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1.  Characterization of plasmids conferring resistance to gentamicin and apramycin in strains of Salmonella typhimurium phage type 204c isolated in Britain. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):419-426.
In Salmonella typhimurium phage type 204c isolated in Britain, gentamicin resistance is specified by plasmids of the I1 compatibility group which also confer resistance to apramycin. These plasmids have been subdivided into three types within the I1 group on the basis of their antibiotic resistance specificity, their ability to produce colicin Ib and their restriction enzyme digest fragmentation patterns. All three have been identified in strains from cattle, but as yet only two types have been found in strains from humans. It is suggested that the use of apramycin in animal husbandry is responsible for the appearance of gentamicin resistance in multiresistant strains of phage type 204c, a phage type already epidemic in bovine animals and with an increasing incidence in humans.
PMCID: PMC2082898  PMID: 3540111
2.  Enzyme immunoassay using BCG in serodiagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):483-487.
Amounts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies were determined in sera from patients with either active or inactive tuberculosis and in healthy subjects by an immunoenzymatic assay in which whole BCG cells attached covalently to polystyrene disks were used as antigen. Statistically significant differences (P less than 0.005) were found both between the active and inactive tuberculosis groups and between the active group and healthy controls. No significant differences were found between the inactive group and controls. Since this procedure is efficient (91%) and can be used in areas which lack laboratory equipment, it appears promising for individual serodiagnosis and for epidemiological surveys.
PMCID: PMC2082897  PMID: 3098836
3.  Capture-ELISA for serum IgM antibody to respiratory syncytial virus. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):511-517.
A four-component solid-phase capture enzyme immunoassay was set up to test for serum IgM antibody to respiratory syncytial (RS) virus and was compared with immunofluorescence assay (IFA). A total of 128 young children with acute respiratory infections were studied. Thirty-six were shown to be RS virus-positive by the detection of RS virus in nasopharyngeal secretions and 92 were RS virus-negative. A serum specimen was collected after admission to the hospital (days 0-4) and a further specimen was obtained during days 10-14. Out of 36 RS virus-positive patients, 28 (77.7%) were found to be positive for IgM by both capture-ELISA and IFA. Out of 92 RS virus-negative patients 5 (5.4%) were IgM-positive. Four false-positive results were obtained by IFA due to the presence of rheumatoid factor. The capture-ELISA was shown to be a reliable technique in detecting specific IgM antibody to RS virus.
PMCID: PMC2082896  PMID: 3540115
4.  Evaluation of ELISA in the diagnosis of acute and chronic brucellosis in human beings. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):457-469.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the levels of brucella-specific IgG, IgM and IgA in 173 patients with acute brucellosis, 22 patients with chronic brucellosis and in 281 controls consisting of 98 patients with other infectious etiologies, 20 patients with non-infectious diseases and 163 normal healthy adults. The ELISA results were compared with culture findings, the results of slide agglutination tests with Brucella melitensis (M), B. abortus (A) and Ross Bengal (RB) antigens, and of tube and microagglutination tests. Brucella cultures were positive in 53 and 5% of patients with acute and chronic brucellosis respectively. The slide agglutination tests with A, M, A plus M and RB antigens were positive in 42, 44, 51 and 98% of patients with acute brucellosis and in 23, 27, 27 and 64% of patients with chronic brucellosis. There was no significant difference in the results between the tube and microagglutination tests regardless of the type of antigen used. At a titre of greater than or equal to 80 or greater than or equal to 160 these tests were positive in 98% and 92% of patients with acute brucellosis and 60 and 40% of patients with chronic brucellosis. The brucella culture and agglutination tests were negative for all the controls. Brucella ELISA immunoglobulins (Ig) were detected in some individuals in the control groups but the majority of these had titres of less than or equal to 100 for IgG, IgM, and IgA. However, patients with brucellosis had significantly higher ELISA titres in all classes of Ig than controls but the sensitivity and specificity within each Ig class varied with the titre considered. At a titre of greater than or equal to 1600 the brucella IgG had a sensitivity and specificity of 98% for patients with acute or chronic brucellosis; this decreased with lower reciprocal titres. The brucella IgM titre of greater than or equal to 400 had a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 98% for patients with acute brucellosis. However, in patients with chronic brucellosis the brucella IgM was very low. The brucella IgA titre of greater than or equal to 200 showed a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 99% for patients with either acute or chronic brucellosis. This study indicates that brucella ELISA is a rapid, sensitive and specific assay, provides a profile of Ig classes in the diagnosis of acute and chronic brucellosis, is useful for mass screening and could be considered the method of choice for the serological diagnosis of brucellosis.
