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1.  Role of Complement Activation in Obliterative Bronchiolitis Post Lung Transplantation 
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)  2013;191(8):10.4049/jimmunol.1202242.
Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) post lung transplantation involves IL-17 regulated autoimmunity to type V collagen and alloimmunity, which could be enhanced by complement activation. However, the specific role of complement activation in lung allograft pathology, IL-17 production, and OB are unknown. The current study examines the role of complement activation in OB. Complement regulatory protein (CRP) (CD55, CD46, Crry/CD46) expression was down regulated in human and murine OB; and C3a, a marker of complement activation, was up regulated locally. IL-17 differentially suppressed Crry expression in airway epithelial cells in vitro. Neutralizing IL-17 recovered CRP expression in murine lung allografts and decreased local C3a production. Exogenous C3a enhanced IL-17 production from alloantigen or autoantigen (type V collagen) reactive lymphocytes. Systemically neutralizing C5 abrogated the development of OB, reduced acute rejection severity, lowered systemic and local levels of C3a and C5a, recovered CRP expression, and diminished systemic IL-17 and IL-6 levels. These data indicated that OB induction is in part complement dependent due to IL-17 mediated down regulation of CRPs on airway epithelium. C3a and IL-17 are part of a feed forward loop that may enhance CRP down regulation, suggesting that complement blockade could be a therapeutic strategy for OB.
PMCID: PMC3873138  PMID: 24043901
2.  Peptide-Mediated Inhibition of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase–Activated Protein Kinase–2 Ameliorates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis 
Mitogen-activated protein kinase–activated protein kinase–2 (MAPKAPK2, or MK2), a serine/threonine kinase downstream of p38 mitogen–activated protein kinase, has been implicated in inflammation and fibrosis. Compared with pathologically normal lung tissue, significantly higher concentrations of activated MK2 are evident in lung biopsies of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Expression is localized to fibroblasts and epithelial cells. In the murine bleomycin model of pulmonary fibrosis, we observed robust, activated MK2 expression on Day 7 (prefibrotic stage) and Day 14 (postfibrotic stage). To determine the effects of MK2 inhibition during the postinflammatory/prefibrotic and postfibrotic stages, C57BL/6 mice received intratracheal bleomycin instillation (0.025 U; Day 0), followed by PBS or the MK2 inhibitor (MK2i; 37.5 μg/kg), administered via either local (nebulized) or systemic (intraperitoneal) routes. MK2i or PBS was dosed daily for 14 days subsequent to bleomycin injury, beginning on either Day 7 or Day 14. Regardless of mode of administration or stage of intervention, MK2i significantly abrogated collagen deposition, myofibroblast differentiation and activated MK2 expression. MK2i also decreased circulating TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations, and modulated the local mRNA expression of profibrotic cytokine il-1β, matrix-related genes col1a2, col3a1, and lox, and transforming growth factor–β family members, including smad3, serpine1 (pai1), and smad6/7. In vitro, MK2i dose-dependently attenuated total MK2, myofibroblast differentiation, the secretion of collagen Type I, fibronectin, and the activation of focal adhesion kinase, whereas activated MK2 was attenuated at optimal doses. The peptide-mediated inhibition of MK2 affects both inflammatory and fibrotic responses, and thus may offer a promising therapeutic target for IPF.
PMCID: PMC3727887  PMID: 23470623
MK2; IPF; established fibrosis; transforming growth factor–β; SMAD
3.  Small-Molecule Inhibition of the uPAR·uPA Interaction: Synthesis, Biochemical, Cellular, in vivo Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy Studies in Breast Cancer Metastasis 
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry  2013;21(7):2145-2155.
