In most clinical applications of functional electrical stimulation (FES), the timing and amplitude of electrical stimuli have been controlled by open-loop pattern generators. The control of upper extremity reaching movements, however, will require feedback control to achieve the required precision. Here we present three controllers using proportional derivative (PD) feedback to stimulate six arm muscles, using two joint angle sensors. Controllers were first optimized and then evaluated on a computational arm model that includes musculoskeletal dynamics. Feedback gains were optimized by minimizing a weighted sum of position errors and muscle forces. Generalizability of the controllers was evaluated by performing movements for which the controller was not optimized, and robustness was tested via model simulations with randomly weakened muscles. Robustness was further evaluated by adding joint friction and doubling the arm mass. After optimization with a properly weighted cost function, all PD controllers performed fast, accurate, and robust reaching movements in simulation. Oscillatory behavior was seen after improper tuning. Performance improved slightly as the complexity of the feedback gain matrix increased.
Neuromuscular stimulation; Optimal control; Simulation
Most of the myofibers in long muscles of vertebrates terminate within fascicles without reaching either end of the tendon, thus force generated in myofibers has to be transmitted laterally through the extracellular matrix (ECM) to adjacent fibers; which is defined as the lateral transmission of force in skeletal muscles. The goal of this study was to determine the mechanisms of lateral transmission of force between the myofiber and ECM. In this study, a 2D finite element model of single muscle fiber was developed to study the effects of mechanical properties of the endomysium and the tapered ends of myofiber on lateral transmission of force. Results showed that most of the force generated is transmitted near the end of the myofiber through shear to the endomysium, and the force transmitted to the end of the model increases with increased stiffness of ECM. This study also demonstrated that the tapered angle of the myofiber ends can reduce the stress concentration near the myofiber end while laterally transmitting force efficiently.
Lateral transmission; Finite element modeling; Tapered end; Myofiber model; Myofiber; Endomysium
Tensile testing of repaired tendons has been used to assess the efficacy of repair techniques. However, individuals flex and extend fingers at rates higher than those typically used for testing. This study characterized the effect of loading rate on the failure strength of repaired canine flexor tendons. Thirty six canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were lacerated, repaired, and tested at three displacement rates: 0.33 mm/s; 84 mm/s; and 590 mm/s. Peak force and stiffness of the repairs were evaluated. Peak force was significantly greater (p<0.05) for tendons distracted at 590 mm/s than at 0.33 mm/s. Crosshead stiffness was significantly greater for tendons distracted at 590 mm/s than at either 84 mm/s or 0.33 mm/s. The predominant failure mode was core suture knot untying. Distracting tendons at slow loading rates provides a conservative assessment of tendon repair strength. Additionally, an estimate of the failure load of this repair for different clinical events has been identified.
Tendon Repair; Rate Dependence; Suture; Mechanical Testing; Kinematics
The split-belt treadmill (SBT) has recently been used to rehabilitate locomotor asymmetries in clinical populations. However, the joint mechanics produced while walking on a SBT are not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lower extremity sagittal joint moments produced by each limb during SBT walking and provide insight as to how these joint moment patterns may be useful in rehabilitating unilateral gait deficits. Thirteen healthy young volunteers walked on the SBT with the belts tied and in a “SPLIT” session in which one belt moved twice as fast as the other. Sagittal lower extremity joint moment and ground reaction force impulses were then calculated over the braking and propulsive phases of the gait cycle. Paired t-tests were performed to analyze magnitude differences between conditions (i.e. the fast and slow limbs during SPLIT vs. the same limb during tied-belt walking) and between the fast and slow limbs during SPLIT. During the SPLIT session, the fast limb produced higher ground reaction force and ankle moment impulses during the propulsive and braking phases, and lower knee moment impulses during the propulsive phase when compared to the slow limb. The knee moment impulse was also significantly higher during braking in the slow limb than in the fast limb. The mechanics of each limb during the SPLIT session also differed from the mechanics observed when the belt speeds were tied. Based on these findings, we suggest that each belt may have intrinsic value in rehabilitating specific unilateral locomotor deficits.
