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1.  The Walking Impairment Questionnaire Stair-Climbing Score predicts mortality in men and women with peripheral arterial disease 
Journal of vascular surgery  2012;55(6):1662-73.e2.
The Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) measures self-reported walking distance, walking speed, and stair-climbing ability in men and women with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We determined whether poorer WIQ scores are associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in individuals with and without PAD.
1048 men and women with and without PAD were identified from Chicago-area medical centers. Participants completed the WIQ at baseline and were followed for a median of 4.5 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to relate baseline WIQ scores with mortality, adjusting for age, sex, race, the ankle brachial index (ABI), comorbidities, and other covariates.
461 participants (44.0%) died during follow-up, including 158 deaths from cardiovascular disease. PAD participants in the lowest baseline quartile of the WIQ stair-climbing scores had higher all-cause mortality (HR = 1.70 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.08-2.66, p=0.02] and higher CVD mortality (HR = 3.11 [95% CI 1.30 – 7.47, p=0.01]) compared to those with the highest baseline WIQ stair climbing score. Among PAD participants there were no significant associations of lower baseline WIQ distance or speed scores with rates of all-cause mortality (p for trend = 0.20 and 0.07, respectively) or CVD mortality (p for trend = 0.51 and p for trend = 0.33, respectively). Among non-PAD participants there were no significant associations of lower baseline WIQ stair climbing, distance, or speed score with rates of all-cause mortality (p for trend = 0.94, 0.69, and 0.26, respectively) or CVD mortality (p for trend = 0.28, 0.68, and 0.78, respectively).
Among participants with PAD, lower WIQ stair climbing scores are associated with higher all-cause and CVD mortality, independently of the ABI and other covariates.
PMCID: PMC3963605  PMID: 22608041
2.  The Evolving Treatment Options for Diabetic Macular Edema 
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss in working-age adults, and diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most common cause of visual impairment in individuals with DR. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, previous treatment paradigms, and emerging treatment options in the management of DME.
PMCID: PMC3782842  PMID: 24106640
3.  Deconstruction of the α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylchloine (nACh) Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator des-Formylflustrabromine (dFBr) 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2011;54(20):7259-7267.
des -Formylflustrabromine (dFBr; 1), perhaps the first selective positive allosteric modulator of α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors, was deconstructed to determine which structural features contribute to its actions on receptors expressed in Xenopus ooycytes using 2-electrode voltage clamp techniques. Although the intact structure of 1 was found optimal, several deconstructed analogs retained activity. Neither the 6-bromo substituent nor the entire 2-position chain is required for activity. In particular, reduction of the olefinic side chain of 1, as seen with 6, not only resulted in retention of activity/potency but in enhanced selectivity for α4β2 versus α7 nACh receptors. Pharmacophoric features for the allosteric modulation of α4β2 nACh receptors by 1 were identified.
PMCID: PMC3200116  PMID: 21905680
4.  Fractures of capitellum: a review of 14 cases treated by open reduction and internal fixation with Herbert screws 
International Orthopaedics  2009;34(6):897-901.
Fourteen patients with displaced fractures of the humeral capitellum were treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the capitellar fragments with Herbert screws. As per Bryan and Morrey classification, there were seven type I fractures, one type II fracture, three type III fractures, and three non-unions. Patient outcomes were evaluated using the Mayo elbow performance score. The follow-up period ranged from three to seven years (mean 4.8 years). All patients had a stable, pain-free elbow with good range of motion at follow-up. There was no evidence of avascular necrosis or degenerative change.
PMCID: PMC2989024  PMID: 19894049
5.  Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Premolar in a Gujarati Population - an In Vitro Study 
Dental Research Journal  2011;8(3):118-122.
Knowledge about root canal morphology and its frequent variations can exert considerable influence on the success of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to survey the root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar teeth in a Gujarati population by decalcification and clearing technique.
One hundred thirty eight extracted mandibular first premolar teeth were collected from a Gujarati population. After decalcifying and clearing, the teeth were examined for tooth length, number of cusps and roots, number and shape of canal orifices and canal types.
The average length of mandibular first premolar teeth was 21.2 mm. All the teeth had 2 cusps. One hundred thirty four teeth (97.1%) had one root, and just 4 teeth (2.89%) had two roots. Mesial invagination of root was found in 21 teeth (15.21%). One canal orifice was found in 122 teeth (88.4%) and two canal orifices in 16 teeth (11.59%). Shape of orifices was found to be round in 46 teeth (33.33%), oval in 72 teeth (52.17%) and flattened ribbion in 20 teeth (14.49%). According to Vertucci's classification, Type I canal system was found in 93 teeth (67.39%), Types II,III,IV,V,and VI in 11 teeth (7.97%), 5 teeth (3.62%), 4 teeth (2.89%), 24 teeth (17.39%), and 1 tooth (0.72%) respectively.
Mandibular first premolar teeth were mostly found to have one root and Type I canal system.
PMCID: PMC3177385  PMID: 22013473
Canal orifice; Decalcification; Length of tooth; Mandibular first premolar; Root canal system

Results 1-5 (5)