The uPAR·uPA protein-protein interaction (PPI) is involved in signaling and proteolytic events that promote tumor invasion and metastasis. A previous study had identified 4 (IPR-803) from computational screening of a commercial chemical library and shown that the compound inhibited uPAR·uPA PPI in competition biochemical assays and invasion cellular studies. Here, we synthesize 4 to evaluate in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) and efficacy studies in a murine breast cancer metastasis model. First, we show, using fluorescence polarization and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR, that 4 binds directly to uPAR with sub-micromolar affinity of 0.2 μM. We show that 4 blocks invasion of breast MDA-MB-231, and inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Derivatives of 4 also inhibited MMP activity and blocked invasion in a concentration-dependent manner. 4 also impaired MDA-MB-231 cell adhesion and migration. Extensive in vivo PK studies in NOD-SCID mice revealed a half-life of nearly 5 hours and peak concentration of 5 μM. Similar levels of the inhibitor were detected in tumor tissue up to 10 hours. Female NSG mice inoculated with highly malignant TMD-MDA-MB-231 in their mammary fat pads showed that 4 impaired metastasis to the lungs with only four of the treated mice showing severe or marked metastasis compared to ten for the untreated mice. Compound 4 is a promising template for the development of compounds with enhanced PK parameters and greater efficacy.
PMCID: PMC3625246  PMID: 23411397
4.  The Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Shp2, Positively Contributes to FLT3-ITD-Induced Hematopoietic Progenitor Hyperproliferation and Malignant Disease In Vivo 
Leukemia  2012;27(2):398-408.
Internal tandem duplications in the fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor (FLT3-ITDs) confer a poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. We hypothesized that increased recruitment of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, Shp2, to FLT3-ITDs contributes to FLT3 ligand (FL)-independent hyperproliferation and STAT5 activation. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated constitutive association of Shp2 with the FLT3-ITD, N51-FLT3, as well as with STAT5. Knock-down of Shp2 in Baf3/N51-FLT3 cells significantly reduced proliferation while having little effect on WT-FLT3-expressing cells. Consistently, mutation of N51-FLT3 tyrosine 599 to phenylalanine or genetic disruption of Shp2 in N51-FLT3-expressing bone marrow low density mononuclear cells reduced proliferation and STAT5 activation. In transplants, genetic disruption of Shp2 in vivo yielded increased latency to and reduced severity of FLT3-ITD-induced malignancy. Mechanistically, Shp2 co-localizes with nuclear phospho-STAT5, is present at functional interferon-γ activation sites (GAS) within the BCL2L1 promoter, and positively activates the human BCL2L1 promoter, suggesting that Shp2 works with STAT5 to promote pro-leukemogenic gene expression. Further, using a small molecule Shp2 inhibitor, the proliferation of N51-FLT3-expressing bone marrow progenitors and primary AML samples was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that Shp2 positively contributes to FLT3-ITD-induced leukemia and suggest that Shp2 inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic approach to acute myeloid leukemia.
PMCID: PMC3916934  PMID: 23103841
Acute Myeloid Leukemia; FLT3-ITD; Shp2; STAT5
5.  Type V Collagen Induced Tolerance Suppresses Collagen Deposition, TGF-β and Associated Transcripts in Pulmonary Fibrosis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76451.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal interstitial lung disease characterized by progressive scarring and matrix deposition. Recent reports highlight an autoimmune component in IPF pathogenesis. We have reported anti-col(V) immunity in IPF patients. The objective of our study was to determine the specificity of col(V) expression profile and anti-col(V) immunity relative to col(I) in clinical IPF and the efficacy of nebulized col(V) in pre-clinical IPF models.
Col(V) and col(I) expression profile was analyzed in normal human and IPF tissues. C57-BL6 mice were intratracheally instilled with bleomycin (0.025 U) followed by col(V) nebulization at pre-/post-fibrotic stage and analyzed for systemic and local responses.
