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Year of Publication
1.  Liver-Assisting Devices 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(6):635-636.
PMCID: PMC2900070  PMID: 20640088
2.  Cardio Cerebral Resuscitation: Is it better than CPR? 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(6):637-640.
Summary
The guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been in place for decades; but despite their international scope and periodic updates, there has been little improvement in survival rates in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for patients who did not receive early defibrillation. Instituting the new cardio cerebral resuscitation protocol for managing prehospital cardiac arrest improved survival of adult patients with witnessed cardiac arrest and an initially shockable rhythm.
PMCID: PMC2900071  PMID: 20640089
Cardio cerebral Resuscitation; CPR; Prehospital cardiac arrest
3.  Regional & Topical Anaesthesia of Upper Airways 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(6):641-648.
Summary
A combination of techniques are required to adequately anaesthetise upper airway structures for awake intubation. The widest coverage is provided by the inhalational technique. This technique, however, does not always provide a dense enough level of anaesthesia for all patients. Supplementation of this technique with any of the specific nerve blocks is an excellent way to accomplish efficacious anaesthesia for awake inubation. Anaesthetising upper airway is not a difficult skill to master and should be in the armamentarium of all practising anaesthetist.
PMCID: PMC2900072  PMID: 20640090
Awake intubation; Fibre optic intubation; Laryngoscopy; Topical anaesthesia; Local anaesthetics; Nerve block
4.  Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia during Labour: Effect of Addition of Background Infusion on Quality of Analgesia & Maternal Satisfaction 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(6):649-653.
Summary
Patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) is a well established technique for pain relief during labor. But the inclusion of continuous background infusion to PCEA is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of continuous infusion along with PCEA was beneficial for laboring women with regards to quality of analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal outcome in comparison to PCEA alone. Fifty five parturients received epidural bolus of 10ml solution containing 0.125% bupivacaine +2 µg.ml−1 of fentanyl. For maintenance of analgesia the patients of Group PCEA self administered 8 ml bolus with lockout interval of 20 minutes of above solution on demand with no basal infusion. While the patients of Group PCEA + CI received continuous epidural infusion at the rate of 10 ml.hr-1 along with self administered boluses of 3 ml with lockout interval of 10 minutes of similar epidural solution. Patients of both groups were given rescue boluses by the anaesthetists for distressing pain. Verbal analogue pain scores, incidence of distressing pain, need of supplementary/rescue boluses, dose of bupivacaine consumed, maternal satisfaction and neonatal Apgar scores were recorded. No significant difference was observed between mean VAS pain scores during labor, maternal satisfaction, mode of delivery or neonatal Apgar scores. But more patients (n=8) required rescue boluses in PCEA group for distressing pain. The total volume consumed of bupivacaine and opioid was slightly more in PCEA + CI group. In both the techniques the highest sensory level, degree of motor block were comparable & prolongation of labor was not seen. It was concluded that both the techniques provided equivalent labor analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal Apgar scores. PCEA along with continuous infusion at the rate of 10 ml/ hr resulted in lesser incidence of distressing pain and need for rescue analgesic. Although this group consumed higher dose of bupivacaine, it did not affect maternal or neonatal safety.
PMCID: PMC2900073  PMID: 20640091
PCEA; Background infusion; Labor analgesia
5.  Comparison of Midazolam and Propofol for BIS-Guided Sedation During Regional Anaesthesia 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(6):662-666.
Summary
Regional anaesthesia has become an important anaesthetic technique. Effective sedation is an essential for regional techniques too. This study compares midazolam and propofol in terms of onset & recovery from sedation, dosage and side effects of both the drugs using Bispectral Index monitoring. Ninety eight patients were randomly divided into two groups,one group recieved midazolam infusion while the other recieved propofol infusion until BIS reached 75. We observed Time to reach desired sedation, HR, MABP, time for recovery, dose to reach sedation and for maintenance of sedation and side effects if any. The time to reach required sedation was 11 min in Midazolam group(Group I) while it was 6 min in Propofol group(Group II) (p=0.0). Fall in MABP was greater with propofol. Recovery in with midazolam was slower than with propofol (18.6 ± 6.5 vs 10.10±3.65 min) (p=0.00). We concluded that both midazolam and propofol are effective sedatives, but onset and offset was quicker with propofol, while midazolam was more cardiostable.
