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1.  Disulfiram Suppresses Growth of the Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Cells in Part by Inducing Apoptosis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93711.
Dithiocarbamate compound Disulfiram (DSF) that binds with copper and functions as an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase is a Food and Drug Administration approved agent for treatment of alcoholism. Copper complexed DSF (DSF-Cu) also possesses anti-tumor and chemosensitizing properties; however, its molecular mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here we investigated malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) suppressive effects of DSF-Cu and the molecular mechanisms involved. DSF-Cu inhibited growth of the murine as well as human MPM cells in part by increasing levels of ubiquitinated proteins. DSF-Cu exposure stimulated apoptosis in MPM cells that involved activation of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK1/2, caspase-3, and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase, as well as increased expression of sulfatase 1 and apoptosis transducing CARP-1/CCAR1 protein. Gene-array based analyses revealed that DSF-Cu suppressed cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including matrix metallopeptidase 3 and 10. DSF inhibited MPM cell growth and survival by upregulating cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1, IGFBP7, and inhibitors of NF-κB such as ABIN 1 and 2 and Inhibitory κB (IκB)α and β proteins. DSF-Cu promoted cleavage of vimentin, as well as serine-phosphorylation and lysine-63 linked ubiquitination of podoplanin. Administration of 50 mg/kg DSF-Cu by daily i.p injections inhibited growth of murine MPM cell-derived tumors in vivo. Although podoplanin expression often correlates with metastatic disease and poor prognosis, phosphorylation of serines in cytoplasmic domain of podoplanin has recently been shown to interfere with cellular motility and migration signaling. Post-translational modification of podoplanin and cleavage of vimentin by DSF-Cu underscore a metastasis inhibitory property of this agent and together with our in vivo studies underscore its potential as an anti-MPM agent.
PMCID: PMC3972204  PMID: 24690739
2.  Curcumin suppresses growth of mesothelioma cells in vitro and in vivo, in part, by stimulating apoptosis 
Molecular and cellular biochemistry  2011;357(0):10.1007/s11010-011-0878-2.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive, asbestos-related malignancy of the thoracic pleura. Although, platinum-based agents are the first line of therapy, there is an urgent need for second-line therapies to treat the drug-resistant MPM. Cell cycle as well as apoptosis pathways are frequently altered in MPM and thus remain attractive targets for intervention strategies. Curcumin, the major component in the spice turmeric, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutics has been under investigation for a number of cancers. In this study, we investigated the biological and molecular responses of MPM cells to curcumin treatments and the mechanisms involved. Flow-cytometric analyses coupled with western immunoblotting and gene-array analyses were conducted to determine mechanisms of curcumin-dependent growth suppression of human (H2373, H2452, H2461, and H226) and murine (AB12) MPM cells. Curcumin inhibited MPM cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner while pretreatment of MPM cells with curcumin enhanced cisplatin efficacy. Curcumin activated the stress-activated p38 kinase, caspases 9 and 3, caused elevated levels of proapoptotic proteins Bax, stimulated PARP cleavage, and apoptosis. In addition, curcumin treatments stimulated expression of novel transducers of cell growth suppression such as CARP-1, XAF1, and SULF1 proteins. Oral administration of curcumin inhibited growth of murine MPM cell-derived tumors in vivo in part by stimulating apoptosis. Thus, curcumin targets cell cycle and promotes apoptosis to suppress MPM growth in vitro and in vivo. Our studies provide a proof-of-principle rationale for further in-depth analysis of MPM growth suppression mechanisms and their future exploitation in effective management of resistant MPM.
PMCID: PMC3809898  PMID: 21594647
Malignant pleural mesothelioma; Curcumin; Apoptosis; Gene expression
3.  Cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1 is a novel, adriamycin-inducible, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) growth suppressor 
Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology  2010;67(6):10.1007/s00280-010-1442-6.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCL) accounts for 30–40% of adult non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL). Current anti-NHL therapies often target cellular growth suppression pathways and include R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone plus monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab). However, since many patients relapse, resistant cells to these therapies remain a significant problem and necessitate development of new intervention strategies. Cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1 functions in a biphasic manner to regulate growth factor as well as chemotherapy (adriamycin, etoposide, or iressa)-dependent signaling.
To determine whether CARP-1 is a novel suppressor of lymphoma growth.
Flow cytometric analyses coupled with Western immunoblotting, cell growth, apoptosis, and immunocytochemistry methodologies were utilized to determine CARP-1-dependent lymphoma growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo.