Compared to normal lungs, IPF lungs had higher protein and transcript expression of the alpha 1 chain of col(V) and col(I). Systemic anti-col(V) antibody concentrations, but not of anti-col(I), were higher in IPF patients. Nebulized col(V), but not col(I), prevented bleomycin-induced fibrosis, collagen deposition, and myofibroblast differentiation. Col(V) treatment suppressed systemic levels of anti-col(V) antibodies, IL-6 and TNF-α; and local Il-17a transcripts. Compared to controls, nebulized col(V)-induced tolerance abrogated antigen-specific proliferation in mediastinal lymphocytes and production of IL-17A, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ. In a clinically relevant established fibrosis model, nebulized col(V) decreased collagen deposition. mRNA array revealed downregulation of genes specific to fibrosis (Tgf-β, Il-1β, Pdgfb), matrix (Acta2, Col1a2, Col3a1, Lox, Itgb1/6, Itga2/3) and members of the TGF-β superfamily (Tgfbr1/2, Smad2/3, Ltbp1, Serpine1, Nfkb/Sp1/Cebpb).
Anti-col(V) immunity is pathogenic in IPF, and col(V)-induced tolerance abrogates bleomycin-induced fibrogenesis and down regulates TGF- β-related signaling pathways.
PMCID: PMC3804565  PMID: 24204629
6.  Preclinical Models of Wound Healing: Is Man the Model? Proceedings of the Wound Healing Society Symposium 
Advances in Wound Care  2013;2(1):1-4.
A review of therapeutic effects in preclinical and clinical studies suggests that concordance between large animal (pig=78%), small laboratory animal (53%) and in vitro (57%) results with those observed in humans is only partial. Pig models of wound healing provide major advantages over other animal models. Since the vast majority of wound-healing research is done in rodents and in vitro, the low concordance rate is a significant impediment to research that will have any clinical impact.
Critical Issues
To generate clinically relevant experimental data, hypothesis generation should begin, or at least involve human wound tissue samples. Such tissue could be used to test a predetermined hypothesis generated based on, say, murine data. Alternatively, such tissue could be analyzed using high-throughput cell biology techniques (e.g., genomics, proteomics, or metabolomics) to identify novel mechanisms involved in human wounds. Once the hypothesis has been formulated and confirmed using human samples, identification of these same mechanisms in animals represents a valid approach that could be used for more in-depth investigations and experimental manipulations not feasible with humans.
Future Directions
This consensus statement issued by the Wound Healing Society symposium strongly encourages all wound researchers to involve human wound tissue validation studies to make their animal and cell biology studies more translationally and clinically significant.
PMCID: PMC3840478  PMID: 24527316
7.  Allergic Airway Disease in Mice Alters T and B Cell Responses during an Acute Respiratory Poxvirus Infection 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e62222.
Pulmonary viral infections can exacerbate or trigger the development of allergic airway diseases via multiple mechanisms depending upon the infectious agent. Respiratory vaccinia virus transmission is well established, yet the effects of allergic airway disease on the host response to intra-pulmonary vaccinia virus infection remain poorly defined. As shown here BALB/c mice with preexisting airway disease infected with vaccinia virus developed more severe pulmonary inflammation, higher lung virus titers and greater weight loss compared with mice inoculated with virus alone. This enhanced viremia was observed despite increased pulmonary recruitment of CD8+ T effectors, greater IFNγ production in the lung, and high serum levels of anti-viral antibodies. Notably, flow cytometric analyses of lung CD8+ T cells revealed a shift in the hierarchy of immunodominant viral epitopes in virus inoculated mice with allergic airway disease compared to mice treated with virus only. Pulmonary IL-10 production by T cells and antigen presenting cells was detected following virus inoculation of animals and increased dramatically in allergic mice exposed to virus. IL-10 modulation of host responses to this respiratory virus infection was greatly influenced by the localized pulmonary microenvironment. Thus, blocking IL-10 signaling in virus-infected mice with allergic airway disease enhanced pulmonary CD4+ T cell production of IFNγ and increased serum anti-viral IgG1 levels. In contrast, pulmonary IFNγ and virus-specific IgG1 levels were reduced in vaccinia virus-treated mice with IL-10 receptor blockade. These observations demonstrate that pre-existing allergic lung disease alters the quality and magnitude of immune responses to respiratory poxviruses through an IL-10-dependent mechanism.