PMCID: PMC2900075  PMID: 20640093
Propofol; Midazolam; Sedation; BIS
6.  Efficacy and Safety of Tranexamic Acid in Control of Bleeding Following TKR: A Randomized Clinical Trial 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(6):667-671.
Summary
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is generally carried out using a tourniquet and blood loss occurring mainly post operatively is collected in drains. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent which decreases the total blood loss. Patients had unilateral / bilateral cemented TKA using combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia. In a double-blind fashion, they received either placebo (n=25) or tranexamic acid (n=25)10 mg.kg−1 i.v., just before tourniquet inflation, followed by 1 mg kg−1 h-1 i.v. till closure of the wound. The postoperative blood loss, transfusion requirement, cost effectiveness and complications were noted. The groups had similar characteristics. The mean volume of drainage fluid was 270 ml and 620 ml for unilateral(U/L) and bilateral(B/L) TKR patients in placebo group. Whereas it was 160ml and 286 ml respectively in unilateral(U/L) and bilateral(B/L) TKR patients who received tranexamic acid. This was considered statistically significant. Control group patients received 26 units of PRBC as compared to 4 units in tranexamic acid groups (p<0.001). This was again statistically significant. None of the patients in any of the groups developed deep vein thrombosis. Tranexamic acid decreased total blood loss by nearly 54% in B/L TKR and 40% in U/L TKR and drastically reduced (> 80%) blood transfusion.
PMCID: PMC2900076  PMID: 20640094
Tranexamic acid; TKR; blood loss
7.  Injury Patterns In Low Intensity Conflict 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(6):672-677.
Summary
Injury patterns and their outcome has been the subject of interest in all kinds of military conflicts. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital (Level I trauma centre) to find out the trends in injuries in low intensity conflict, adequacy of pre hospital treatment, mortality patterns and adequacy of treatment after reaching tertiary care hospital. 418 patients were treated over a period of two years. All were male and 76% younger than 30 years of age. 61% patients reported directly from the site of incident and 39% were transferred from other trauma centre. Two-third of patients (73.9%) reported with at least one limb injury and 44.9% with extremity injury alone. Multiple injuries were most common injury (29%). Head and neck injuries were seen in 20% patients and Thoracic and abdominal injuries were seen in 2.6% and 3.4% patients only.
Most common mode of injury was Gunshot wound (41.4%), followed by splinter injuries (39.2%) and Road traffic accident(RTA) (19.4%). Overall mortality was 3.8% and inpatient mortality of 1.4%. Head and neck injuries were leading cause of death followed by thoracic injuries.
PMCID: PMC2900077  PMID: 20640095
Militancy; Low intensity conflicts; Road traffic accidents (RTA); Trauma; Injuries
8.  Congenital Cervical Teratoma:Anaesthetic Management (The EXIT Procedure) 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(6):678-682.
Summary
Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) is a procedure performed during caesarean section with preservation of fetal-placental circulation, which allows the safe handling of fetal airways with risk of airways obstruction. This report aimed at describing a case of anaesthesia for EXIT in a fetus with cervical teratoma. A 30-year-old woman, 70 kg, 160 cm, gravida 2, para 1, was followed because of polyhydramniosis diagnosed at 24 weeks’ gestation. During a routine ultrasonographic examination at 35 weeks’ gestation, it was noticed that the fetus had a tumoral mass on the anterior neck, the mass had cystic and calcified components and with a size of was 10 × 6 ×5 cm. The patient with physical status ASA I, was submitted to caesarean section under general anaesthesia with mechanically controlled ventilation for exutero intrapartum treatment (EXIT). Anaesthesia was induced in rapid sequence with fentanyl propofol and rocuronium and was maintained with isoflurane in 2.5 at 3 % in O and N O (50%). After hysterotomy, fetus was partially released assuring uterus-placental circulation, followed by fetal laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. The infant was intubated with an uncuffed, size 2.5 endotracheal tube. Excision of the mass was performed under general anaesthesia. After surgical intervention, on the fourth postoperative day, the infant was extubated and the newborn was discharged to the pediatric neonatal unit and on the seventh day postoperatively to home without complications. Major recommendations for EXIT are maternal-fetal safety, uterine relaxation to maintain uterine volume and uterus-placental circulation, and fetal immobility to help airway handling. We report one case of cervical teratoma managed successfully with EXIT procedure.