PMCID: PMC2082895  PMID: 3794323
5.  Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Glasgow Royal Infirmary: microbiological aspects. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):393-403.
The bacteriological investigation of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Glasgow Royal Infirmary affecting 16 patients is described. Most of the patients had been treated in high-dependency areas on two floors of the hospital supplied by the same two air-conditioned ventilation systems. The source of infection was traced to contamination of a cooling tower from which a plume of spray discharged into the intake vents of the two ventilation systems. Rubber grommets within the cooling tower probably provided a nidus of infection there. The control and management of the outbreak are discussed: a policy of frankness about the course and progress of the investigations was adopted and helped to allay anxiety on the part of both staff and media.
PMCID: PMC2082894  PMID: 3540109
6.  Apramycin and gentamicin resistance in Escherichia coli and salmonellas isolated from farm animals. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):445-456.
Since the aminoglycoside antibiotic apramycin was licensed for veterinary use in 1980, all isolates of Escherichia coli and salmonellas received at the Central Veterinary Laboratory have been monitored for resistance to apramycin and the related antibiotic gentamicin. During the period 1982-4, the incidence of resistance in E. coli to apramycin increased from 0.6% in 1982 to 2.6% in 1984. In salmonellas the incidence of resistance to apramycin increased from 0.1% in 1982 to 1.4% in 1984. Resistance to both apramycin and gentamicin was detected in six different salmonella serotypes, although an isolate of Salmonella thompson from poultry was resistant to gentamicin but not apramycin. Most of the cultures were isolated from pigs, although the incidence of apramycin resistance in S. typhimurium (DT 204C) from calves has shown a recent dramatic increase. All the isolates with one exception produced the enzyme aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase IV (ACC(3)IV). The resistance was transferable by conjugation in most of the strains examined, and the plasmids specifying the resistance have been found to belong to a number of different incompatibility groups. Plasmids from three E. coli strains were compatible with all the reference plasmids and belonged to a previously undescribed group which was investigated further. It is suggested that bacteria from humans should be examined for resistance to apramycin and gentamicin to determine the possibility of the antibiotic-resistance bacteria, and their genes, spreading from animals to humans.
PMCID: PMC2082893  PMID: 3540112
7.  Speciation, serotyping, antimicrobial sensitivity and plasmid content of Proteeae from the environment of calf-rearing units in South West England. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):405-417.
A survey was undertaken of the occurrence, serotype, antimicrobial sensitivity and plasmid content of members of the tribe Proteeae in the environment of two calf-rearing units in the county of Avon in South West England. Examples of the following species were found: Proteus mirabilis, Prot. vulgaris, Prot. vulgaris Biogroup 2, Morganella morganii, Providencia stuartii, Prov. alcalifaciens and Prov. rettgeri. A wide range of serotypes was found, many having been previously reported from nosocomial isolates. A total of 15% of isolates carried plasmids; six pairs of isolates were identified which had identical serotypes but different patterns of plasmid carriage. The antimicrobial sensitivity of the isolates was generally similar to isolates of Proteeae from humans. Although no truly aminoglycoside-resistant isolates were found, some isolates of Prov. stuartii and Prov. rettgeri had MIC's higher than the other isolates to gentamicin and netilmicin, suggesting the presence of low levels of the enzyme AAC 2'. The study demonstrates that there is a considerable diversity of species and types of Proteeae associated with calves and their environment. It seems likely that a potential cause of colonization of the human gut by Proteeae is the consumption of meat.
PMCID: PMC2082892  PMID: 3540110
8.  Low incidence of campylobacter enteritis in Northern Ireland. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):479-482.