PMCID: PMC3631162  PMID: 23620814
8.  Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47873.
Epidemiological studies suggest that mushroom intake is inversely correlated with gastric, gastrointestinal and breast cancers. We have recently demonstrated anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene extract isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether GLT prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice.
Methods/Principal Findings
Colon carcinogenesis was induced by the food-borne carcinogen (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine [PhIP]) and inflammation (dextran sodium sulfate [DSS]) in mice. Mice were treated with 0, 100, 300 and 500 mg GLT/kg of body weight 3 times per week for 4 months. Cell proliferation, expression of cyclin D1 and COX-2 and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of GLT on XRE/AhR, PXR and rPXR was evaluated by the reporter gene assays. Expression of metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2, CYP3A1 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. GLT treatment significantly suppressed focal hyperplasia, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and tumor formation in mice exposed to PhIP/DSS. The anti-proliferative effects of GLT were further confirmed by the decreased staining with Ki-67 in colon tissues. PhIP/DSS-induced colon inflammation was demonstrated by the significant shortening of the large intestine and macrophage infiltrations, whereas GLT treatment prevented the shortening of colon lengths, and reduced infiltration of macrophages in colon tissue. GLT treatment also significantly down-regulated PhIP/DSS-dependent expression of cyclin D1, COX-2, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue.
Our data suggest that GLT could be considered as an alternative dietary approach for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer.
PMCID: PMC3484149  PMID: 23118901
9.  Virtual Screening Targeting the Urokinase Receptor, Biochemical and Cell-Based Studies, Synthesis, Pharmacokinetic Characterization, and Effect on Breast Tumor Metastasis 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2011;54(20):7193-7205.
Virtual screening targeting the urokinase receptor (uPAR) led to (3R)-4-cyclohexyl-3-(hexahydrobenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-N-((hexahydrobenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)methyl)butan-1-aminium 1 (IPR-1) and 4-(4-((3,5-dimethylcyclohexyl)carbamoyl)-2-(4-isopropylcyclohexyl)pyrazolidin-3-yl)piperidin-1-ium 3 (IPR-69). Synthesis of an analog of 1, namely 2 (IPR-9), and 3 led to breast MDA-MB-231 invasion, migration and adhesion assays with IC50 near 30 μM. Both compounds blocked angiogenesis with IC50 of 3 μM. Compounds 2 and 3 inhibited cell growth with IC50 of 6 and 18 μM and induced apoptosis. Biochemical assays revealed lead-like properties for 3, but not 2. Compound 3 administered orally reached peak concentration of nearly 40 μM with a half-life of about 2 hours. In NOD-SCID mice inoculated with breast TMD-231 cells in their mammary fat pads, compound 3 showed a 20% reduction in tumor volumes and less extensive metastasis was observed for the treated mice. The suitable pharmacokinetic properties of 3 and the encouraging preliminary results in metastasis make it an ideal starting point for next generation compounds.
PMCID: PMC3280887  PMID: 21851064
10.  BreastDefend™ prevents breast-to-lung cancer metastases in an orthotopic animal model of triple-negative human breast cancer 
Oncology Reports  2012;28(4):1139-1145.