The human vocal folds are layered structures with intrinsically anisotropic elastic properties. Most testing methods assume isotropic behavior. Biaxial testing of vocal folds is strictly difficult because the very soft tissue tends to delaminate under transverse traction loads. In the present study, a linear transversely isotropic model was used to characterize the tissue in-vitro. Shear rheometry was used in conjunction with traction testing to quantify the elasticity of porcine vocal fold tissue. Uniaxial traction testing along with optical measurements were used to obtain the longitudinal modulus. The alternate vocal fold of each animal was subjected to a test-specific sample preparation and concurrently tested using dynamic shear rheometry. The stiffness ratio (i.e., the ratio of the longitudinal modulus and the transverse modulus) varied between ~5 and ~7 at low frequencies. The proposed methodology can be applied to other soft tissues.
Soft tissue; Tensile test; Rheometry; Linear transversely isotropic; Stiffness ratio
Identifying the underlying mechanisms of energy dissipation during post-yield deformation of bone is critical in understanding bone fragility fractures. However, the orientation-dependence of post-yield properties of bone is still poorly understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of loading direction on the evolution of post-yield behavior of bone using a progressive loading protocol. To do so, cylindrical compressive bone samples were prepared each in the longitudinal, circumferential and radial directions, from the mid-shaft of cadaveric femurs procured from eight middle-aged male donors (51.5 ± 3.3 years old). These specimens were tested in compression in a progressive loading scheme. The results exhibited that the elastic modulus, yield stress, and energy dissipation were significantly greater in the longitudinal direction than in the transverse (circumferential and radial) directions. However, no significant differences were observed in the yield strain as well as in the successive plastic strain with respect to the increasing applied strain among the three orientations. These results suggest that the initiation and progression of plastic strain are independent of loading orientations, thus implying that the underlying mechanism of plastic behavior of bone in compression is similar in all the orientations.
Cortical bone; Post-yield; Anisotropy; Microdamage; Plastic strain; Viscous response
To assess various approaches to estimating pressure-induced wall tension in intracranial aneurysms (IA) and their effect on the stratification of subjects in a study population.
Three-dimensional models of 26 IAs (9 ruptured and 17 unruptured) were segmented from Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) images. Wall tension distributions in these patient-specific geometric models were estimated based on various approaches such as differences in morphological detail utilized or modeling choices made. For all subjects in the study population, the peak wall tension was estimated using all investigated approaches and were compared to a reference approach – nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis using the Fung anisotropic model with regionally varying material fiber directions. Comparisons between approaches were focused toward assessing the similarity in stratification of IAs within the population based on peak wall tension.
The stratification of IAs tension deviated to some extent from the reference approach as less geometric detail was incorporated. Interestingly, the size of the cerebral aneurysm as captured by a single size measure was the predominant determinant of peak wall tension-based stratification. Within FE approaches, simplifications to isotropy, material linearity and geometric linearity caused a gradual deviation from the reference estimates, but it was minimal and resulted in little to no impact on stratifications of IAs.
Differences in modeling choices made without patient-specificity in parameters of such models had little impact on tension-based IA stratification in this population. Increasing morphological detail did impact the estimated peak wall tension, but size was the predominant determinant.
Intracranial aneurysm; Biomechanics; Wall tension; Finite element method; Material models
In this study, a new cell density model was developed and incorporated into the formulation of the mechano-electrochemical mixture theory to investigate the effects of deprivation of nutrition supply at boundary source, degeneration, and dynamic loading on the cell viability of intervertebral disc (IVD) using finite element methods. The deprivation of nutrition supply at boundary source was simulated by reduction in nutrition level at CEP and AF boundaries. Cases with 100%, 75%, 60%, 50% and 30% of normal nutrition level at both CEP and AF boundaries were modeled. Unconfined axial sinusoidal dynamic compressions with different combinations of amplitude (u=10%±2.5%, ±5%) and frequency (f=1, 10, 20 cycle/day) were applied. Degenerated IVD was modeled with altered material properties. Cell density decreased substantially with reduction of nutrition level at boundaries. Cell death was initiated primarily near the NP–AF interface on the mid-plane. Dynamic loading did not result in a change in the cell density in non-degenerated IVD, since glucose levels did not fall below the minimum value for cell survival; in degenerated IVDs, we found that increasing frequency and amplitude both resulted in higher cell density, because dynamic compression facilitates the diffusion of nutrients and thus increases the nutrition level around IVD cells. The novel computational model can be used to quantitatively predict both when and where cells start to die within the IVD under various kinds of nutritional and mechanical conditions.