In a prospective survey carried out over 9 months in 1984 in the Department of Bacteriology, Belfast City Hospital, Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 24 out of 1200 faecal specimens (2%) from patients with acute diarrhoea. This isolation rate is much lower than that from other parts of mainland Britain which report an isolation rate of between 8 and 15%. It is difficult to explain this large discrepancy but the limited availability of unpasteurized milk and the generally worse summer here (fewer barbecues, picnics) may be some reasons to explain this low incidence in N. Ireland.
PMCID: PMC2082890  PMID: 3794324
9.  The survival of Escherichia coli in an aerosol at air temperatures of 15 and 30 degrees C and a range of humidities. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):489-496.
The survival of Escherichia coli in an aerosol was studied at several temperatures and over a range of relative humidities using a Henderson apparatus. Death occurred in two phases, the first lasting approximately 1 min; in the second the number of viable microorganisms declined exponentially. E. coli was robust and remained viable for many hours. Death was most rapid at low humidities (less than 50% r.h.) at 15 and 30 degrees C, with half-lives of 14 and 3 min respectively. In humid conditions the half-lives were much longer, approximately 83 and 14 min respectively. Based on this work, preliminary recommendations for the climate of livestock buildings can now be given to control the airborne spread of E. coli.
PMCID: PMC2082889  PMID: 3540114
10.  Staphylococcus aureus in Antarctica: carriage and attempted eradication. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):427-444.
The carriage of Staphylococcus aureus was studied in a group of 28 men living in a totally isolated environment for a year. Initially, nasal, axillary and perineal swabs were taken at weekly intervals, but from week 24 throat swabs were taken from known nasal carriers. Several attempts were made during the study to eradicate S. aureus. Eight subjects consistently carried their own phage type throughout the study, despite the application of antibacterial agents. In three subjects strains were isolated late in the study of a phage type which had either not been isolated before in this study, or had not been found for a prolonged period. Nine of the 12 nasal carriers also yielded S. aureus from the throat. It is apparent that following attempted eradication, S. aureus may seem to disappear, only to reappear some time later; 'eradication' in this case would be an erroneous appellation.
PMCID: PMC2082888  PMID: 3794322
11.  Prevalence of human (H1N1) influenza virus-antibody in Japanese swine. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):503-509.
A total of 571 swine sera collected at an abattoir in the city of Obihiro, Hokkaido during the period February-November 1984 were tested for antibody against human (H1N1) influenza virus strains. A high prevalence of antibody was observed for only 3 months from April to June in that year, in 81/180 sera (45.0%) to A/USSR/92/77 strain and in 50/180 sera (27.8%) to a current epidemic strain (A/Hokkaido/1/84). Some cross-reactions were observed between the A/USSR/92/77 and A/Hokkaido/1/84 antibodies (r = 0.75). Only minor relationships were noted between the A/New Jersey/8/76 (swine type H1N1) and A/USSR/92/77 (r = 0.35) or A/Hokkaido/1/84 (r = 0.51) antibodies. Absorption of sera positive for antibody to the A/Hokkaido/1/84 strain with the homologous virus strain removed all detectable antibodies, while the absorption of the sera with the A/New Jersey/8/76 strain produced incomplete absorption in one half of the sera tested. These results strongly suggest that the swine became infected with a human H1N1 virus as piglets during an epidemic of influenza which occurred in the human population during January and February 1984.
PMCID: PMC2082887  PMID: 3025296
12.  A one-year survey of nosocomial bacteraemia at a Danish university hospital. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):471-478.
A 1-year prospective study of nosocomial bacteraemia was performed at Hvidovre Hospital with special reference to frequency, focus of infection and prognosis. All patients were examined clinically in order to confirm the bacteraemia. In total, 98 hospital-acquired bacteraemias were observed, giving an incidence rate of 0.28%. Bacteraemia due to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis predominated. The overall mortality was 38%; 65% of the patients with S. aureus bacteraemia died, 25% due to the bacteraemia. The most common types of infection were urinary tract infections and intravenous catheter infections. Fifty-five of the bacteraemias were caused by foreign bodies, mostly urinary catheters and intravenous catheters, and in 14 cases the focus was unknown. The patient population was severely ill patients. We conclude that nosocomial bacteraemia occurs specially in severely ill patients often preceded by indwelling urinary or intravenous catheters. The patients seldom die due to the bacteraemia, but they die with concomitant bacteraemia.
