Significant progress has been made in studies of the mechanisms by which RANKL induces terminal osteoclast differentiation. However, many crucial details in the RANKL-evoked signaling pathway for osteoclast differentiation remain to be defined. We characterized genes specifically expressed in osteoclasts by differential screening of a human osteoclastoma cDNA library, and found that the regulator of G-protein signaling 10A (RGS10A), but not the RGS10B isoform, was specifically expressed in human osteoclasts. The expression of RGS10A is also induced by RANKL in osteoclast precursors and is prominently expressed in mouse osteoclast-like cells. RGS10A silencing by RNA interference blocked intracellular [Ca2+]i oscillations, the expression of NFAT2, and osteoclast terminal differentiation in both bone marrow cells and osteoclast precursor cell lines. Reintroduction of RGS10A rescued the impaired osteoclast differentiation. RGS10A silencing also resulted in premature osteoclast apoptosis. RGS10A silencing affected the RANKL-[Ca2+]i oscillation-NFAT2 signaling pathway but not other RANKL-induced responses. Our data demonstrate that target components of RGS10A are distinct from those of RGS12 in the RANKL signaling mechanism. Our results thus show the specificity of RGS10A as a key component in the RANKL-evoked signaling pathway for osteoclast differentiation, which may present a promising target for therapeutic intervention.
Differential screening; RGS10 RNA interference; [Ca2+]i oscillations; Osteoclast differentiation; RANKL signaling pathway
Endocytosis and recycling of membrane proteins are key processes for nutrient uptake, receptor signaling and synaptic transmission. Different steps in these fission and fusion cycles have been proposed to be regulated by physiological changes in plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol (4,5)- bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] concentration. Here, we use a chemical enzyme-translocation strategy to rapidly reduce PM PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels while monitoring clathrin-mediated endocytosis and recycling. PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis blocked transferrin receptor endocytosis and led to a marked increase in the concentration of transferrin receptors in the PM, suggesting that endocytosis is more sensitive to changes in PtdIns(4,5)P2 than recycling. Reduction of PM PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels led to a near complete dissociation of Adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) from the PM but had only a small effect on clathrin assembly. This argues that receptor-mediated PtdIns(4,5)P2 reduction preferentially suppresses AP-2-mediated targeting of cargo to endocytic sites rather than the assembly of clathrin coats or recycling of endocytic vesicles.
Endocytosis; Phosphoinositides; Recycling
Cell-cell fusion in animal development and in pathophysiology involves expansion of nascent fusion pores formed by protein fusogens to yield an open lumen of cell-size diameter. Here we explored the enlargement of micron-scale pores in syncytium formation, which was initiated by a well-characterized fusogen baculovirus gp64. Radial expansion of a single or, more often, of multiple fusion pores proceeds without loss of membrane material in the tight contact zone. Pore growth requires cell metabolism and is accompanied by a local disassembly of the actin cortex under the pores. Effects of actin-modifying agents indicate that the actin cortex slows down pore expansion. We propose that the growth of the strongly bent fusion-pore rim is restricted by a dynamic resistance of the actin network and driven by membrane-bending proteins that are involved in the generation of highly curved intracellular membrane compartments.
Cell fusion; Syncytium formation; Fusion-pore expansion; Actin cytoskeleton; Membrane-bending proteins; Baculovirus gp64
A specific mutation (ΔE) in torsinA underlies most cases of the dominantly inherited movement disorder, early-onset torsion dystonia (DYT1). TorsinA, a member of the AAA+ ATPase superfamily, is located within the lumen of the nuclear envelope (NE) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We investigated an association between torsinA and nesprin-3, which spans the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) of the NE and links it to vimentin via plectin in fibroblasts. Mouse nesprin-3α co-immunoprecipitated with torsinA and this involved the C-terminal region of torsinA and the KASH domain of nesprin-3α. This association with human nesprin-3 appeared to be stronger for torsinAΔE than for torsinA. TorsinA also associated with the KASH domains of nesprin-1 and -2 (SYNE1 and 2), which link to actin. In the absence of torsinA, in knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), nesprin-3 was localized predominantly in the ER. Enrichment of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-nesprin-3 in the ER was also seen in the fibroblasts of DYT1 patients, with formation of YFP-positive globular structures enriched in torsinA, vimentin and actin. TorsinA-null MEFs had normal NE structure, but nuclear polarization and cell migration were delayed in a wound-healing assay, as compared with wild-type MEFs. These studies support a role for torsinA in dynamic interactions between the KASH domains of nesprins and their protein partners in the lumen of the NE, with torsinA influencing the localization of nesprins and associated cytoskeletal elements and affecting their role in nuclear and cell movement.
