The aim of this research was to prepare and characterize alginate-chitosan mucoadhesive microparticles containing puerarin. The microparticles were prepared by an emulsification-internal gelatin method using a combination of chitosan and Ca2+ as cationic components and alginate as anions. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and swelling ratio, in vitro drug released, in vitro evaluation of mucoadhesiveness and Fluorescence imaging of the gastrointestinal tract were determined. After optimization of the formulation, the encapsulation efficiency was dramatically increased from 70.3% to 99.2%, and a highly swelling ratio was achieved with a change in particle size from 50.3 ± 11.2 μm to 124.7 ± 25.6 μm. In ethanol induced gastric ulcers, administration of puerarin mucoadhesive microparticles at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 450 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol ingestion significantly protected the stomach ulceration. Consequently, significant changes were observed in inflammatory cytokines, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin1β (IL-1β), in stomach tissues compared with the ethanol control group. In conclusion, core-shell type pH-sensitive mucoadhesive microparticles loaded with puerarin could enhance puerarin bioavailability and have the potential to alleviate ethanol-mediated gastric ulcers.
alginate; chitosan; ethanol-induced gastric injury; mucoadhesive microparticles; puerarin
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) facilitates tumor metastasis. Twist is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that modulates many target genes through E-box-responsive elements. There are two twist-like proteins, Twist-1 and Twist-2, sharing high structural homology in mammals. Twist-1 was found to be a key factor in the promotion of metastasis of cancer cells, and is known to induce EMT. Twist-1 participation in carcinoma progression and metastasis has been reported in a variety of tumors. However, controversy exists concerning the correlation between Twist-1 and prognostic value with respect to carcinoma. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine whether the expression of Twist-1 was associated with the prognosis of carcinoma patients. This analysis included 17 studies: four studies evaluated lung cancer, three evaluated head and neck cancer, two evaluated breast cancer, two evaluated esophageal cancer, two evaluated liver cancer and one each evaluated osteosarcoma, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancer. A total of 2006 patients were enrolled in these studies, and the median trial sample size was 118 patients. Twist-1 expression was associated with worse overall survival (OS) at both 3 years (hazard ratio “HR” for death = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.86 to 2.45, p < 0.001) and 5 years (HR for death = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.76 to 2.29, p < 0.001). Expression of Twist-1 is associated with worse survival in carcinoma.
Twist-1; immunohistochemistry; tumor; prognosis; meta-analysis
TMP21, known as p23 protein, is one important member of the p24 protein families. The degradation of TMP21 is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, as with the other presenilin-associated γ-secretase complex members. NFAT plays a very important role in regulation of human TMP21 gene expression. Compared with the function of TMP21, the studies about the distribution of this protein in human tissues are limited. We collected 19 normal adult human tissues from a healthy adult man died in a traffic accident and did examination of all the tissues collected for ICH, western blot and RT-PCR. It was shown that the expression of TMP21 is at high levels in heart, liver, lung, kidney and adrenal gland; moderate levels in brain, pancreas, prostate gland, testicle, small intestine, colon, stomach, gall bladder, thyroid gland and trachea; low levels in skeletal muscle, skin and lymphonodus. TMP21 is widely existed in normal adult human tissues. The current study provided for the first time a comprehensive expression of TMP21 in normal adult human tissues. It will benefit on helping in the design and interpretation of future studies focused on expounding the function of TMP21.
TMP21; human tissue; immunohistochemistry; western-blotting; RT-PCR
The increasing availability of mitochondrial (mt) sequence data from various yeasts provides a tool to study genomic evolution within and between different species. While the genomes from a range of lineages are available, there is a lack of information concerning intraspecific mtDNA diversity. Here, we analyzed the mt genomes of 50 strains from Lachancea thermotolerans, a protoploid yeast species that has been isolated from several locations (Europe, Asia, Australia, South Africa, and North / South America) and ecological sources (fruit, tree exudate, plant material, and grape and agave fermentations). Protein-coding genes from the mtDNA were used to construct a phylogeny, which reflected a similar, yet less resolved topology than the phylogenetic tree of 50 nuclear genes. In comparison to its sister species Lachancea kluyveri, L. thermotolerans has a smaller mt genome. This is due to shorter intergenic regions and fewer introns, of which the latter are only found in COX1. We revealed that L. kluyveri and L. thermotolerans share similar levels of intraspecific divergence concerning the nuclear genomes. However, L. thermotolerans has a more highly conserved mt genome with the coding regions characterized by low rates of nonsynonymous substitution. Thus, in the mt genomes of L. thermotolerans, stronger purifying selection and lower mutation rates potentially shape genome diversity in contract to what was found for L. kluyveri, demonstrating that the factors driving mt genome evolution are different even between closely related species.