PMCID: PMC2082885  PMID: 3540113
13.  Bacteriological quality of drinks from vending machines. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):497-500.
A survey on the bacteriological quality of both drinking water and flavoured drinks from coin-operated vending machines is reported. Forty-four per cent of 25 drinking water samples examined contained coliforms and 84% had viable counts of greater than 1000 organisms ml at 30 degrees C. Thirty-one flavoured drinks were examined; 6% contained coliforms and 39% had total counts greater than 1000 organisms ml. It is suggested that the D.H.S.S. code of practice on coin-operated vending machines is not being followed. It is also suggested that drinking water alone should not be dispensed from such machines.
PMCID: PMC2082884  PMID: 3794325
14.  Apparent improvement in the outcome of hip or knee-joint replacement operations over the period of a prospective study. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(3):501-502.
The apparent reduction in the incidence of subsequent joint sepsis and of re-operation without evidence of infection during the course of a prospective study was an artifact of the analysis method.
PMCID: PMC2082883  PMID: 3794326
15.  Further characterization of 41 isolates of adenovirus types 19/37 by serum neutralization and DNA restriction enzyme analysis. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(2):377-383.
Forty-one strains of adenovirus type 19/37 (Ad19/37) mainly isolated from patients with keratoconjunctivitis or conjunctivitis between 1974 and 1984 were re-evaluated by serum neutralization (SN), haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and DNA restriction analysis. Of 19 isolates which were neutralized to high titre by antiserum prepared against prototype Ad19, 5 showed cross-reactivity with 32-64 units of Ad37 antiserum, while of 22 strains neutralized by high titre by Ad37 antiserum, 3 showed cross-reactivity with 32 units of Ad19 antiserum. By DNA restriction analysis, all Ad19 isolates were identical to each other and to Ad19A virus. Using endonuclease Bgl 1, three variants were observed among the Ad37 isolates.
PMCID: PMC2083553  PMID: 3023482
16.  Plasmids in group JK coryneform bacteria isolated in a single hospital. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(2):255-263.
Investigation of 39 JK-type coryneform isolates from patients at a single hospital revealed that 23 possessed plasmids, which formed six groups on restriction endonuclease analysis. Four of the groups were associated with production of similar bacteriocin-like substances, and shared a minimum of 6.4 kilobase pairs of DNA. These plasmids, found in isolates from different patients, provide strong direct evidence that person-to-person transmission of JK bacteria had occurred within the hospital.
PMCID: PMC2083551  PMID: 3023480
17.  Antibiotic sensitivities of urinary pathogens isolated from patients in Liverpool, 1984-5. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(2):299-303.
Urinary pathogens isolated from patients in general practice, an antenatal clinic and several hospitals in Liverpool during 1984-5 have been tested for antibiotic sensitivities. The proportion of sensitive organisms varied from antimicrobial to antimicrobial and from institution to institution. Isolates from all institutions showed high rates of sensitivity to cephradine, nalidixic acid and nitrofurantoin, and somewhat lower rates to trimethoprim. Significantly lower sensitivities were found to ampicillin and sulphamethoxazole indicating that neither ampicillin nor a sulphonamide is suitable for initial choice on a 'best guess' basis in the situation studied. In general, the organisms derived from the antenatal patients showed the highest rates of sensitivity and those isolated from patients in geriatric hospitals the lowest.
PMCID: PMC2083550  PMID: 3782784
18.  The antigenic analysis of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome viruses in China by monoclonal antibodies. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(2):369-375.
Thirty-six strains of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) virus were isolated from patients and a number of host animals in various areas in China. They were analysed by an immunofluorescence test (IFAT) using 10 monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) specific for the HFRS virus; antigenic differences among the strains have been demonstrated. The HFRS virus strains revealed nine different reactions with the McAbs, showing that there are at least nine different antigenic determinants including group-, type- and strain-specific. Analysis of the results shows that antigenic differences among the HFRS virus strains are mainly related to differences in the host animals.