Nesprin; Dystonia; Cell migration; Nuclear polarization; DYT1; Vimentin; Actin
Sorting nexins are a large family of phox-homology-domain-containing proteins that have been implicated in the control of endosomal sorting. Sorting nexin-1 is a component of the mammalian retromer complex that regulates retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. In yeast, retromer is composed of Vps5p (the orthologue of sorting nexin-1), Vps17p (a related sorting nexin) and a cargo selective subcomplex composed of Vps26p, Vps29p and Vps35p. With the exception of Vps17p, mammalian orthologues of all yeast retromer components have been identified. For Vps17p, one potential mammalian orthologue is sorting nexin-2. Here we show that, like sorting nexin-1, sorting nexin-2 binds phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, and possesses a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs domain that can sense membrane curvature. However, in contrast to sorting nexin-1, sorting nexin-2 could not induce membrane tubulation in vitro or in vivo. Functionally, we show that endogenous sorting nexin-1 and sorting nexin-2 co-localise on high curvature tubular elements of the 3-phosphoinositide-enriched early endosome, and that suppression of sorting nexin-2 does not perturb the degradative sorting of receptors for epidermal growth factor or transferrin, nor the steady-state distribution of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. However, suppression of sorting nexin-2 results in a subtle alteration in the kinetics of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor retrieval. These data suggest that although sorting nexin-2 may be a component of the retromer complex, its presence is not essential for the regulation of endosome-to-trans Golgi network retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor.
Sorting nexin; Retromer; CI-MPR; Phosphoinositide; PX-domain
The yeast gene fab1 and its mammalian orthologue Pip5k3 encode the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] 5-kinases Fab1p and PIKfyve, respectively, enzymes that generates phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2]. A shared feature of fab1Δ yeast cells and mammalian cells overexpressing a kinase-dead PIKfyve mutant is the formation of a swollen vacuolar phenotype: a phenotype that is suggestive of a conserved function for these enzymes and their product, PtdIns(3,5)P2, in the regulation of endomembrane homeostasis. In the current study, fixed and live cell imaging has established that, when overexpressed at low levels in HeLa cells, PIKfyve is predominantly associated with dynamic tubular and vesicular elements of the early endosomal compartment. Moreover, through the use of small interfering RNA, it has been shown that suppression of PIKfyve induces the formation of swollen endosomal structures that maintain their early and late endosomal identity. Although internalisation, recycling and degradative sorting of receptors for epidermal growth factor and transferrin was unperturbed in PIKfyve suppressed cells, a clear defect in endosome to trans-Golgi-network (TGN) retrograde traffic was observed. These data argue that PIKfyve is predominantly associated with the early endosome, from where it regulates retrograde membrane trafficking to the TGN. It follows that the swollen endosomal phenotype observed in PIKfyve-suppressed cells results primarily from a reduction in retrograde membrane fission rather than a defect in multivesicular body biogenesis.
PIKfyve; Fab1p; Early endosome; Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate; Endosomal sorting
To prevent re-replication of DNA in a single cell cycle, the licensing of replication origins by Mcm2-7 is prevented during S and G2 phases. Animal cells achieve this by cell cycle regulated proteolysis of the essential licensing factor Cdt1 and inhibition of Cdt1 by geminin. Here we investigate the consequences of ablating geminin in synchronised human U2OS cells. Following geminin loss, cells complete an apparently normal S phase, but a proportion arrest at the G2/M boundary. When Cdt1 accumulates in these cells, DNA re-replicates, suggesting that the key role of geminin is to prevent re-licensing in G2. If cell cycle checkpoints are inhibited in cells lacking geminin, cells progress through mitosis and less re-replication occurs. Checkpoint kinases thereby amplify re-replication into an all-or-nothing response by delaying geminin-depleted cells in G2. Deep DNA sequencing revealed no preferential re-replication of specific genomic regions after geminin depletion. This is consistent with the observation that cells in G2 have lost their replication timing information. In contrast, when Cdt1 is overexpressed or is stabilised by the Neddylation inhibitor MLN4924, re-replication can occur throughout S phase.