Biomechanics; Mechanobiology; Transport phenomena; Nutrition; Glucose concentration; Cell density; Dynamic compression; Mixture theory
Tissue level characteristics of bone can be measured by nanoindentation and microspectroscopy, but are challenging to translate to whole bone mechanical behavior in this hierarchically structured material. The current study calculated weighted section modului from microCT attenuation values based on tissue level relationships (Zlin,a and Zlin,b) between mineralization and material properties to predict whole bone mechanical behavior. Zlin,a was determined using the equation of the best fit linear regression between nanoindentation indentation modulus and mineral:matrix ratio from Raman spectroscopy. To better represent the modulus of unmineralized tissue, a second linear regression with the intercept fixed at 0 was used to calculate Zlin,b. The predictive capability of the weighted section moduli calculated using a tissue level relationship were compared with average tissue level properties and weighted section moduli calculated using an apparent level relationship (Zexp) between Young’s Modulus and mineralization. A range of bone mineralization was created using vitamin D deficiency in growing rats. After 10 weeks, left femurs were scanned using microCT and tested to failure in 3 point bending. Contralateral limbs were used for co-localized tissue level mechanical properties by nanoindentation and compositional measurements by Raman microspectroscopy. Vitamin D deficiency reduced whole bone stiffness and strength by ~35% and ~30%, respectively, but only reduced tissue mineral density by ~10% compared with Controls. Average tissue level properties did not correlate with whole bone mechanical behavior while Zlin,a, Zlin,b, and Zexp predicted 54%, 66%, and 80% of the failure moment respectively. This study demonstrated that in a model for varying mineralization, the composite beam model in this paper is an improved method to extrapolate tissue level data to macro-scale mechanical behavior.
Nanoindentation; composite beam theory; rat cortical bone; Raman spectroscopy; vitamin D
This study focuses on the dynamic flow through the fetal aortic arch driven by the concurrent action of right and left ventricles. We created a parametric pulsatile computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the fetal aortic junction with physiologic vessel geometries. To gain a better biophysical understanding an in vitro experimental fetal flow loop for flow visualization was constructed for identical CFD conditions. CFD and in vitro experimental results were comparable. Swirling flow during the acceleration phase of the cardiac cycle and unidirectional flow following mid-deceleration phase were observed in pulmonary arteries (PA), head-neck vessels, and descending aorta. Right-to-left (oxygenated) blood flowed through the ductus arteriosus (DA) posterior relative to the antegrade left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) stream and resembled jet flow. LVOT and right ventricular outflow tract flow mixing had not completed until ~3.5 descending aorta diameters downstream of the DA insertion into the aortic arch. Normal arch model flow patterns were then compared to flow patterns of four common congenital heart malformations that include aortic arch anomalies. Weak oscillatory reversing flow through the DA junction was observed only for the Tetralogy of Fallot configuration. Pulmonary Atresia and Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome configurations demonstrated complex, abnormal flow patterns in the PAs and head-neck vessels. Aortic Coarctation resulted in large scale recirculating flow in the aortic arch proximal to the DA. Intravascular flow patterns spatially correlated with abnormal vascular structures consistent with the paradigm that abnormal intravascular flow patterns associated with congenital heart disease influence vascular growth and function.
We formalize the hydrodynamic energy dissipation in the Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC) using dimensional analysis and examine the effect of governing flow variables; namely, cardiac output, flow split, body surface area, Reynolds number, and certain geometric characteristics. A simplistic and clinically useful mathematical model of the dependence of energy dissipation on the governing variables is developed. In vitro energy loss data corresponding to six patients’ anatomies validated the predicted dependency of each variable and was used to develop a predictive, semi-empirical energy dissipation model of the TCPC. It is shown that energy dissipation is a cubic function of pulmonary flow split in the physiological range. Furthermore, non-dimensional energy dissipation, which is a measure of resistance of the connection, is dependent on Reynolds number and geometrical factors alone. Non-dimensional energy dissipation decreases with Reynolds number as Re^−0.25 (R2 > 0.95). In addition, for high Reynolds numbers, within physiological exercise limits, dissipation strongly correlates to minimum PA area as a power law decay with an exponent of −5/4 (R2 > 0.88). This study presents a simple analytical form of energy dissipation rate in complex patient-specific TCPCs that accurately captures the effect of cardiac output, flow split, body surface area, Reynolds number, and Pulmonary artery size within physiological limits. Further studies with larger sample sizes are necessary for incorporating finer geometrical parameters such as vessel curvatures and offsets.