PMCID: PMC2083549  PMID: 2878042
19.  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a 6-month survey in a Lisbon paediatric hospital. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(2):265-272.
The prevalence of nasal colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among patients and staff was studied in a section of a Paediatric Surgical Unit in Lisbon between February and July 1985. Nasal colonization was demonstrated in 41% of burned patients, 5% of non-burned patients and 35% of the nurses. Infection by MRSA occurred in 30% of the burns. The isolates had identical serological patterns, slight differences on phage typing and were resistant to methicillin, cephalosporins, tetracycline, erythromycin and aminoglycosides. A chloramphenicol resistance plasmid of 3 Md was present in those isolates which were chloramphenicol resistant and a small plasmid of 1.7 Md which coded for constitutive erythromycin resistance was present in many isolates. Gentamicin, tetracycline and inducible erythromycin resistance were chromosomal. Several reasons for the apparent low virulence of the isolates are discussed. Attempts to control the outbreak by the discharge of colonized or infected patients, improvement of nursing practices and treatment with temporary removal from work of the colonized nurses did not eliminate the organism from the unit.
PMCID: PMC2083548  PMID: 3640790
20.  An outbreak of gastroenteritis on a passenger cruise ship. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(2):229-236.
In an outbreak of gastroenteritis on board a cruise ship 251 passengers and 51 crew were affected and consulted the ship's surgeon during a 14-day period. There was a significant association between consumption of cabin tap water and reported illness in passengers. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were isolated from passengers and crew and coliforms were found in the main water storage tank. Contamination of inadequately chlorinated water by sewage was the most likely source of infection. A low level of reported illness and late recognition of the outbreak delayed investigation of what was probably the latest in a series of outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness on board this ship. There is a need for a national surveillance programme which would monitor the extent of illness on board passenger cruise ships as well as a standard approach to the action taken when levels of reported illness rise above a defined level.
PMCID: PMC2083547  PMID: 3537115
21.  Salmonellosis in two dairy herds associated with a sewage farm and water reclamation plant. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(2):237-246.
Two dairy herds, situated on a sewage farm, were monitored for the presence of salmonellas following outbreaks of Salmonella dublin infection. In addition an S. dublin control scheme, which involved examination of adult animals and calf vaccination, was instigated. During the period 1975-84, 12 salmonella serotypes and 10 phage types of S. typhimurium were isolated from the cattle and their environment although their presence was seldom associated with disease. Two adult S. dublin excreters were detected but it was concluded that none of the tests employed to examine the adult animals was sensitive enough. The prevalence of disease in the calves was low and although vaccination may have been beneficial it did not eradicate S. dublin infection. Thus S. dublin persisted in adults and calves during the 8-year period but its presence was seldom associated with disease. The results are discussed with regards the disease risk to animals from the agricultural use of sewage sludge and the public health aspects.
PMCID: PMC2083546  PMID: 3537116
22.  Restriction enzyme fingerprinting of enterobacterial plasmids: a simple strategy with wide application. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(2):205-210.
Restriction enzyme fingerprints were generated from purified plasmid DNA from 324 clinical isolates that belonged to 7 enterobacterial genera and 88 single plasmids in Escherichia coli K 12 according to the following strategy. Purified plasmid DNA was digested with PstI. The number of fragments detected in a 0.8 agarose gel was used to determine which 2 of 6 restriction enzymes including PstI was most likely to provide a fingerprint comprising sufficient fragments to ensure specificity but sufficiently few to allow easy visual assessment and minimize coincidental matching. When PstI produced greater than 20 fragments, EcoRI and HindIII were used; when PstI generated less than 6 fragments Bsp 1286 and AvaII were used and SmaI was employed when between 6 and 20 fragments were obtained from PstI digests. Using a minimum of 12 fragments from a combination of 2 enzymes as the criterion for characterizing a strain/plasmid, satisfactory 2-enzyme fingerprints were obtained from 87% of the strains and plasmids studied using PstI and no more than two additional enzymes per strain. Of the remaining 54 strains, 51 harboured only small plasmids (less than 10 kb) and 3 produced satisfactory fingerprints when digested with a fourth enzyme.