We have recently demonstrated that a natural dietary supplement BreastDefend (BD), which contains extracts from medicinal mushrooms (Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus linteus), medicinal herbs (Scutellaria barbata, Astragalus membranaceus, Curcuma longa), and purified biologically active nutritional compounds (diindolylmethane and quercetin), inhibits proliferation and metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 invasive human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated whether BD suppresses growth and breast-to lung cancer metastasis in an orthotopic model of human breast cancer cells implanted in mice. Oral application of BD (100 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks) by intragastric gavage did not affect body weight or activity of liver enzymes and did not show any sign of toxicity in liver, spleen, kidney, lung and heart tissues in mice. Moreover, BD significantly decreased the change in tumor volume over time compared to the control group (p=0.002). BD treatment also markedly decreased the incidence of breast-to-lung cancer metastasis from 67% (control) to 20% (BD) (p<0.05) and the number of metastases from 2.8 (0.0, 48.0) in the control group to 0.0 (0.0, 14.2) in the BD treatment group (p<0.05). Finally, anti-metastatic activity of BD in vivo was further confirmed by the downregulation of expression of PLAU (urokinase plasminogen activator, uPA) and CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor-4) genes in breast tumors. In conclusion, BD may be considered as a biological therapeutic agent against invasive breast cancers.
PMCID: PMC3583511  PMID: 22842551
triple negative breast cancer cells; lung cancer metastasis; dietary supplement; urokinase plasminogen activator; C-X-C chemokine receptor-4
The Prostate  2010;71(7):748-754.
Proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an important role in DNA replication and repair. The expression and potential utility of this marker in prostatic neoplasia is uncertain. With the development of this new caPCNA selective antibody, we explored the potential utility of this marker in prostate cancer.
Using a traditional primary Fab2′ rabbit anti-caPCNA antibody-HRP conjugated secondary anti-Fab2′ antibody format, the expression of the caPCNA was analyzed in prostate tissue from 89 radical prostatectomy specimens. The caPCNA expression was correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics.
The fraction of cells staining positively with caPCNA antibody in prostatic adenocarcinoma (mean, 23%) was significantly higher than that in benign prostatic epithelium (mean, 2%; p < 0.001) or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) (mean, 6%; p < 0.05). Moreover, the intensity of caPCNA expression in prostatic adenocarcinoma (mean, 2.9) was significantly higher than that in benign prostatic tissue (mean, 0.7; p < 0.001) or high-grade PIN (mean, 2.0; p < 0.001). Benign prostatic epithelium showed only minimal or negative reactivity. There was significant correlation between the percentage of caPCNA expression and primary Gleason grade (p = 0.01), and with Gleason score (p = 0.02). Adenocarcinomas with positive vascular invasion had a significantly higher percentage of cells staining with caPCNA antibody (p < 0.0001) and a higher intensity of caPCNA expression (p = 0.04).
Our data indicate that increased expression of the cancer-associated isoform of PCNA is common in prostatic adenocarcinoma and its precursor and may be a useful biomarker.
PMCID: PMC3116049  PMID: 21031434
Prostate; biomarkers; proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA); Gleason grading; neoplasia; high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN); targeted therapy; progression; carcinogenesis
12.  High quality DNA obtained with an automated DNA extraction method with 70+ year old formalin-fixed celloidin-embedded (FFCE) blocks from the indiana medical history museum 
DNA and RNA have been used as markers of tissue quality and integrity throughout the last few decades. In this research study, genomic quality DNA of kidney, liver, heart, lung, spleen, and brain were analyzed in tissues from post-mortem patients and surgical cancer cases spanning the past century. DNA extraction was performed on over 180 samples from: 70+ year old formalin-fixed celloidin-embedded (FFCE) tissues, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from surgical cases and post-mortem cases from the 1970’s, 1980’s, 1990’s, and 2000’s, tissues fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin/stored in 70% ethanol from the 1990’s, 70+ year old tissues fixed in unbuffered formalin of various concentrations, and fresh tissue as a control. To extract DNA from FFCE samples and ethanol-soaked samples, a modified standard operating procedure was used in which all tissues were homogenized, digested with a proteinase K solution for a long period of time (24-48 hours), and DNA was extracted using the Autogen Flexstar automated extraction machine. To extract DNA from FFPE, all tissues were soaked in xylene to remove the paraffin from the tissue prior to digestion, and FFPE tissues were not homogenized. The results were as follows: celloidin-embedded and paraffin-embedded tissues yielded the highest DNA concentration and greatest DNA quality, while the formalin in various concentrations, and long term formalin/ethanol-stored tissue yielded both the lowest DNA concentration and quality of the tissues tested. The average DNA yield for the various fixatives was: 367.77 μg/ mL FFCE, 590.7 μg/mL FFPE, 53.74 μg/mL formalin-fixed/70% ethanol-stored and 33.2 μg/mL unbuffered formalin tissues. The average OD readings for FFCE, FFPE, formalin-fixed/70% ethanol-stored tissues, and tissues fixed in unbuffered formalin were 1.86, 1.87, 1.43, and 1.48 respectively. The results show that usable DNA can be extracted from tissue fixed in formalin and embedded in celloidin or paraffin from the early 1900’s to present, and may be amplified through PCR and used for clinical and experimental studies.