mitochondrial genome; intraspecific diversity; selection; genome evolution
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, heritable neuropsychiatric disorder, hypothetically underpinned by dysfunction of brain cortical–striatal–thalamic–cortical (CSTC) circuits; however, the extent of brain functional abnormalities in individuals with OCD is unclear, and the genetic basis of this disorder is poorly understood. We determined the whole brain functional connectivity patterns in patients with OCD and their healthy first-degree relatives.
We used resting-state fMRI to measure functional connectivity strength in patients with OCD, their healthy first-degree relatives and healthy controls. Whole brain functional networks were constructed by measuring the temporal correlations of all brain voxel pairs and further analyzed using a graph theory approach.
We enrolled 39 patients with OCD, 20 healthy first-degree relatives and 39 healthy controls in our study. Compared with healthy controls, patients with OCD showed increased functional connectivity primarily within the CSTC circuits and decreased functional connectivity in the occipital cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellum. Moreover, patients with OCD and their first-degree relatives exhibited overlapping increased functional connectivity strength in the bilateral caudate nucleus, left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and left middle temporal gyrus.
Potential confounding factors, such as medication use, heterogeneity in symptom clusters and comorbid disorders, may have impacted our findings.
Our preliminary results suggest that patients with OCD have abnormal resting-state functional connectivity that is not limited to CSTC circuits and involves abnormalities in additional large-scale brain systems, especially the limbic system. Moreover, resting-state functional connectivity strength abnormalities in the left OFC, bilateral caudate nucleus and left middle temporal gyrus may be neuroimaging endophenotypes for OCD.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is an autoimmune disease that gradually destroys insulin-producing beta-cells. We have previously reported that mucosal administration of fusion protein of HSP65 with tandem repeats of P277 (HSP65-6P277) can reduce the onset of DM1 in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. To deliver large amounts of the fusion protein and to enhance long-term immune tolerance effects, in the present study, we investigated the efficacy of using orally administrated L. lactis expressing HSP65-6P277 to reduce the incidence of DM1 in NOD mice. L. lactis strain NZ9000 was engineered to express HSP65-6P277 either constitutively or by nisin induction. After immunization via gavage with the recombinant L. lactis strains to groups of 4-week old female NOD mice for 36 weeks, we observed that oral administration of recombinant L. Lactis resulted in the prevention of hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance and reduced insulitis. Immunologic analysis showed that treatment with recombinant L. lactis induced HSP65- and P277- specific T cell immuno-tolerance, as well as antigen-specific proliferation of splenocytes. The results revealed that the DM1-preventing function was in part caused by a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Orally administered recombinant L. lactis delivering HSP65-6P277 may be an effective therapeutic approach in preventing DM1.
Among all known archaeal strains, the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) for fructose utilization is used primarily by haloarchaea, which thrive in hypersaline environments, whereas the molecular details of the regulation of the archaeal PTS under fructose induction remain unclear. In this study, we present a comprehensive examination of the regulatory mechanism of the fructose PTS in the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei. With gene knockout and complementation, microarray analysis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR), we revealed that GlpR is the indispensable activator, which specifically binds to the PTS promoter (PPTS) during fructose induction. Further promoter-scanning mutation indicated that three sites located upstream of the H. mediterranei PPTS, which are conserved in most haloarchaeal PPTSs, are involved in this induction. Interestingly, two PTS transcripts (named T8 and T17) with different lengths of 5′ untranslated region (UTR) were observed, and promoter or 5′ UTR swap experiments indicated that the shorter 5′ UTR was most likely generated from the longer one. Notably, the translation efficiency of the transcript with this shorter 5′ UTR was significantly higher and the ratio of T8 (with the shorter 5′ UTR) to T17 increased during fructose induction, implying that a posttranscriptional mechanism is also involved in PTS activation. With these insights into the molecular regulation of the haloarchaeal PTS, we have proposed a working model for haloarchaea in response to environmental fructose.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to play an important role in tumor growth. Inflammation is an important feature of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Certain inflammatory cytokines produced in tumor microenvironment modulate functional activities of MSCs. At the present time, however, the role of MSCs in the development of HCC cell resistance to chemotherapy in the inflammatory microenvironment during tumor growth has not yet been identified.