Geminin; DNA replication; replication licensing; re-replication; deep sequencing
Clathrin is a triskelion consisting of three heavy chains each with an associated light chain. During mitosis, clathrin contributes to kinetochore fibre stability. As the N-terminal domain at the foot of each leg can bind to the mitotic spindle, we proposed previously a “bridge hypothesis” wherein clathrin acts as a brace between two or three microtubules within a kinetochore fibre to increase fibre stability. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by replacing endogenous clathrin heavy chain in human cells with a panel of clathrin constructs. Mutants designed to abolish trimerization were unable to rescue the mitotic defects caused by depletion of endogenous clathrin. In contrast, stunted triskelia with contracted legs could partially rescue normal mitosis. These results indicate that the key structural features of clathrin that are necessary for its function in mitosis are a trimeric molecule with a spindle interaction domain at each end, supporting the “bridge hypothesis” for clathrin function in mitosis.
Clathrin; mitosis; endocytosis; RNAi
The development of human cancers is frequently associated with a failure of epithelial cells to form tight junctions and to establish proper apicobasal polarity. Interestingly, the oncogenic potential of the adenovirus E4-ORF1 protein correlates with its binding to the cellular PDZ proteins MUPP1, MAGI-1, ZO-2 and SAP97, the first three of which assemble protein complexes at tight junctions. Given that E4-ORF1 sequesters these three PDZ proteins in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts, we postulated that E4-ORF1 would inhibit tight junction formation in epithelial cells. Providing further support for this idea, we identified MUPP1-related PATJ, a key component of the tight junction-associated CRB3-PALS1-PATJ polarity complex, as a new PDZ-protein target for both the E4-ORF1 and high-risk human papillomavirus type 18 E6 oncoproteins. Moreover, in epithelial cells, E4-ORF1 blocked the tight junction localization of PATJ and ZO-2, as well as their interacting partners, and disrupted both the tight junction barrier and apicobasal polarity. These significant findings expose a direct link between the tumorigenic potential of E4-ORF1 and inactivation of cellular PDZ proteins involved in tight junction assembly and polarity establishment.
Tight junction; Polarity; PATJ; ZO-2; E4-ORF1; E6
SUMO modification regulates the activity of numerous transcription factors that have a direct role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, cellular proliferation, and development, but its role in differentiation processes is less clear. Keratinocyte differentiation requires the coordinated activation of a series of transcription factors, and as several critical keratinocyte transcription factors are known to be SUMO substrates, we investigated the role of sumoylation in keratinocyte differentiation. In a human keratinocyte cell line model (HaCaT cells), calcium-induced differentiation led to the transient and coordinated transcriptional activation of the genes encoding critical sumoylation system components, including SAE1, SAE2, Ubc9, SENP1, Miz-1 (PIASxβ), SUMO2, and SUMO3. The increased gene expression resulted in higher levels of the respective proteins and changes in the pattern of sumoylated substrate proteins during the differentiation process. Similar to the HaCaT results, stratified human foreskin keratinocytes showed an upregulation of Ubc9 in the suprabasal layers. Lastly, abrogation of sumoylation by Gam1 expression severely disrupted normal HaCaT differentiation, consistent with an important role for sumoylation in the proper progression of this biological process.
Keratinocyte; differentiation; SUMO; HaCaT; Ubc9
Clathrin, a protein best known for its role in membrane trafficking, has been recognised for many years to localise to the spindle apparatus during mitosis but its function at the spindle remained unclear. Recent work has better defined the role of clathrin in the function of the mitotic spindle and proposed that it crosslinks microtubules (MTs) of the kinetochore fibres (K-fibres) in the mitotic spindle. This mitotic function is unrelated to clathrin’s role in membrane trafficking and occurs in partnership with two other spindle proteins: transforming acidic coiled-coil protein 3 (TACC3) and colonic hepatic tumour overexpressed gene (ch-TOG). This review summarises the role of clathrin in mitotic spindle organisation with an emphasis on the recent discovery of the TACC3/ch-TOG/clathrin complex.