PMCID: PMC3353536  PMID: 22611472
DNA; celloidin; museum specimens
13.  NAHA, a Novel Hydroxamic Acid-Derivative, Inhibits Growth and Angiogenesis of Breast Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e34283.
We have recently synthesized novel N-alkylated amino acid-derived hydroxamate, 2-[Benzyl-(2-nitro-benzenesulfonyl)-amino]-N-hydroxy-3-methyl-N-propyl-butyramide (NAHA). Here, we evaluate the anticancer activity of NAHA against highly invasive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Cell growth was evaluated by MTT and soft agar assays. Protein expression was determined by DNA microarray and Western blot analysis. Metastatic potential was evaluated by cell adhesion, migration, invasion, capillary morphogenesis, and ELISA assays. The anticancer activity in vivo was evaluated in mouse xenograft model. NAHA inhibited proliferation and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells together with the down-regulation of expression of Cdk2 and CDC20 proteins. NAHA inhibited cell adhesion, migration, and invasion through the suppression of secretion of uPA. NAHA suppressed secretion of VEGF from MDA-MB-231 cells and inhibited capillary morphogenesis of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Finally, NAHA at 50 mg/kg was not toxic and decreased tumor volume and tumor weight in vivo. This suppression of tumor growth was associated with the inhibition of mitotic figures and induction of apoptosis, and the reduction of CD31 and VEGF positive cells in tumors.
NAHA could be a novel promising compound for the development of new drugs for the therapy of invasive breast cancers.
PMCID: PMC3315582  PMID: 22479587
14.  Tissue-specific alterations of PRL-1 and PRL-2 expression in cancer 
The PRL-1 and PRL-2 phosphatases have been implicated as oncogenic, however the involvement of these molecules in human neoplasms is not well understood. To increase understanding of the role PRL-1 and PRL-2 play in the neoplastic process, in situ hybridization was used to examine PRL-1 and PRL-2 mRNA expression in 285 normal, benign, and malignant human tissues of diverse origin. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on a subset of these. PRL-1 and PRL-2 mRNA expression was also assessed in a small set of samples from a variety of diseases other than cancer. Where possible, associations with clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. Alterations in PRL-1 or -2 expression were a frequent event, but the nature of those alterations was highly tumor type specific. PRL-1 was significantly overexpressed in 100% of hepatocellular and gastric carcinomas, but significantly under-expressed in 100% of ovarian, 80% of breast, and 75% of lung tumors. PRL-2 expression was significantly increased in 100% of hepatocellular carcinomas, yet significantly downregulated in 54% of kidney carcinomas. PRL-1 expression was correlated to patient gender in the bladder and to patient age in the brain and skeletal muscle. PRL-1 expression was also associated with tumor grade in the prostate, ovary, and uterus. These results suggest a pleiotropic role for PRL-1 and PRL-2 in the neoplastic process. These molecules may associate with tumor progression and serve as clinical markers of tumor aggressiveness in some tissues, but be involved in inhibition of tumor formation or growth in others.