MTT and PI/Annexin V-FITC assay were employed to examine the proliferation and apoptosis of HCC cell lines. The expression of TGF-β are detected by Realtime PCR and Western blot. GFP tagged LC3 expression vector and electron microscopy are utilized to demonstrate the occurrence of autophagy.
We observed that MSCs pretreated with the combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α induced resistance to chemotherapy in HCC cell lines in both the in vitro and in vivo circumstances. Following exposure to conditioned medium of MSCs that were pre-treated with IFN-γ plus TNF-α, HCC cell line cells underwent autophagy which serves as a protective mechanism for HCC cells to resist the cell toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment of HCC cell line cells with autophagy inhibitor effectively reversed the MSCs-induced resistance to chemotherapy in these cells. Stimulation with the combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α provoked expression of TGF-β by MSCs. MSCs-induced chemoresistance in HCC cell lines was correlated with the up-regulation of TGF-β expression by MSCs. Knockdown of TGF-β expression by MSCs with siRNA attenuated MSCs-induced chemoresistance in HCC cells.
These results suggest that increase in TGF-β expression by MSCs in the inflammatory microenvironment of HCC promotes the development of chemoresistance in HCC cells.
Mesenchymal stem cells; Inflammation; Autophagy; Hepatocellular carcinoma
The key enzymes for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) biosynthesis in haloarchaea have been identified except the β-ketothiolase(s), which condense two acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) molecules to acetoacetyl-CoA, or one acetyl-CoA and one propionyl-CoA to 3-ketovaleryl-CoA. Whole-genome analysis has revealed eight potential β-ketothiolase genes in the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei, among which the PHBV-specific BktB and PhaA were identified by gene knockout and complementation analysis. Unlike all known bacterial counterparts encoded by a single gene, the haloarchaeal PhaA that was involved in acetoacetyl-CoA generation, was composed of two different types of subunits (PhaAα and PhaAβ) and encoded by the cotranscribed HFX_1023 (phaAα) and HFX_1022 (phaAβ) genes. Similarly, the BktB that was involved in generation of acetoacetyl-CoA and 3-ketovaleryl-CoA, was also composed of two different types of subunits (BktBα and BktBβ) and encoded by cotranscribed HFX_6004 (bktBα) and HFX_6003 (bktBβ). BktBα and PhaAα were the catalytic subunits and determined substrate specificities of BktB and PhaA, respectively. Their catalytic triad “Ser-His-His” was distinct from the bacterial “Cys-His-Cys.” BktBβ and PhaAβ both contained an oligosaccharide-binding fold domain, which was essential for the β-ketothiolase activity. Interestingly, BktBβ and PhaAβ were functionally interchangeable, although PhaAβ preferred functioning with PhaAα. In addition, BktB showed biotechnological potential for the production of PHBV with the desired 3-hydroxyvalerate fraction in haloarchaea. This is the first report of the haloarchaeal type of PHBV-specific β-ketothiolases, which are distinct from their bacterial counterparts in both subunit composition and catalytic residues.
Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from cigarette smoke and therefore induces a number of chronic illnesses with the widespread use of tobacco products. Studies have shown a few cerebral metabolites modified by nicotine; however, endogenous metabolic profiling in brain has not been well explored.