CARP-1 expression correlated with activated caspase-3 and inversely correlated with activated Akt in DLCL. Exposure to adriamycin stimulated CARP-1 expression and inhibited growth of Raji cells, but not CHOP-resistant WSU-DLCL2 cells. Expression of wild-type CARP-1 or its apoptosis-inducing mutants inhibited growth of Raji as well as CHOP-resistant WSU-DLCL2 cells, in part by activating caspase-9 and apoptosis. Since CARP-1 harbors multiple, apoptosis-promoting subdomains, we investigated whether epigenetic compensation of CARP-1 function by intracellular delivery of trans-activator of transcription (TAT) domain-tagged CARP-1 peptide(s) will inhibit lymphoma growth. Treatments with TAT-tagged CARP-1 peptides suppressed growth of the Raji and WSU-DLCL2 cells by stimulating apoptosis. TAT-CARP-1 (1–198) as well as (896–1150) peptides also suppressed growth of WSU-DLCL2 cell-derived tumor xenografts in SCID mice, while administration of TAT-CARP-1 (1–198) also inhibited growth of WSU-FSCCL cell-derived ascites and prolonged host survival.
CARP-1 is a suppressor of NHL growth and could be exploited for targeting the resistant DLCL.
PMCID: PMC3809905  PMID: 20809119
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; CARP-1; Apoptosis; Xenografts
4.  Reactivation of Estrogen Receptor α by Vorinostat Sensitizes Mesenchymal-Like Triple-Negative Breast Cancer to Aminoflavone, a Ligand of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74525.
Aminoflavone (AF) acts as a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR-mediated transcriptional induction of CYP1A1 can sensitize breast cancer cells to AF. The objective of this study was to investigate the combined antitumor effect of AF and the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat for treating mesenchymal-like triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) as well as the underlying mechanisms of such treatment.
In vitro antiproliferative activity of AFP464 (AF prodrug) in breast cancer cell lines was evaluated by MTS assay. In vitro, the combined effect of AFP464 and vorinostat on cell proliferation was assessed by the Chou-Talalay method. In vivo, antitumor activity of AFP464, given alone and in combination with vorinostat, was studied using TNBC xenograft models. Knockdown of ERα was performed using specific, small-interfering RNA. Western blot, quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to study the mechanisms underlying the combined antitumor effect.
Luminal and basal A subtype breast cancer cell lines were sensitive to AFP464, whereas basal B subtype or mesenchymal-like TNBC cells were resistant. Vorinostat sensitized mesenchymal-like TNBC MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells to AFP464. It also potentiated the antitumor activity of AFP464 in a xenograft model using MDA-MB-231 cells. In vitro and in vivo mechanistic studies suggested that vorinostat reactivated ERα expression and restored AhR-mediated transcriptional induction of CYP1A1.
The response of breast cancer cells to AF or AFP464 was associated with their gene expression profile. Vorinostat sensitized mesenchymal-like TNBC to AF, at least in part, by reactivating ERα expression and restoring the responsiveness of AhR to AF.
PMCID: PMC3772827  PMID: 24058584
5.  Therapeutic targeting malignant mesothelioma with a novel 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-D]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolate via its selective uptake by the proton-coupled folate transporter 
The 5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolate pemetrexed (Pmx) is an active agent for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Pmx is transported into MPM cells by the reduced folate carrier (RFC) and proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). We tested the notion that a novel 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolate (compound 2) might be an effective treatment for MPM, reflecting its highly selective membrane transport by PCFT over RFC. Compound 2 selectively inhibited proliferation of a HeLa subline expressing exclusively PCFT (R1-11-PCFT4) over an isogenic subline expressing only RFC (R1-11-RFC6). By outgrowth, H2452 human MPM cells were highly sensitive to the inhibitory effects of compound 2. By colony-forming assays, following an intermittent (24 h) drug exposure, 2 was cytotoxic. Cytotoxic activity by 2 was due to potent inhibition of glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase) in de novo purine biosynthesis, as confirmed by nucleoside protection and in situ GARFTase assays with [14C]glycine. Assays with [3H]compound 2 and R1-11-PCFT4 or R1-11-RFC6 cells directly confirmed selective membrane transport by PCFT over RFC. PCFT transport was also confirmed for H2452 cells. In R1-11-PCFT4 and H2452 cells, [3H]compound 2 was metabolized to polyglutamates. Potent in vivo efficacy was confirmed toward early- and upstage H2452 xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice administered intravenous compound 2. Our results demonstrate potent antitumor efficacy of compound 2 toward H2452 MPM in vitro and in vivo, reflecting its efficient membrane transport by PCFT over RFC, synthesis of polyglutamates, and inhibition of GARFTase. Selectivity for non-RFC cellular uptake processes by novel tumor-targeted antifolates such as compound 2 presents an exciting new opportunity for treating solid tumors.