Fontan; Powerloss; Energy dissipation; head loss; total cavopulmonary connection; vessel junction
Spatial variation of the haemodynamic stresses acting on the arterial wall is commonly assumed to explain the focal development of atherosclerosis. Disturbed flow in particular is thought to play a key role. However, widely-used metrics developed to quantify its extent are unable to distinguish between uniaxial and multidirectional flows. We analysed pulsatile flow fields obtained in idealised and anatomically-realistic arterial geometries using computational fluid dynamics techniques, and in particular investigated the multidirectionality of the flow fields, capturing this aspect of near-wall blood flow with a new metric – the transverse wall shear stress (transWSS) – calculated as the time-average of wall shear stress components perpendicular to the mean flow direction. In the idealised branching geometry, multidirectional flow was observed downstream of the branch ostium, a region of flow stagnation, and to the sides of the ostium. The distribution of the transWSS was different from the pattern of traditional haemodynamic metrics and more dependent on the velocity waveform imposed at the branch outlet. In rabbit aortas, transWSS patterns were again different from patterns of traditional metrics. The near-branch pattern varied between intercostal ostia, as is the case for lesion distribution; for some branches there were striking resemblances to the age-dependent patterns of disease seen in rabbit and human aortas. The new metric may lead to improved understanding of atherogenesis.
Atherosclerosis; Haemodynamics; Wall shear stress; Multidirectionality; Disturbed flow; Rabbit aorta
To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (Rh = 7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P+(avg)) incident on the stone (D = 10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1,000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P+(avg) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P+(avg)) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters.
Shock wave lithotripsy; average peak pressure; stone comminution; cavitation; acoustic energy
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of 2D ultrasound elastography to assess tendon tissue motion and strains under axial loading conditions. Four porcine flexor tendons were cyclically loaded to 4% peak strain using a servo hydraulic test system. An ultrasound transducer was positioned to image a longitudinal cross-section of the tendon during loading. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data were collected at 63 frames per second simultaneously with applied force and crosshead displacement. A grid of nodes was manually positioned on an ultrasound image of the unloaded tendon. Small kernels (2 × 1 mm) centered at each node were then cross-correlated with search regions centered at corresponding nodal locations in the subsequent frame. Frame-to-frame nodal displacements were defined as the values that maximized the normalized cross-correlations. This process was repeated across all frames in the loading cycle, providing a measurement of the 2D trajectories of tissue motion through out the loading cycle. The high resolution displacement measures along the RF beam direction were spatially differentiated to estimate the transverse (relative to tend on fibers) tissue strains. The nodal displacements obtained using this method were very repeatable, with average along-fiber trajectories that were highly correlated (r2>0.98) with the prescribed crosshead displacements. The elastography transverse strains were also repeatable and were consistent with average transverse strains estimated via changes in tendon width. The apparent Poisson’s ratios (0.82-1.64) exceeded the incompressibility limit, but are comparable to values found for tendon in prior experimental and computational studies. The results demonstrate that 2D ultrasound elastography is a promising approach for noninvasively assessing localized tissue motion and strain patterns.
Tendon; strain patterns; ultrasound elastography
While contemporary prosthetic devices restore some function to individuals who have lost a limb, there are efforts to develop bio-integrated prostheses to improve functionality. A critical step in advancing this technology will be to securely attach the device to remnant bone. To investigate mechanisms for establishing robust implant fixation in bone while undergoing loading, we previously used a topology optimization scheme to develop optimized orthopaedic implants and then fabricated selected designs from titanium (Ti)-alloy with selective laser sintering (SLS) technology. In the present study, we examined how implant architecture and mechanical stimulation influence osseointegration within an in vivo environment. To do this, we evaluated three implant designs (two optimized and one non-optimized) using a unique in vivo model that applied cyclic, tension/ compression loads to the implants. Eighteen (six per implant design) adult male canines had implants surgically placed in their proximal, tibial metaphyses. Experimental duration was 12 weeks; daily loading (peak load of ±22N for 1000 cycles) was applied to one of each animal’s bilateral implants for the latter six weeks. Following harvest, osseointegration was assessed by non-destructive mechanical testing, micro-computed tomography (microCT) and back-scatter scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data revealed that implant loading enhanced osseointegration by significantly increasing construct stiffness, peri-implant trabecular morphology, and percentages of interface connectivity and bone ingrowth. While this experiment did not demonstrate a clear advantage associated with the optimized implant designs, osseointegration was found to be significantly influenced by aspects of implant architecture.