H NMR-based on metabonomics was applied to investigate the endogenous metabolic profiling of brain hippocampus, nucleus acumens (NAc), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum. We found that nicotine significantly increased CPP in mice, and some specific cerebral metabolites differentially changed in nicotine-treated mice. These modified metabolites included glutamate, acetylcholine, tryptamine, glucose, lactate, creatine, 3-hydroxybutyrate and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which was closely associated with neurotransmitter and energy source. Additionally, glutathione and taurine in hippocampus and striatum, phosphocholine in PFC and glycerol in NAc were significantly modified by nicotine, implying the dysregulation of anti-oxidative stress response and membrane metabolism.
Nicotine induces significant metabonomic alterations in brain, which are involved in neurotransmitter disturbance, energy metabolism dysregulation, anti-oxidation and membrane function disruptions, as well as amino acid metabolism imbalance. These findings provide a new insight into rewarding effects of nicotine and the underlying mechanism.
Metabolomics; Nicotine; Metabolite; NMR; Place preference
Nicotine, one of the most commonly used drugs, has become a major concern because tobacco serves as a gateway drug and is linked to illicit drug abuse, such as cocaine and marijuana. However, previous studies mainly focused on certain genes or neurotransmitters which have already been known to participate in drug addiction, lacking endogenous metabolic profiling in a global view. To further explore the mechanism by which nicotine modifies the response to cocaine, we developed two conditioned place preference (CPP) models in mice. In threshold dose model, mice were pretreated with nicotine, followed by cocaine treatment at the dose of 2 mg/kg, a threshold dose of cocaine to induce CPP in mice. In high-dose model, mice were only treated with 20 mg/kg cocaine, which induced a significant CPP. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance based on metabonomics was used to investigate metabolic profiles of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and striatum. We found that nicotine pretreatment dramatically increased CPP induced by 2 mg/kg cocaine, which was similar to 20 mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP. Interestingly, metabolic profiles showed considerable overlap between these two models. These overlapped metabolites mainly included neurotransmitters as well as the molecules participating in energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Our results show that the reinforcing effect of nicotine on behavioral response to cocaine may attribute to the modification of some specific metabolites in NAc and striatum, thus creating a favorable metabolic environment for enhancing conditioned rewarding effect of cocaine. Our findings provide an insight into the effect of cigarette smoking on cocaine dependence and the underlying mechanism.
KCa3.1 channel participates in many important cellular functions. This study planned to investigate the potential involvement of KCa3.1 channel in premature senescence, myofibroblast phenotype transition and proliferation of mesangial cells.
Methods & Materials
Rat mesangial cells were cultured together with TGF-β1 (2 ng/ml) and TGF-β1 (2 ng/ml) + TRAM-34 (16 nM) separately for specified times from 0 min to 60 min. The cells without treatment served as controls. The location of KCa3.1 channels in mesangial cells was determined with Confocal laser microscope, the cell cycle of mesangial cells was assessed with flow cytometry, the protein and mRNA expression of KCa3.1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1) were detected with Western blot and RT-PCR. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls-q test (SNK-q) were used to do statistical analysis. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05.
Kca3.1 channels were located in the cell membranes and/or in the cytoplasm of mesangial cells. The percentage of cells in G0-G1 phase and the expression of Kca3.1, α-SMA and FSP-1 were elevated under the induction of TGF-β1 when compared to the control and decreased under the induction of TGF-β1+TRAM-34 when compared to the TGF-β1 induced (P<0.05 or P<0.01).
Targeted disruption of KCa3.1 inhibits TGF-β1-induced premature aging, myofibroblast-like phenotype transdifferentiation and proliferation of mesangial cells.
Small ribosomal protein subunit S7 (RPS7) has been reported to be associated with various malignancies, but the role of RPS7 in ovarian cancer remains unclear. In this study, we found that silencing of RPS7 by a specific shRNA promoted ovarian cancer cell proliferation, accelerated cell cycle progression, and slightly reduced cell apoptosis and response to cisplatin treatment. Knockdown of RPS7 resulted in increased expression of P85α, P110α, and AKT2. Although the basal levels of ERK1/2, MEK1/2, and P38 were inconsistently altered in ovarian cancer cells, the phosphorylated forms of MEK1/2 (Ser217/221), ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), JNK1/2 (Thr183/Tyr185), and P38 (Thr180/Tyr182) were consistently reduced after RPS7 was silenced. Both the in vitro anchorage-independent colony formation and in vivo animal tumor formation capability of cells were enhanced after RPS7 was depleted. We also showed that silencing of RPS7 enhanced ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion. In sum, our results suggest that RPS7 suppresses ovarian tumorigenesis and metastasis through PI3K/AKT and MAPK signal pathways. Thus, RPS7 may be used as a potential marker for diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer.