clathrin; TACC3; ch-TOG; mitotic spindle; microtubule
Although the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to regenerating skeletal muscle has been repeatedly documented, there remains considerable debate as to whether this incorporation is exclusively a result of inflammatory cell fusion to regenerating myofibers or whether certain populations of bone marrow-derived cells have the capacity to differentiate into muscle. The present study uses a dual-marker approach in which GFP+ cells were intravenously transplanted into lethally irradiated β-galactosidase+ recipients to allow for simple determination of donor and host contribution to the muscle. FACS analysis of cardiotoxin-damaged muscle revealed that CD45+ bone-marrow side-population (SP) cells, a group enriched in hematopoietic stem cells, can give rise to CD45−/Sca-1+/desmin+ cells capable of myogenic differentiation. Moreover, after immunohistochemical examination of the muscles of both SP- and whole bone marrow-transplanted animals, we noted the presence of myofibers composed only of bone marrow-derived cells. Our findings suggest that a subpopulation of bone marrow SP cells contains precursor cells whose progeny have the potential to differentiate towards a muscle lineage and are capable of de novo myogenesis following transplantation and initiation of muscle repair via chemical damage.
Skeletal Muscle; Bone Marrow; Side Population; Progenitor
Although many cancer cells are primed for apoptosis, they usually develop resistance to cell death at multiple levels. Permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane, which is mediated by proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members like Bax, is considered as a point-of-no-return for initiating apoptotic cell death. This crucial role has placed Bcl-2 family proteins as recurrent targets for anticancer drug development. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new concept based on using minimal active version of Bax to induce cell death independently of endogenous Bcl-2 proteins. We show that membrane-active segments of Bax can directly induce the release of mitochondria-residing apoptogenic factors and commit tumor cells promptly and irreversibly to caspase-dependent apoptosis. On this basis, we designed a peptide encompassing part of the Bax pore-forming domain, able to target mitochondria, induce cytochrome c release and trigger caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, this Bax-derived poropeptide produced effective tumor regression after peritumoral injection in a nude mouse xenograft model. Thus, peptides derived from proteins evolutionary functionalized to form pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane represent novel templates for anticancer agents.
Animals; Antineoplastic Agents; chemistry; metabolism; pharmacology; Apoptosis; drug effects; Cell Line, Tumor; Cytochromes c; metabolism; Humans; Mice; Mitochondria; drug effects; metabolism; Neoplasms; drug therapy; physiopathology; Peptides; chemistry; genetics; metabolism; pharmacology; Protein Structure, Tertiary; bcl-2-Associated X Protein; chemistry; genetics; metabolism; pharmacology; apoptosis; Bcl-2 family; proapoptotic Bax; mitochondria; pore-forming peptides; anticancer agent; antivascular therapy
Post-translational phosphorylation of proteins provides a mechanism for cells to switch on or off many diverse processes, including responses to replication stress. Replication-stress-induced phosphorylation enables the rapid activation of numerous proteins involved in DNA replication, DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints, including replication protein A (RPA). Here, we report that hydroxyurea (HU)-induced RPA phosphorylation requires both NBS1 (NBN) and NBS1 phosphorylation. Transfection of both phosphospecific and non-phosphospecific anti-NBS1 antibodies blocked hyperphosphorylation of RPA in HeLa cells. Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) cells stably transfected with an empty vector or with S343A-NBS1 or S278A/S343A phospho-mutants were unable to hyperphosphorylate RPA in DNA-damage-associated foci following HU treatment. The stable transfection of fully functional NBS1 in NBS cells restored RPA hyperphosphorylation. Retention of ATR on chromatin in both NBS cells and in NBS cells expressing S278A/S343A NBS1 mutants decreased after DNA damage, suggesting that ATR is the kinase responsible for RPA phosphorylation. The importance of RPA hyperphosphorylation is demonstrated by the ability of cells expressing a phospho-mutant form of RPA32 (RPA2) to suppress and delay HU-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that RPA hyperphosphorylation requires NBS1 and is important for the cellular response to DNA damage.
Phosphorylation; DNA-damage response; DNA repair; Replication-fork stall; Replication stress
Armadillo, the Drosophila homolog of β-catenin, plays a crucial role in both the Wingless signal transduction pathway and cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, raising the possibility that Wg signaling affects cell adhesion. Here, we use a tissue culture system that allows conditional activation of the Wingless signaling pathway and modulation of E-cadherin expression levels. We show that activation of the Wingless signaling pathway leads to the accumulation of hypophosphorylated Armadillo in the cytoplasm and in cellular processes, and to a concomitant reduction of membrane-associated Armadillo. Activation of the Wingless pathway causes a loss of E-cadherin from the cell surface, reduced cell adhesion and increased spreading of the cells on the substratum. After the initial loss of E-cadherin from the cell surface, E-cadherin gene expression is increased by Wingless. We suggest that Wingless signaling causes changes in Armadillo levels and subcellular localization that result in a transient reduction of cadherin-mediated cell adhesion, thus facilitating cell shape changes, division and movement of cells in epithelial tissues.