Orthopaedic implant design; Osseointegration; Bone; Mechanical stimulation
The shear strength of human trabecular bone may influence overall bone strength under fall loading conditions and failure at bone-implant interfaces. Here, we sought to compare shear and compressive yield strengths of human trabecular bone and elucidate the underlying failure mechanisms. We analyzed 54 specimens (5-mm cubes), all aligned with the main trabecular orientation and spanning four anatomic sites, 44 different cadavers, and a wide range of bone volume fraction (0.06–0.38). Micro-CT-based non-linear finite element analysis was used to assess the compressive and shear strengths and the spatial distribution of yielded tissue; the tissue-level constitutive model allowed for kinematic non-linearity and yielding with strength asymmetry. We found that the computed values of both the shear and compressive strengths depended on bone volume fraction via power law relations having an exponent of 1.7 (R2=0.95 shear; R2=0.97 compression). The ratio of shear to compressive strengths (mean ± SD, 0.44 ± 0.16) did not depend on bone volume fraction (p=0.24) but did depend on microarchitecture, most notably the intra-trabecular standard deviation in trabecular spacing (R2=0.23, p<0.005). For shear, the main tissue-level failure mode was tensile yield of the obliquely oriented trabeculae. By contrast, for compression, specimens having low bone volume fraction failed primarily by large-deformation-related tensile yield of horizontal trabeculae and those having high bone volume failed primarily by compressive yield of vertical trabeculae. We conclude that human trabecular bone is generally much weaker in shear than compression at the apparent level, reflecting different failure mechanisms at the tissue level.
shear; finite element; trabeculae; microarchitecture; yield
Damage is often sustained by the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) and ligamentum flavum LF) in the cervical spine subsequent to whiplash or other cervical trauma. These ligaments afford substantial cervical stability when healthy, but the ability of the ALL and LF to stabilize the spine when injured is not as conclusively studied. In order to address this issue, the current study excised ALL and LF tissues from cadaveric spines and experimentally simulated whiplash-type damage to the isolated ligaments. Stiffnesses and toe region lengths were measured for both the uninjured and damaged states. These ligamentous mechanical properties were then inputted into a previously-validated finite element (FE) model of the cervical spine and the kinematic effects of various clinically relevant combinations of ligamentous injury were predicted. The data indicated three and five-fold increases in toe region length for the LF and ALL injury variants, respectively. These toe length distensions resulted in FE predictions of supra-physiologic ranges of motion, and these motions were comparable to spines with no ligamentous support. Finally, a set of cadaveric cervical spine ligament-sectioning experiments confirmed the FE predictions and supported the finding that partial injury to the relevant ligaments produces equivalent cervical kinematic signatures to spines that have completely compromised ALL and LF tissues.
Muscle weakness is commonly cited as a cause of crouch gait in individuals with cerebral palsy; however, outcomes after strength training are variable and mechanisms by which muscle weakness may contribute to crouch gait are unclear. Understanding how much muscle strength is required to walk in a crouch gait compared to an unimpaired gait may provide insight into how muscle weakness contributes to crouch gait and assist in the design of strength training programs. The goal of this study was to examine how much muscle groups could be weakened before crouch gait becomes impossible. To investigate this question, we first created muscle-driven simulations of gait for three typically-developing children and six children with cerebral palsy who walked with varying degrees of crouch severity. We then simulated muscle weakness by systematically reducing the maximum isometric force of each muscle group until the simulation could no longer reproduce each subject’s gait. This analysis indicated that moderate crouch gait required significantly more knee extensor strength than unimpaired gait. In contrast, moderate crouch gait required significantly less hip abductor strength than unimpaired gait, and mild crouch gait required significantly less ankle plantarflexor strength than unimpaired gait. The reduced strength required from the hip abductors and ankle plantarflexors during crouch gait suggests that weakness of these muscle groups may contribute to crouch gait and that these muscle groups are potential targets for strength training.