Haloferax mediterranei is able to accumulate the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) with more than 10 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) from unrelated carbon sources. However, the pathways that produce propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA), an important precursor of 3HV monomer, have not yet been determined. Bioinformatic analysis of H. mediterranei genome indicated that this strain uses multiple pathways for propionyl-CoA biosynthesis, including the citramalate/2-oxobutyrate pathway, the aspartate/2-oxobutyrate pathway, the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway, and a novel 3-hydroxypropionate pathway. Cofeeding of pathway intermediates and inactivating pathway-specific genes supported that these four pathways were indeed involved in the biosynthesis of 3HV monomer. The novel 3-hydroxypropionate pathway that couples CO2 assimilation with PHBV biosynthesis was further confirmed by analysis of 13C positional enrichment in 3HV. Notably, 13C metabolic flux analysis showed that the citramalate/2-oxobutyrate pathway (53.0% flux) and the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway (30.6% flux) were the two main generators of propionyl-CoA from glucose. In addition, genetic perturbation on the transcriptome of the ΔphaEC mutant (deficient in PHBV accumulation) revealed that a considerable number of genes in the four propionyl-CoA synthetic pathways were significantly downregulated. We determined for the first time four propionyl-CoA-supplying pathways for PHBV production in haloarchaea, particularly including a new 3-hydroxypropionate pathway. These results would provide novel strategies for the production of PHBV with controllable 3HV molar fraction.
Purpose. To identify the predictors of visual response to the bevacizumab treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design. A cohort study within the Neovascular AMD Treatment Trial Using Bevacizumab (NATTB). Methods. This was a multicenter trial including 144 participants from the NATTB study. Visual outcomes measured by change in visual acuity (VA) score, proportion gaining ≥15 letters, and change in central retinal thickness (CRT) were compared among groups according to the baseline, demographic, and ocular characteristics and genotypes. Results. Mean change in the VA score was 9.2 ± 2.3 SD letters with a total of 46 participants (31.9%) gaining ≥15 letters. Change in median CRT was −81.5 μm. Younger age, lower baseline VA score, shorter duration of neovascular AMD, and TT genotype in rs10490924 were significantly associated with greater VA score improvement (P = 0.028, P < 0.001, P = 0.02, and P = 0.039, resp.). Lower baseline VA score and TT genotype in rs10490924 were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of gaining ≥15 letters (P = 0.028, and P = 0.021, resp.). Conclusions. Baseline VA and genotype of rs10490924 were both important predictors for visual response to bevacizumab at 6 months. This trial is registered with the Registration no. NCT01306591.
The crystal structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase from B. anthracis strain ‘Ames Ancestor’ is reported.
The crystal structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Bacillus anthracis strain ‘Ames Ancestor’ complexed with NADP has been determined and refined to 1.87 Å resolution. The structure of the enzyme consists of a Rossmann fold composed of seven parallel β-strands sandwiched by three α-helices on each side. An NADP molecule from an endogenous source is bound in the conserved binding pocket in the syn conformation. The loop region responsible for binding another substrate forms two perpendicular short helices connected by a sharp turn.
short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases; NADP; Bacillus anthracis
Replicative DNA polymerases require an RNA primer for leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis, and primase is responsible for the de novo synthesis of this RNA primer. However, the archaeal primase from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) frequently incorporates mismatched nucleoside monophosphate, which stops RNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase (PolB) cannot elongate the resulting 3′-mismatched RNA primer because it cannot remove the 3′-mismatched ribonucleotide. This study demonstrates the potential role of a RecJ-like protein from P. furiosus (PfRecJ) in proofreading 3′-mismatched ribonucleotides. PfRecJ hydrolyzes single-stranded RNA and the RNA strand of RNA/DNA hybrids in the 3′–5′ direction, and the kinetic parameters (Km and Kcat) of PfRecJ during RNA strand digestion are consistent with a role in proofreading 3′-mismatched RNA primers. Replication protein A, the single-stranded DNA–binding protein, stimulates the removal of 3′-mismatched ribonucleotides of the RNA strand in RNA/DNA hybrids, and Pfu DNA polymerase can extend the 3′-mismatched RNA primer after the 3′-mismatched ribonucleotide is removed by PfRecJ. Finally, we reconstituted the primer-proofreading reaction of a 3′-mismatched ribonucleotide RNA/DNA hybrid using PfRecJ, replication protein A, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and PolB. Given that PfRecJ is associated with the GINS complex, a central nexus in archaeal DNA replication fork, we speculate that PfRecJ proofreads the RNA primer in vivo.