PMCID: PMC3276379  PMID: 22347524
Phosphatase of regenerating liver; PRL-1; PRL-2; in situ hybridization; cancer
15.  Reduced Expression of DNA Repair and Redox Signaling Protein APE1/Ref-1 Impairs Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Survival, Proliferation, and Cell Cycle Progression 
Cancer investigation  2010;28(9):885-895.
Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease that is virtually never cured. Understanding the chemoresistance intrinsic to this cancer will aid in developing new regimens. High expression of APE1/Ref-1, a DNA repair and redox signaling protein, is associated with resistance, poor outcome, and angiogenesis; little is known in pancreatic cancer. Immunostaining of adenocarcinoma shows greater APE1/Ref-1 expression than in normal pancreas tissue. A decrease in APE1/Ref-1 protein levels results in pancreatic cancer cell growth inhibition, increased apoptosis, and altered cell cycle progression. Endogenous cell cycle inhibitors increase when APE1/Ref-1 is reduced, demonstrating its importance to proliferation and growth of pancreatic cancer.
PMCID: PMC2966714  PMID: 20919954
Pancreatic cancer; APE1/Ref-1; siRNA; cell cycle
16.  New insights into the protein C pathway: potential implications for the biological activities of drotrecogin alfa (activated) 
Critical Care  2005;9(Suppl 4):S38-S45.
It has been hypothesized that the protein C pathway is a pivotal link between the inflammation and coagulation cascades. The demonstration that a survival benefit is associated with administration of drotrecogin alfa (activated) (recombinant human activated protein C [APC]) in severe sepsis patients has provided new insights into the protein C pathway. APC was originally identified based on its antithrombotic properties, which result from the inhibition of activated Factors V and VIII. In the early 1990s, any potential anti-inflammatory properties of APC were thought to relate primarily to its inhibition of thrombin generation. However, the mid-1990s saw the identification of the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), which has subsequently been shown to be neither endothelial specific nor protein C specific, but has a primary function as a cofactor for enhancing the generation of APC or behaving as an APC receptor. Thus, the potential biologic activities of APC can be classed into two categories related either to the limiting of thrombin generation or to cellular effects initiated by binding to the EPCR. Intracellular signaling initiated by binding of APC to its receptor appears to be mediated by interaction with an adjacent protease-activated receptor (PAR), or by indirect activation of the sphingosine 1-phosphate pathway. Based mostly on in vitro studies, binding of APC to its receptor on endothelial cells leads to a decrease in thrombin-induced endothelial permeability injury, while such binding on blood cells, epithelial cells, and neurons has been shown to inhibit chemotaxis, be anti-apoptotic, and be neuroprotective, respectively. In the Recombinant Human Activated Protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) study, drotrecogin alfa (activated) was associated with improved cardiovascular function, respiratory function, and a prevention of hematologic dysfunction. This article discusses the way in which the interactions of APC may alter the microcirculation.
PMCID: PMC3226161  PMID: 16168074
17.  FGF-21 as a novel metabolic regulator 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2005;115(6):1627-1635.
Diabetes mellitus is a major health concern, affecting more than 5% of the population. Here we describe a potential novel therapeutic agent for this disease, FGF-21, which was discovered to be a potent regulator of glucose uptake in mouse 3T3-L1 and primary human adipocytes. FGF-21–transgenic mice were viable and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Therapeutic administration of FGF-21 reduced plasma glucose and triglycerides to near normal levels in both ob/ob and db/db mice. These effects persisted for at least 24 hours following the cessation of FGF-21 administration. Importantly, FGF-21 did not induce mitogenicity, hypoglycemia, or weight gain at any dose tested in diabetic or healthy animals or when overexpressed in transgenic mice. Thus, we conclude that FGF-21, which we have identified as a novel metabolic factor, exhibits the therapeutic characteristics necessary for an effective treatment of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC1088017  PMID: 15902306

Results 1-18 (18)