Wingless; Wnt; Cadherin; Catenin; Cell adhesion
End-binding protein (EB) 1 binds to the C-terminus of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein and to the plus ends of microtubules (MT) and has been implicated in the regulation of APC accumulation in cortical clusters at the tip of extending membranes. We investigated which APC domains are involved in cluster localization and whether binding to EB1 or MTs is essential for APC cluster localization. Armadillo repeats of APC that lack EB1- and MT-binding domains are necessary and sufficient for APC localization in cortical clusters; an APC fragment lacking the armadillo repeats, but containing MT- and EB1-binding domains, does not localize to the cortical clusters but instead co-aligns with MTs throughout the cell. Significantly, analysis of endogenous proteins reveals that EB1 does not accumulate in the APC clusters. However, overexpressed EB1 does accumulate in APC clusters; the APC-binding domain in EB1 is located in the C-terminal region of EB1 between amino acids 134 and 268. Overexpressed APC- or MT-binding domains of EB1 localize to APC cortical clusters and MT, respectively, without affecting APC cluster formation itself. These results show that localization of APC in cortical clusters is different from that of EB1 at MT plus ends and appears to be independent of EB1.
Adenomatous polyposis coli; End-binding protein 1; Microtubules
Neuronal morphogenesis involves the initial formation of neurites and then differentiation of neurites into axons and dendrites. The mechanisms underlying neurite formation are poorly understood. A candidate protein for controlling neurite extension is the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, which regulates membrane extensions, microtubules and β-catenin-mediated transcription downstream of Wnt signaling. APC is enriched at the tip of several neurites of unpolarized hippocampal neurons and the tip of only the long axon in polarized hippocampal neurons. Significantly, APC localized to the tip of only one neurite, marked by dephospho-tau as the future axon, before that neurite had grown considerably longer than other neurites. To determine whether neurite outgrowth was affected by β-catenin accumulation and signaling, a stabilized β-catenin mutant was expressed in PC12 cells, and neurite formation was measured. Stabilized β-catenin mutants accumulated in APC clusters and inhibited neurite formation and growth. Importantly, these effects were also observed was independently of the gene transcriptional activity of β-catenin. These results indicate that APC is involved in both early neurite outgrowth and increased growth of the future axon, and that β-catenin has a structural role in inhibiting APC function in neurite growth.
Adenomatous polyposis coli; β-Catenin; Axon; Microtubule; Neurite; Neuronal polarity
Sec6/8 (exocyst) complex regulates vesicle delivery and polarized membrane growth in a variety of cells, but mechanisms regulating Sec6/8 localization are unknown. In epithelial cells, Sec6/8 complex is recruited to cell-cell contacts with a mixture of junctional proteins, but then sorts out to the apex of the lateral membrane with components of tight junction and nectin complexes. Sec6/8 complex fractionates in a high molecular mass complex with tight junction proteins and a portion of E-cadherin, and co-immunoprecipitates with cell surface-labeled E-cadherin and nectin-2α. Recruitment of Sec6/8 complex to cell-cell contacts can be achieved in fibroblasts when E-cadherin and nectin-2α are co-expressed. These results support a model in which localized recruitment of Sec6/8 complex to the plasma membrane by specific cell-cell adhesion complexes defines a site for vesicle delivery and polarized membrane growth during development of epithelial cell polarity.
Cell polarity; Cell membrane; Intercellular junctions; Intracellular membranes; Metabolism
Septins are conserved GTP-binding proteins that associate with cellular membranes and the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. They polymerize to form filamentous structures that act as diffusion barriers between different membrane domains and as molecular scaffolds for membrane- and cytoskeleton-binding proteins. In yeast, septins are central to the spatio-temporal coordination of membrane polarity and cell division, but the roles of their mammalian counterparts have remained poorly understood. However, recent findings have shed light on the dynamics and regulation of mammalian septin assembly and our understanding of septin functions in cytoskeleton and membrane organization. The mammalian septins appear to form a novel network of hetero-polymers that are multi-functional, inter-changeable and respond dynamically to signals that coordinate events at the interface between cytoskeleton and membrane biology. Hence, studies of these molecules might provide new insights not only into how cells coordinate their functions, but also into the pathogenesis of cancer and other diseases in which septins are abnormally expressed.