PMCID: PMC2083545  PMID: 3023479
23.  The distribution of plasmids among a representative collection of Scottish strains of Salmonellae. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(2):199-204.
The distribution of plasmids was studied in a representative collection of salmonella strains which comprised 98 Salmonella typhimurium and 96 other serotypes. Plasmids were detected in 72% of strains (mean 1.3 plasmids/strain) and individual strains harboured between 0 and 7 plasmids. They were more common among S. typhimurium than other serotypes (incidence 92 and 53%; mean 1.9 and 0.8 plasmids/strain respectively). Although a higher proportion of S. typhimurium (33%) were antibiotic-resistant compared to other serotypes (14%) the evidence presented indicated that R-plasmids were not responsible for the difference observed in the number and distribution of plasmids in these strains. These results were discussed in comparison with similar studies of Escherichia coli and other enteric genera.
PMCID: PMC2083544  PMID: 3782780
24.  Comparative pathogenicity and antigenic cross-reactivity of Rift Valley fever and other African phleboviruses in sheep. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(2):331-346.
Homologous and heterologous haemagglutination-inhibition (HAI), complement-fixation (CF), immunodiffusion (ID) and mouse neutralization tests were performed with the Lunyo (LUN) and a Zimbabwean strain of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus, the prototype and a South African strain of Arumowot (AMT) virus and prototype strains of Gordil (GOR), Saint-Floris (SAF) and Gabek Forest (GF) viruses, using immune mouse ascitic fluids prepared against these viruses. Reactions of identity occurred in all tests between LUN and the Zimbabwean strains of RVF and between the two strains of AMT virus. Otherwise, cross-reactions occurred between all the phleboviruses in HAI tests, while reactions in CF, ID and neutralization tests were monospecific for virus serotypes, except that weak cross-reaction occurred between GOR and SAF viruses in CF and ID tests. Four sheep infected subcutaneously with the Zimbabwean strain of RVF virus developed transient fever, viraemia, leucopaenia, relative thrombocytopaenia, haemoconcentration and raised serum enzyme levels, which indicated that the sheep had developed necrotic hepatitis. Disseminated focal necrotic hepatitis was confirmed in a sheep killed for examination on day 4 post-infection. The other three sheep recovered uneventfully after only mild depression and anorexia. Groups of three sheep infected with SAF, GOR, AMT and GF viruses had no demonstrable viraemia or other sign of infection or illness, except that the sheep infected with AMT developed mild fever lasting less than 24 h. Antibody responses were monitored at intervals over a period of 24 weeks in all sheep by homologous and heterologous HAI, CF and cell culture neutralization (CPENT) tests. Homologous antibody responses were marked in the RVF-infected sheep and their sera cross-reacted strongly in HAI tests with antigens of the other viruses. The sera of the RVF-infected sheep cross-reacted less markedly in CF and CPENT tests. Homologous antibody responses were poor in all the sheep infected with phleboviruses other than RVF, and the cross-reactivity of their sera for RVF antigen or virus was negligible. All sheep were challenged with RVF virus 48 weeks after their initial infection. The sheep which had originally been infected with RVF virus were immune and developed neither fever nor viraemia. All other sheep developed fever, viraemia and antibodies to RVF virus. It was concluded that the African phleboviruses, other than RVF, are unlikely to cause disease in livestock or to induce antibodies which could cause confusion in the diagnosis of RVF.
PMCID: PMC2083542  PMID: 3537119
25.  The dispersal of bacteria and skin scales from the body after showering and after application of a skin lotion. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1986;97(2):289-298.
Application of a skin lotion to the body after showering greatly reduced the number of bacteria and skin scales dispersed from 10 men and 10 women. This effect lasted for at least 4 h when surgical clothing was worn. The use of a skin lotion to reduce bacterial dispersal could provide a simple and inexpensive alternative to an ultraclean air system or uncomfortable operating clothing during surgery requiring these procedures.
PMCID: PMC2083541  PMID: 3782783

Results 1-25 (4545)