p53 is a tumor suppressor gene and plays important roles in the etiology of breast cancer. Studies have produced conflicting results concerning the role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism (G>C) on the risk of breast cancer; therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and breast cancer. Screening of the PubMed database was conducted to identify relevant studies. Studies containing available genotype frequencies of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism were selected and a pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association. Sixty-one published studies, including 28,539 breast cancer patients and 32,788 controls were identified. The results suggest that variant genotypes are not associated with breast cancer risk (Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR=1.016, 95% CI=0.931–1.11, P=0.722). The symmetric funnel plot, Egger’s test (P=0.506) and Begg’s test (P=0.921) were all suggestive of the lack of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that the p53 codon 72 Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro genotypes are not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. To validate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and breast cancer, further studies with larger numbers of participants worldwide are required.
p53; meta-analysis; breast cancer
Haloferax mediterranei, an extremely halophilic archaeon, has shown promise for production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) from unrelated cheap carbon sources. Here we report the complete genome (3,904,707 bp) of H. mediterranei CGMCC 1.2087, consisting of one chromosome and three megaplasmids.
The discovery of tissue reparative and immunosuppressive abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has drawn more attention to tumor microenvironment and its role in providing the soil for the tumor cell growth. MSCs are recruited to tumor which is referred as the never healing wound and altered by the inflammation environment, thereby helping to construct the tumor microenvironment. The environment orchestrated by MSCs and other factors can be associated with angiogenesis, immunosuppression, inhibition of apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), survival of cancer stem cells, which all contribute to tumor growth and progression. In this review, we will discuss how MSCs are recruited to the tumor microenvironment and what effects they have on tumor progression.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); Tumor microenvironment; Tumor growth; Metastasis
A new series of phosphodiesterase-9 (PDE9) inhibitors that contain a scaffold of 6-amino-pyrazolopyrimidinone have been discovered by a combination of structure-based design and computational docking. This procedure significantly saved load of chemical synthesis and is an effective method for the discovery of inhibitors. The best compound 28 has an IC50 of 21 nM and 3.3 µM respectively for PDE9 and PDE5, and about three orders of magnitude of selectivity against other PDE families. The crystal structure of the PDE9 catalytic domain in complex with 28 has been determined and shows a hydrogen bond between 28 and Tyr424. This hydrogen bond may account for the 860-fold selectivity of 28 against PDE1B, in comparison with about 30-fold selectivity of BAY73-6691. Thus, our studies suggest that Tyr424, a unique residue of PDE8 and PDE9, is a potential target for improvement of selectivity of PDE9 inhibitors.
Yeasts are leading model organisms for mitochondrial genome studies. The explosion of complete sequence of yeast mitochondrial (mt) genomes revealed a wide diversity of organization and structure between species. Recently, genome-wide polymorphism survey on the mt genome of isolates of a single species, Lachancea kluyveri, was also performed. To compare the mitochondrial genome evolution at two hierarchical levels: within and among closely related species, we focused on five species of the Lachancea genus, which are close relatives of L. kluyveri. Hence, we sequenced the complete mt genome of L. dasiensis, L. nothofagi, L. mirantina, L. fantastica and L. meyersii. The phylogeny of the Lachancea genus was explored using these data. Analysis of intra- and interspecific variability across the whole Lachancea genus led to the same conclusions regarding the mitochondrial genome evolution. These genomes exhibit a similar architecture and are completely syntenic. Nevertheless, genome sizes vary considerably because of the variations of the intergenic regions and the intron content, contributing to mitochondrial genome plasticity. The high variability of the intergenic regions stands in contrast to the high level of similarity of protein sequences. Quantification of the selective constraints clearly revealed that most of the mitochondrial genes are under purifying selection in the whole genus.