Septins; Cytoskeleton; Membranes; Vesicles; Mitosis; Intracellular traffic
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and End-binding protein 1 (EB1) localize to centrosomes independently of cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs) and purify with centrosomes from mammalian cell lines. Localization of EB1 to centrosomes is independent of its MT binding domain and is mediated by its C-terminus. Both APC and EB1 preferentially localize to the mother centriole and EB1 forms a cap at the end of the mother centriole that contains the subdistal appendages as defined by ε-tubulin localization. Like endogenous APC and EB1, fluorescent protein fusions of APC and EB1 localize preferentially to the mother centriole. Depletion of EB1 by RNA interference reduces MT minus-end anchoring at centrosomes and delays MT regrowth from centrosomes. In summary, our data indicate that APC and EB1 are functional components of mammalian centrosomes and that EB1 is important for anchoring cytoplasmic MT minus ends to the subdistal appendages of the mother centriole.
Adenomatous polyposis coli; EB1; Centrosome; Mother centriole; Microtubule
Integrin adhesion receptors are structurally dynamic proteins that adopt a number of functionally relevant conformations. We have produced a conformation-dependent anti-α5 monoclonal antibody (SNAKA51) that converts α5β1 into a ligand-competent form and promotes fibronectin binding. In adherent fibroblasts, SNAKA51 preferentially bound to integrins in fibrillar adhesions. Clustering of integrins expressing this activation epitope induced directional translocation of α5β1, mimicking fibrillar adhesion formation. Priming of α5β1 by SNAKA51 increased the accumulation of detergent-resistant fibronectin in the extracellular matrix, thus identifying an integrin conformation that promotes matrix assembly. The SNAKA51 epitope was mapped to the calf-1/calf-2 domains. We propose that the action of the antibody causes the legs of the integrin to change conformation and thereby primes the integrin to bind ligand. These findings identify SNAKA51 as the first anti-integrin antibody to selectively recognize a subset of adhesion contacts, and they identify an integrin conformation associated with integrin translocation and fibronectin matrix formation.
integrin; fibronectin; conformation; monoclonal antibody; matrix assembly
Both spatiotemporal analyses of adhesion signalling and the development of pharmacological inhibitors of integrin adhesion receptors currently suffer from the lack of an assay to measure integrin-effector binding and the response of these interactions to agonists. Here, we have expressed integrin-GFP and effector-mRFP pairs in living cells and quantified their association using FLIM to measure FRET. Talin-β1 and paxillin-α4 association was both ligand- and receptor activation state-dependent, and sensitive to inhibition with small molecule RGD and LDV mimetics, respectively. An adaptation of the assay revealed the agonistic activity of these small molecules and provides a new, quantitative assay for the screening of activity of small molecule integrin inhibitors.
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce the binding of extracellular stimuli into intracellular signalling cascades that can lead to morphological changes. Here, we demonstrate that stimulation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a GPCR that promotes chemotaxis by detecting increases in extracellular calcium, triggers plasma membrane (PM) ruffling via a pathway that involves β-arrestin 1, Arf nucleotide binding site opener (ARNO), ADP-ribosylating factor 6 (ARF6) and engulfment and cell motility protein (ELMO). Expression of dominant negative β-arrestin 1 or its knockdown with siRNA impaired the CaSR-induced PM ruffling response. Expression of a catalytically inactive ARNO also reduced CaSR-induced PM ruffling. Furthermore, β-arrestin 1 co-immunoprecipitated with the CaSR and ARNO under resting conditions. Agonist treatment did not markedly alter β-arrestin 1 binding to the CaSR or to ARNO but it did elicit the translocation and colocalisation of the CaSR, β-arrestin 1 and ARNO to membrane protrusions. Furthermore, ARF6 and ELMO, two proteins known to couple ARNO to the cytoskeleton, were required for CaSR-dependent morphological changes and translocated to the PM ruffles. These data suggest that cells ruffle upon CaSR stimulation via a mechanism that involves translocation of β-arrestin 1 pre-assembled with the CaSR or ARNO, and that ELMO plays an essential role in this CaSR-signalling-induced cytoskeletal reorganisation.
Calcium-sensing receptor; Cytoskeleton; β-arrestin 1; ARF6; ARNO; ELMO