PMCID: PMC3769948  PMID: 23412628
proton-coupled folate transporter; mesothelioma; folate; antifolate; pemetrexed
6.  Cullin-3 protein expression levels correlate with breast cancer progression 
Cancer Biology & Therapy  2012;13(11):1042-1046.
Cullin-3 is a component of the Cullin-Ring ubiquitin ligase (CRL) family that plays an important role in mediating protein degradation. Deregulation of Cullin-3 expression has been observed in human cancers; however, a role for Cullin-3 in tumor progression has not been previously recognized. Using the human breast cancer xenograft model, we show that Cullin-3 is increasingly expressed during progression from comedo ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinomas. Cullin-3 protein is not detected in early lesions but is noticeably increased in DCIS tumors and significantly overexpressed in invasive cancers. In experimental metastasis assays, high expression of Cullin-3 was observed in the lung site. Importantly, Cullin-3 staining is detected in human breast cancer tissues, not in normal breast tissues and its expression level positively correlates with tumor stage. These data suggest that Cullin-3 may play an important role in tumor progression from DCIS to invasive cancer and may serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of aggressive breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC3461811  PMID: 22825334
breast cancer; cullin-3; DCIS; tumor progression; ubiquitin-proteasome pathway
7.  CARP-1 Functional Mimetics: A Novel Class of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Medulloblastoma Cell Growth 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66733.
Medulloblastomas (MBs) constitute an aggressive class of intracranial pediatric tumors. Current multimodality treatments for MBs include surgery, ionizing radiation, and chemotherapy. Toxic side effects of therapies coupled with high incidence of recurrence and the metastatic spread warrant development of more effective, less toxic therapies for this disease. CARP-1/CCAR1 is a peri-nuclear phospho-protein that is a co-activator of the cell cycle regulatory anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel class of small molecule compounds that interfere with CARP-1 binding with APC/C subunit APC-2, and suppress growth of a variety of cancer cells in part by promoting apoptosis. Here we investigated MB growth inhibitory potential of the CFMs and found that CFM-4 inhibits growth of MB cells in part by inducing CARP-1 expression, promoting PARP cleavage, activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) p38 and JNK, and apoptosis. Gene-array-based analysis of the CFM-4-treated Daoy MB cells indicated down-regulation of a number of key cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including cell motility regulating small GTP binding protein p21Rac1, and extracellular matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-10. Moreover, CFM-4 treatment stimulated expression of a number of molecules such as neurotrophin (NTF)3, and NF-κB signaling inhibitors ABIN1 and 2 proteins. Overexpression of NTF3 resulted in reduced MB cell viability while knock-down of NTF3 interfered with CFM-4-dependent loss of viability. CFMs also attenuated biological properties of the MB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Together our data support anti-MB properties of CFM-4, and provide a proof-of-concept basis for further development of CFMs as potential anti-cancer agents for MBs.
PMCID: PMC3691183  PMID: 23826121
8.  Correction: Withaferin A Inhibits the Proteasome Activity in Mesothelioma In Vitro and In Vivo 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):10.1371/annotation/1f7766a6-35da-4d34-b07b-4c06667bdbec.
PMCID: PMC3580221
9.  Synthesis, biological and antitumor activity of a highly potent 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolate inhibitor with proton-coupled folate transporter and folate receptor selectivity over the reduced folate carrier that inhibits β-glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2011;54(20):7150-7164.
2-Amino-4-oxo-6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates with a thienoyl side chain (compounds 1–3, respectively) were synthesized for comparison with compound 4, the previous lead compound of this series. Conversion of hydroxyl acetylen-thiophene carboxylic esters to thiophenyl-α-bromomethylketones and condensation with 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine afforded the 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine compounds of type 18 and 19. Coupling with L-glutamate diethyl ester, followed by saponification, afforded 1–3. Compound 3 selectively inhibited proliferation of cells expressing folate receptors (FRs) α or β, or the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), including human tumor cells KB and IGROV1 much more potently than 4. Compound 3 was more inhibitory than 4 toward β-glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase). Both 3 and 4 depleted cellular ATP pools. In SCID mice with IGROV1 tumors, 3 was more efficacious than 4. Collectively, our results show potent antitumor activity for 3 in vitro and in vivo, associated with its selective membrane transport by FRs and PCFT over RFC and inhibition of GARFTase, clearly establishing the 3-atom bridge as superior to the 1, 2 and 4-atom bridge lengths for the activity of this series.