Mitochondria are organelles, which play a key role in some essential functions, including respiration, metabolite biosynthesis, ion homeostasis, and apoptosis. The vast numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of various yeast species, which have recently been published, have also helped to elucidate the structural diversity of these genomes. Although a large corpus of data are now available on the diversity of yeast species, little is known so far about the mtDNA diversity in single yeast species. To study the genetic variations occurring in the mtDNA of wild yeast isolates, we performed a genome-wide polymorphism survey on the mtDNA of 18 Lachancea kluyveri (formerly Saccharomyces kluyveri) strains. We determined the complete mt genome sequences of strains isolated from various geographical locations (in North America, Asia, and Europe) and ecological niches (Drosophila, tree exudates, soil). The mt genome of the NCYC 543 reference strain is 51,525 bp long. It contains the same core of genes as Lachancea thermotolerans, the nearest relative to L. kluyveri. To explore the mt genome variations in a single yeast species, we compared the mtDNAs of the 18 isolates. The phylogeny and population structure of L. kluyveri provide clear-cut evidence for the existence of well-defined geographically isolated lineages. Although these genomes are completely syntenic, their size and the intron content were found to vary among the isolates studied. These genomes are highly polymorphic, showing an average diversity of 28.5 SNPs/kb and 6.6 indels/kb. Analysis of the SNP and indel patterns showed the existence of a particularly high overall level of polymorphism in the intergenic regions. The dN/dS ratios obtained are consistent with purifying selection in all these genes, with the noteworthy exception of the VAR1 gene, which gave a very high ratio. These data suggest that the intergenic regions have evolved very fast in yeast mitochondrial genomes.
mitochondrial DNA; intraspecific diversity; population structure; purifying selection; Lanchancea kluyveri
The endotoxin level in the portal and peripheral veins of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is higher and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall constituent of gram-negative bacteria, has been reported to inhibit tumor growth. However, in this study, we found that LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling was involved in tumor invasion and survival, and the molecular mechanism was investigated,
Four HCC cell lines and a splenic vein metastasis of the nude mouse model were used to study the invasion ability of LPS-induced HCC cells and the epithelia-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and in vivo. A total of 106 clinical samples from HCC patients were used to evaluate TLR4 expression and analyze its association with clinicopathological characteristics
The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that LPS could significantly enhance the invasive potential and induce EMT in HCC cells with TLR4 dependent. Further studies showed that LPS could directly activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling through TLR4 in HCC cells. Interestingly, blocking NF-κB signaling significantly inhibited transcription factor Snail expression and thereby inhibited EMT occurrence. High expression of TLR4 in HCC tissues was strongly associated with both poor cancer-free survival and overall survival in patients.
Our results indicate that TLR4 signaling is required for LPS-induced EMT, tumor cell invasion and metastasis, which provide molecular insights for LPS-related pathogenesis and a basis for developing new strategies against metastasis in HCC.
Toll-like receptor 4; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; Lipopolysaccharide; Human hepatocellular carcinoma
Age-related degeneration(AMD) and asthma are both diseases that are related to the activation of the complement system. The association between AMD and asthma has been debated in previous studies. The authors investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systemically.
The epidemiological study showed that asthma was related to choroidal neovascularization(CNV) subtype(OR = 1.721, P = 0.023). However, the meta-analysis showed there was no association between AMD and asthma. In an animal model, we found more fluoresce in leakage of CNV lesions by FA analysis and more angiogenesis by histological analysis in rats with asthma. Western blot demonstrated an elevated level of C3α-chain, C3α’-chain and VEGF. After compstatin was intravitreally injected, CNV leakage decreased according to FA analysis, with the level of C3 and VEGF protein decreasing at the same time.
This study first investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systematically, and it was found that asthma could be a risk factor for the development of AMD. The study may provide a better understanding of the disease, which may advance the potential for screening asthma patients in clinical practice.