PMCID: PMC2900078  PMID: 20640096
Cervical teratoma; Mass in the neck; Extrauterine intrapartum treatment procedure.
9.  Anaesthetic Management of A Child with Multiple Congenital Anomalies Scheduled for Cataract Extraction 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(6):683-687.
Summary
In infants & children variety of conditions and syndromes are associated with difficult Airway. Anaesthetic management becomes a challenge if it remains unrecognized until induction and sometimes results in disaster, leading to oropharyngeal trauma, laryngeal oedema, cardiovascular & neurological complications. A 4-month-old child with multiple congenital anomalies was posted for cataract extraction for early and better development of vision. He had history of post birth respiratory distress, difficulty in feeding, breath holding with delayed mile stones. He was treated as for Juvenile asthma. This child was induced with inhalation anaesthesia. There was difficulty in laryngoscopic intubation and could pass much smaller size of the tube than predicted. He developed post operative stridor and desaturation. The problems which we faced during the anaesthetic management and during postoperative period are discussed with this case.
PMCID: PMC2900079  PMID: 20640097
Congenital subglottic stenosis; Airway malacia; Anesthesia; Difficult intubation
10.  Myotonic Dystrophy: An Anaesthetic Dilemma 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(6):688-691.
Summary
Myotonic dystrophy (dystrophia myotonica, DM) is a chronic, slowly progressing, highly variable inherited multisystemic disease that can manifest at any age from birth to old age. We present a 32-year-old female with adenexal mass posted for exploratory laparotomy. She was a known case of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP).The ECG suggested incomplete RBBB & LAHB & the ECHO revealed mild mitral regurgitation, tricuspid regurgitation, pulmonary artery hypertension with severe left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction of 30-35%). General anaesthesia (GA) with epidural anaesthesia was planned. The patient was haemodynamically stable through out the surgical procedure. The patient was reversed and shifted to post anaesthesia care unit. On the 2nd postoperative day patient developed respiratory distress and hypotension. ABG revealed Type 1 respiratory failure. Since the patient didn't improve with oxygen therapy and nebulisation, she was intubated and shifted to ICU. Patient was tolerating the tube without sedation and relaxants so, consultant anaesthesiologist asked for neurologist referral to rule out myotonic dystrophy. Subsequent muscle biopsy and genetic analysis was suggestive of myotonic dystrophy. Despite all possible efforts we were unable to wean her off the ventilator for 390 days. Patients with myotonic dystrophy are a challenge to the attending anaesthesiologist. These patients can be very well managed with preoperative optimized medical treatment and well-planned perioperative care.
PMCID: PMC2900080  PMID: 20640098
Anaesthesia; Myotonic dystrophy; Postoperative complication
11.  Capnography Guided Awake Nasal Intubation in a 4 Month Infant with Pierre Robin Syndrome for Cleft Lip Repair-A Better Technique 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(6):692-695.
Summary
This four-month-old Pierre Robin child was admitted for cleft lip repair with history of two failed attempts at intubation and subsequent cancellation of surgery. The capnography guided awake nasal intubation was considered as the child's parents were desperate to get the surgery done. A modified cuffless endotracheal tube was used with a capnography sampling tube placed within it. With the capnograph guidance the expiratory gas flow was followed to successfully intubate the child.This technique was found to be very convenient and helpful. The use of this technique in an infant has not been reported so far.
PMCID: PMC2900081  PMID: 20640099
Pierre Robin Syndrome; Capnography; Difficult airway; Awake nasal intubation
12.  Cervical Epidural Anaesthesia for Radical Mastectomy and Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome of upper limb-A Case Report 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(6):696-699.
Summary
A 47-yrs-female patient presented with carcinoma right breast, swelling and allodynia of right upper limb. radical mastectomy with axillary clearance and skin grafting was done under cervical epidural anaesthesia through 18G epidural catheter placed at C6/C7 level. Postoperative analgesia and rehabilitation of affected right upper limb was managed by continuous epidural infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine and 2.5 µg/ml−1clonidine solution through epidural catheter for 5 days and physiotherapy. This case report highlights the usefulness of cervical epidural analgesia in managing a complex situation of carcinoma breast with associated periarthitis of shoulder joint and chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of right upper limb.
PMCID: PMC2900082  PMID: 20640100
Cervical epidural anaesthesia (CEA); CRPS (chronic regional pain syndrome); Carcinoma breast; epidural Clonidine

Results 1-12 (12)