normal colonic epithelial cells but induces growth inhibition, differentiation, apoptosis, or a combination of effects in colon carcinoma cells. In this study, we used cDNA membrane arrays and real-time reverse transcriptase– polymerase chain reaction to identify stress genes that were differentially regulated by sodium butyrate (NaB) in HT 29 human colon carcinoma cells. The results indicated that a group of heat shock protein (hsp) genes were upregulated by 3 mM NaB within the first 24 hours of exposure. Because the transcription of hsp genes is under the control of heat shock factors (HSFs), we measured the effects of overexpressed HSF-1 on the responses of HT 29 cells to NaB. Overexpression of HSF-1 inhibited NaB-induced differentiation as measured by alkaline phosphatase activity and carcinoembryonic antigen expression. These results suggest that increased expression of HSFs and Hsps might render colon carcinoma cells resistant to the chemopreventive effects of butyrate.
Here, we report on 7-nitro-4-(phenylthio) benzofurazan (NBF-SPh), the most potent derivative among a set of patented anticancer 7-nitrobenzofurazans (NBFs), which have been suggested to function by perturbing protein–protein interactions. We demonstrate that NBF-SPh participates in toxic redox-cycling, rapidly generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of molecular oxygen, and this is the first report to detail ROS production for any of the anticancer NBFs. Oxygraph studies showed that NBF-SPh consumes molecular oxygen at a substantial rate, rivaling even plumbagin, menadione, and juglone. Biochemical and enzymatic assays identified superoxide and hydrogen peroxide as products of its redox-cycling activity, and the rapid rate of ROS production appears to be sufficient to account for some of the toxicity of NBF-SPh (LC50 = 12.1 µM), possibly explaining why tumor cells exhibit a sharp threshold for tolerating the compound. In cell cultures, lipid peroxidation was enhanced after treatment with NBF-SPh, as measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, indicating a significant accumulation of ROS. Thioglycerol rescued cell death and increased survival by 15-fold to 20-fold, but pyruvate and uric acid were ineffective protectants. We also observed that the redox-cycling activity of NBF-SPh became exhausted after an average of approximately 19 cycles per NBF-SPh molecule. Electrochemical and computational analyses suggest that partial reduction of NBF-SPh enhances electrophilicity, which appears to encourage scavenging activity and contribute to electrophilic toxicity.
Benzofurazan; Reactive oxygen species; Oxidative stress; Electrochemistry; Electrophilic stress
Wnt-targeted gene therapy has been proposed as a treatment for human colorectal cancer (CRC). The Cre-Lox system consists of methodology for enhancing targeted expression from tissue-specific or cancer-specific promoters. We analyzed the efficiency of Wnt-specific promoters as drivers of the Cre-mediated activity of a luciferase reporter gene or cell death effector gene in CRC cell lines in the presence and absence of two modulators of Wnt activity, sodium butyrate and lithium chloride. Butyrate is present in the colonic lumen after digestion of fiber-rich foods, whereas the colonic lumen is readily accessible to lithium chloride. In both SW620 and HCT-116 CRC cells, a physiologically relevant concentration of butyrate upregulated reporter and effector activity and altered the Wnt-specific expression pattern. Lithium chloride markedly enhanced Cre-Lox-mediated Wnt-specific reporter expression only in APC wild-type CRC cells. Possibilities for genetic modulation of the proposed CRC therapy included Wnt-specific expression of a floxed Lef1-VP16 fusion that enhanced Wnt-specific cell death and of a floxed dominant-negative Tcf4 that specifically downregulated endogenous Wnt activity. These findings demonstrated that the Cre-Lox system, in combination with pharmacological and genetic modulators, represents effective methodology for enhancing Wnt-targeted gene therapy.
Inhibitors of protein synthesis capable of differential effects on nascent peptide synthesis on membrane-bound and free polyribosomes were employed to investigate the structure and function of cellular membranes of liver. The formation of membranous whorls in the cytoplasm and distension of nuclear membranes were induced by inhibitors of protein synthesis (i.e., cycloheximide and emetine) which predominantly interfere with nascent peptide synthesis on membrane-bound polyribosomes in situ. Other inhibitors of protein synthesis such as puromycin and fusidic acid, which inhibit nascent peptide synthesis on both free and membrane-bound polyribosomes, and chloramphenicol, which inhibits mitochondrial protein synthesis, did not induce these alterations. Cycloheximide, puromycin, and chloramphenicol produce some common cellular lesions as reflected by similar alterations in morphology, such as swelling of mitochondria, degranulation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and aggregation of free ribosomes. The process of whorl formation in the cytoplasm, the incorporation of [3H]leucine and of [3H]choline into endoplasmic reticulum and the total NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity of the endoplasmic reticulum were determined. During maximum formation of membranous whorls, [3H]leucine incorporation into cytoplasmic membranes was inhibited, while [3H]choline incorporation into these structures was increased; maximum inhibition of protein synthesis and stimulation of choline incorporation into endoplasmic reticulum, however, preceded whorl formation. Cycloheximide decreased the activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase of rough endoplasmic reticulum, but increased NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, cycloheximide decreased the content of hemoprotein in both the microsomal and mitochondrial fractions of rat liver, and the activities of mixed function oxidase and of oxidative phosphorylation were impaired to different degrees. Succinate-stimulated microsomal oxidation was also inhibited. The possible mechanisms involved in the formation of membranous whorls, as well as their functions, are discussed.