cerebral palsy; crouch gait; strength; muscle; simulation
A quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) model was used to study passive time-dependent responses of skeletal muscle to repeated massage-like compressive loading (MLL) following damaging eccentric exercise. Six skeletally mature rabbits were surgically instrumented with bilateral peroneal nerve cuffs for stimulation of the hindlimb tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Following the eccentric exercise, rabbits were randomly assigned to a four-day MLL protocol mimicking deep effleurage (0.5 Hz, 10 N for 15 min or for 30 min). The contralateral hindlimb served as the exercised, no-MLL control for both MLL conditions. Viscoelastic properties of the muscle pre-exercise, post-exercise on Day 1, and pre- and post-MLL Day 1 through Day 4 were determined with ramp-and-hold tests. The instantaneous elastic response (AG0) increased following exercise (p <0.05) and decreased due to both the 15 min and 30 min four-day MLL protocols (p<0.05). Post-four days of MLL the normalized AG0 decreased from post-exercise (Day 1, 248.5%) to the post-MLL (Day 4, 98.5%) (p<0.05), compared to the no-MLL group (Day 4, 222.0%) (p<0.05). Exercise and four-day MLL showed no acute or cumulative effects on the fast and slow relaxation coefficients (p>0.05). This is the first experimental evidence of the effect of both acute (daily) and cumulative changes in viscoelastic properties of intensely exercised muscle due to ex vivo MLL. It provides a starting point for correlating passive muscle properties with mechanical effects of manual therapies, and may shed light on design and optimization of massage protocols.
Compressive loading; Skeletal muscle; Viscoelasticity; Manual therapy
It is difficult to study the breakdown of disc tissue over several years of exposure to bending and lifting by experimental methods. There is also no finite element model that elucidates the failure mechanism due to repetitive loading of the lumbar motion segment. The aim of this study was to refine an already validated poro-elastic finite element model of lumbar motion segment to investigate the initiation and progression of mechanical damage in the disc under simple and complex cyclic loading conditions. Continuum damage mechanics methodology was incorporated into the finite element model to track the damage accumulation in the annulus in response to the repetitive loading. The analyses showed that the damage initiated at the posterior inner annulus adjacent to the endplates and propagated outwards towards its periphery under all loading conditions simulated. The damage accumulated preferentially in the posterior region of the annulus. The analyses also showed that the disc failure is unlikely to happen with repetitive bending in the absence of compressive load. Compressive cyclic loading with low peak load magnitude also did not create the failure of the disc. The finite element model results were consistent with the experimental and clinical observations in terms of the region of failure, magnitude of applied loads and the number of load cycles survived.
Lumbar spine; Disc degeneration; Fatigue failure; Finite element modeling; Continuum damage mechanics
The tensile and compressive properties of human glenohumeral cartilage were determined by testing 120 rectangular strips in uniaxial tension and 70 cylindrical plugs in confined compression, obtained from five human glenohumeral joints. Specimens were harvested from five regions across the articular surface of the humeral head and two regions on the glenoid. Tensile strips were obtained along two orientations, parallel and perpendicular to the split-line directions. Two serial slices through the thickness, corresponding to the superficial and middle zones of the cartilage layers, were prepared from each tensile strip and each compressive plug. The equilibrium tensile modulus and compressive aggregate modulus of cartilage were determined from the uniaxial tensile and confined compression tests, respectively. Significant differences in the tensile moduli were found with depth and orientation relative to the local split line direction. Articular cartilage of the humeral head was significantly stiffer in tension than that of the glenoid. There were significant differences in the aggregate compressive moduli of articular cartilage between superficial and middle zones in the humeral head. Furthermore, tensile and compressive stress-strain responses exhibited nonlinearity under finite strain while the tensile modulus differed by up to two orders of magnitude from the compressive aggregate modulus at 0% strain, demonstrating a high degree of tension-compression nonlinearity. The complexity of the mechanical properties of human glenohumeral cartilage was exposed in this study, showing anisotropy, inhomogeneity, and tension-compression nonlinearity within the same joint. The observed differences in the tensile properties of human glenohumeral cartilage suggest that the glenoid may be more susceptible to cartilage degeneration than the humeral head.