PMCID: PMC3209708  PMID: 21879757
10.  Identification and Biological Activities of New Taccalonolide Microtubule Stabilizers 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2011;54(17):6117-6124.
The taccalonolides are a unique class of microtubule stabilizers that do not bind directly to tubulin. Three new taccalonolides, Z, AA and AB, along with two known compounds, taccalonolides R and T, were isolated from Tacca chantrieri and Tacca integrifolia. Taccalonolide structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR methods. The biological activities of the new taccalonolides, as well as taccalonolides A, B, E, N, R and T, were evaluated. All nine taccalonolides display microtubule stabilizing activity, but profound differences in antiproliferative potencies were noted, with IC50 values ranging from the low nanomolar range for taccalonolide AA (32 nM) to the low micromolar range for taccalonolide R (13 µM). These studies demonstrate that diverse taccalonolides possess microtubule stabilizing properties and that significant structure-activity relationships exist. In vivo antitumor evaluations of taccalonolides A, E and N show that each of these molecules has in vivo antitumor activity.
PMCID: PMC3180930  PMID: 21800839
11.  Withaferin A Inhibits the Proteasome Activity in Mesothelioma In Vitro and In Vivo 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e41214.
The medicinal plant Withania somnifera has been used for over centuries in Indian Ayurvedic Medicine to treat a wide spectrum of disorders. Withaferin A (WA), a bioactive compound that is isolated from this plant, has anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer properties. Here we investigated malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) suppressive effects of WA and the molecular mechanisms involved. WA inhibited growth of the murine as well as patient-derived MPM cells in part by decreasing the chymotryptic activity of the proteasome that resulted in increased levels of ubiquitinated proteins and pro-apoptotic proteasome target proteins (p21, Bax, IκBα). WA suppression of MPM growth also involved elevated apoptosis as evidenced by activation of pro-apoptotic p38 stress activated protein kinase (SAPK) and caspase-3, elevated levels of pro-apoptotic Bax protein and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP). Our studies including gene-array based analyses further revealed that WA suppressed a number of cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including c-myc. WA treatments also stimulated expression of the cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1/CCAR1, a novel transducer of cell growth signaling. Knock-down of CARP-1, on the other hand, interfered with MPM growth inhibitory effects of WA. Intra-peritoneal administration of 5 mg/kg WA daily inhibited growth of murine MPM cell-derived tumors in vivo in part by inhibiting proteasome activity and stimulating apoptosis. Together our in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that WA suppresses MPM growth by targeting multiple pathways that include blockage of proteasome activity and stimulation of apoptosis, and thus holds promise as an anti-MPM agent.
PMCID: PMC3422308  PMID: 22912669
12.  The E3 ligase Itch and deubiquitinase Cyld co-operatively regulate Tak1 and inflammation 
Nature Immunology  2011;12(12):1176-1183.
Chronic inflammation has been strongly associated with tumor progression, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that E3 ligase Itch and deubiquitinase Cyld form a complex via the interaction through ‘WW-PPXY’ motifs. The Itch-Cyld complex sequentially cleaved K63-linked ubiquitin chains and catalyzed K48-linked ubiquitination on the kinase Tak1 to terminate inflammatory tumor necrosis factor signaling. Reconstitution of wild-type Cyld but not mutant Cyld(Y485A), which cannot associate with Itch, blocked the sustained Tak1 activation and proinflammatory cytokine production by Cyld−/− bone marrow-derived macrophages. Itch or Cyld deficiency resulted in chronic production of tumor-promoting cytokines by the tumor-associated macrophages and aggressive growth of lung carcinoma. Thus, we have uncovered an Itch-Cyld mediated regulatory mechanism in innate inflammatory cells.
PMCID: PMC3219826  PMID: 22057290
13.  Synthesis and biological activity of a novel series of 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolate inhibitors of purine biosynthesis with selectivity for high affinity folate receptors and the proton-coupled folate transporter over the reduced folate carrier for cellular entry† 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2010;53(3):1306-1318.
