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1.  Development of a High-Throughput Fluorescence Polarization Assay to Identify Novel Ligands of Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II 
Journal of biomolecular screening  2012;17(8):1030-1040.
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is an important target for therapeutic and diagnostic interventions aimed at prostate cancer and neurologic disorders. Here we describe the development and optimization of a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay based on fluorescence polarization (FP) that facilitates the identification of novel scaffolds inhibiting GCPII. First, we designed and synthesized a fluorescence probe based on a urea-based inhibitory scaffold covalently linked to a Bodipy TMR fluorophore (TMRGlu). Next, we established and optimized conditions suitable for HTS and evaluated the assay robustness by testing the influence of a variety of physicochemical parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, time) and additives. Using known GCPII inhibitors, the FP assay was shown to be comparable to benchmark assays established in the field. Finally, we evaluated the FP assay by HTS of a 20 000–compound library. The novel assay presented here is robust, highly reproducible (Z′ = 0.82), inexpensive, and suitable for automation, thus providing an excellent platform for HTS of small-molecule libraries targeting GCPII.
doi:10.1177/1087057112451924
PMCID: PMC4112551  PMID: 22751730
fluorescence polarization; high-throughput screening; glutamate carboxypeptidase II; prostate-specific membrane antigen; metallopeptidase
2.  Novel substrate-based inhibitors of human glutamate carboxypeptidase II with enhanced lipophilicity 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2011;54(21):7535-7546.
Virtually all low molecular weight inhibitors of human glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) are highly polar compounds that have limited use in settings where more lipophilic molecules are desired. Here we report the identification and characterization of GCPII inhibitors with enhanced liphophilicity that are derived from a series of newly identified dipeptidic GCPII substrates featuring non-polar aliphatic side chains at the C-terminus. To analyze the interactions governing the substrate recognition by GCPII, we determined crystal structures of the inactive GCPII(E424A) mutant in complex with selected dipeptides and complemented the structural data with quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations. Results reveal the importance of non-polar interactions governing GCPII affinity towards novel substrates as well as formerly unnoticed plasticity of the S1′ specificity pocket. Based on those data, we designed, synthesized and evaluated a series of novel GCPII inhibitors with enhanced lipophilicity, with the best candidates having low nanomolar inhibition constants and clogD > -0.3. Our findings offer new insights into the design of more lipophilic inhibitors targeting GCPII.
doi:10.1021/jm200807m
PMCID: PMC3222833  PMID: 21923190
PSMA; NAALADase; GCPII; zinc peptidase; folate hydrolase; inhibition; quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)

Results 1-2 (2)