articular cartilage; glenohumeral joint; mechanical properties; inhomogeneity; anisotropy; tension-compression nonlinearity
An important concern in the study of fracture healing is the ability to assess mechanical integrity in response to candidate therapeutics in small-animal systems. In recent reports, it has been proposed that microCT image-derived densitometric parameters could be used as a surrogate for mechanical property assessment. Recently, we have proposed an inverse methodology that iteratively reconstructs the modulus of elasticity of the lumped soft callus/hard callus region by integrating both intrinsic mechanical property (from biomechanical testing) and geometrical information (from microCT) within an inverse finite element analysis (FEA) to define a callus quality measure. In this paper, data from a therapeutic system involving mesenchymal stem cells is analyzed within the context of comparing traditional microCT densitometric and mechanical property metrics. In addition, a novel multi-parameter regression microCT parameter is analyzed as well as our inverse FEA metric. The results demonstrate that the inverse FEA approach was the only metric to successfully detect both longitudinal and therapeutic responses. While the most promising microCT-based metrics were adequate at early healing states, they failed to track late-stage mechanical integrity. In addition, our analysis added insight to the role of MSCs by demonstrating accelerated healing and was the only metric to demonstrate therapeutic benefits at late-stage healing. In conclusion, the work presented here indicates that microCT densitometric parameters are an incomplete surrogate for mechanical integrity. Additionally, our inverse FEA approach is shown to be very sensitive and may provide a first-step towards normalizing the often challenging process of assessing mechanical integrity of healing fractures.
Bone fracture healing; Mesenchymal stem cells; microCT; Material properties; Finite element analysis
The knowledge of normal patellar tracking is essential for understanding of the knee joint function and for diagnosis of patellar instabilities. This paper investigated the patellar tracking and patellofemoral joint contact locations during a stair ascending activity using a validated dual-fluoroscopic imaging system. The results showed that the patellar flexion angle decreased from 41.9° to 7.5° with the knee extension during stair ascending. During first 80% of the activity, the patella shifted medially about 3.9 mm and then slightly shifted laterally during the last 20% of the ascending activity. Anterior translation of 13 mm of the patella was measured at the early 80% of the activity and then slightly moved posteriorly by about 2 mm at the last 20% of the activity. The path of the cartilage contact points was slightly lateral on the cartilage surfaces of patella and femur. On the patellar cartilage surface, the cartilage contact locations were about 2 mm laterally from heel strike to 60% of the stair ascending activity and moved laterally and reached 5.3 mm at full extension. However, the cartilage contact locations were relatively constant on the femoral cartilage surface (~5 mm lateral). The patellar tracking pattern was consistent with the patellofemoral cartilage contact location pattern. These data could provide baseline knowledge for understanding of normal physiology of the patellofemoral joint and can be used as a reference for clinical evaluation of patellofemoral disorder symptoms.
Patellar tracking; Patellofemoral cartilage contact
Impaired control of mediolateral body motion during walking is an important health concern. Developing treatments to improve mediolateral control is challenging, partly because the mechanisms by which muscles modulate mediolateral ground reaction force (and thereby modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center) during unimpaired walking are poorly understood. To investigate this, we examined mediolateral ground reaction forces in eight unimpaired subjects walking at four speeds and determined the contributions of muscles, gravity, and velocity-related forces to the mediolateral ground reaction force by analyzing muscle-driven simulations of these subjects. During early stance (0-6% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the leading foot was directed laterally and increased significantly (p < 0.05) with walking speed. During early single support (14-30% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the stance foot was directed medially and increased significantly (p < 0.01) with speed. Muscles accounted for more than 92% of the mediolateral ground reaction force over all walking speeds, whereas gravity and velocity-related forces made relatively small contributions. Muscles coordinate mediolateral acceleration via an interplay between the medial ground reaction force contributed by the abductors and the lateral ground reaction forces contributed by the knee extensors, plantarflexors, and adductors. Our findings show how muscles that contribute to forward progression and body-weight support also modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center while weight is transferred from one leg to another during double support.
Adults with intellectual disability (ID) experience more falls than their non-disabled peers. A gait analysis was conducted to quantify normal walking, and an additional slip trial was performed to measure slip response characteristics for adults with ID as well as a group of age-and gender-matched controls. Variables relating to gait pattern, slip propensity, and slip severity were assessed to compare the differences between groups. The ID group was found to have significantly slower walking speed, shorter step lengths, and increased knee flexion angles at heel contact. These gait characteristics are known to reduce the likelihood of slip initiation in adults without ID. Despite a more cautious gait pattern, however, the ID group exhibited greater slip distances indicating greater slip severity. This study suggests that falls in this population may be due to deficient slip detection or insufficient recovery response.
Intellectual disability; fall accidents; gait analysis; biomechanics