2-Amino-4-oxo-6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines with a thienoyl side chain and 4-6 carbon bridge lengths (compounds 1-3) were synthesized as substrates for folate receptors (FRs) and the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). Conversion of acetylene carboxylic acids to α-bromomethylketones and condensation with 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine afforded the 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines. Sonogashira coupling with (S)-2-[(5-bromo-thiophene-2-carbonyl)-amino]-pentanedioic acid diethyl ester, followed by hydrogenation and saponification, afforded 1-3. Compounds 1 and 2 potently inhibited KB and IGROV1 human tumor cells that express FRα, reduced folate carrier (RFC), and PCFT. The analogs were selective for FR- and PCFT over RFC. Glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase was the principal cellular target. In SCID mice with KB tumors, 1 was highly active against both early (3.5 log kill, 1/5 cures) and advanced (3.7 log kill, 4/5 complete remissions) stage tumors. Our results demonstrate potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity for 1 due to selective transport by FRs and PCFT over RFC.
PMCID: PMC2836843  PMID: 20085328
14.  The role of autophagy in the death of L1210 leukemia cells initiated by the new antitumor agents, XK469 and SH80 
Molecular cancer therapeutics  2007;6(1):370-379.
The phenoxypropionic acid derivative 2-{4-[(7-chloro-2-quinoxalinyl)oxy]phenoxy}propionic acid (XK469) and an analogue termed 2-{4-[(7-bromo-2-quinalinyl)oxy]phenoxy}-propionic acid (SH80) can eradicate malignant cell types resistant to many common antitumor agents. Colony formation assays indicated that a 24 h exposure of L1210 cells to XK469 or SH80 inhibited clonogenic growth with CI90 values of 10 and 13 μmol/L, respectively. This effect was associated with G2-M arrest and the absence of any detectable markers of apoptosis (i.e., plasma membrane blebbing, procaspase 3 activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and formation of condensed chromatin). Drug-treated cells increased in size and eventually exhibited the characteristics of autophagy (i.e., appearance of autophagosomes and conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-I to 3-II). The absence of apoptosis was not related to an inhibition of the apoptotic program. Cultures treated with XK469 or SH80 readily underwent apoptosis upon exposure to the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL antagonist ethyl 2-amino-6-bromo-4-(1-cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl)-4H-chromene-3-carboxylate. Continued incubation of drug-treated cells led to a reciprocal loss of large autophagic cells and the appearance of smaller cells that could not be stained with Höechst dye HO33342, had a chaotic morphology, were trypan blue – permeable, and lacked mitochondrial membrane potential. L1210 cells cotreated with the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, or having reduced Atg7 protein content, underwent G2-M arrest, but not autophagy, following XK469 treatment. Hence, the therapeutic actions of XK469/SH80 with L1210 cultures reflect both the initiation of a cell cycle arrest as well as the initiation of autophagy.
PMCID: PMC2877038  PMID: 17237296
15.  The Taccalonolides: Microtubule Stabilizers that Circumvent Clinically Relevant Taxane Resistance Mechanisms 
Cancer research  2008;68(21):8881-8888.
The taccalonolides are a class of structurally and mechanistically distinct microtubule-stabilizing agents isolated from Tacca chantrieri. A crucial feature of the taxane family of microtubule stabilizers is their susceptibility to cellular resistance mechanisms including overexpression of P-glycoprotein, MRP7 and the βIII isotype of tubulin. The ability of four taccalonolides, A, E, B and N, to circumvent these multidrug resistance mechanisms was studied. Taccalonolides A, E, B and N were effective in vitro against cell lines that overexpress P-glycoprotein and MRP7. In addition, taccalonolides A and E were highly active in vivo against a doxorubicin- and paclitaxel- resistant Pgp-expressing tumor, Mam17/ADR. An isogenic HeLa-derived cell line that expresses the βIII isotype of tubulin was generated to evaluate the effect of βIII-tubulin on drug sensitivity. When compared with parental HeLa cells, the βIII-tubulin overexpressing cell line was less sensitive to paclitaxel, docetaxel, epothilone B and vinblastine. In striking contrast, the βIII-tubulin overexpressing cell line showed greater sensitivity to all four taccalonolides. These data cumulatively suggest that the taccalonolides have advantages over the taxanes in their ability to circumvent multiple drug resistance mechanisms. The ability of the taccalonolides to overcome clinically relevant mechanisms of drug resistance in vitro and in vivo confirms that the taccalonolides represent a valuable addition to the family of microtubule-stabilizing compounds with clinical potential.
PMCID: PMC2727482  PMID: 18974132
microtubule stabilizers; drug resistance; P-glycoprotein; multidrug-resistant protein 7; βIII-tubulin

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