Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) arises from decreased hepatic activity of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD). Both genetic and environmental factors interplay in the precipitation of clinically overt PCT, but these factors may vary between different geographic areas. Decreased activity of UROD in erythrocytes was used to identify patients with UROD mutations among a group of 130 Spanish PCT patients. Nineteen patients (14.6%) were found to harbor a mutation in the UROD gene. Eight mutations were novel: M1I, 5del10, A22V, D79N, F84I, Q116X, T141I and Y182C. Five others were previously described: F46L, V134Q, R142Q, P150L and E218G. The new missense mutations and P150L were expressed in Escherichia coli. D79N and P150L resulted in proteins that were localized to inclusion bodies. The other mutations produced recombinant proteins that were purified and showed reduced activity (range: 2.3–73.2% of wild type). These single amino acid changes were predicted to produce complex structural alterations and/or reduced stability of the enzyme. Screening of relatives of the probands showed that 37.5% of mutation carriers demonstrated increased urinary porphyrins. This study emphasizes the role of UROD mutations as a strong risk factor for PCT even in areas where environmental factors (hepatitis C virus) have been shown to be highly associated with the disease.
porphyria; UROD gene; UROD protein
It is anticipated that as the range of drugs for which pharmacogenetic testing becomes available expands, primary care physicians (PCPs) will become major users of these tests. To assess their training, familiarity, and attitudes toward pharmacogenetic testing in order to identify barriers to uptake that may be addressed at this early stage of test use, we conducted a national survey of a sample of PCPs. Respondents were mostly white (79%), based primarily in community-based primary care (81%) and almost evenly divided between family medicine and internal medicine. The majority of respondents had heard of PGx testing and anticipated that these tests are or would soon become a valuable tool to inform drug response. However, only a minority of respondents (13%) indicated they felt comfortable ordering PGx tests and almost a quarter reported not having any education about pharmacogenetics.
Our results indicate that primary care practitioners envision a major role for themselves in the delivery of PGx testing but recognize their lack of adequate knowledge and experience about these tests. Development of effective tools for guiding PCPs in the use of PGx tests should be a high priority.
Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2 ) gene mutations are a major risk factor for heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH), an autosomal dominant fatal disease. We have previously shown that BMPR2 transcripts that contain premature termination codon (PTC) mutations are rapidly and nearly completely degraded through nonsense mediated decay (NMD). Here we report a unique PTC mutation (W13X) that did not behave in the predicted manner. We found that patient-derived cultured lymphocytes (CLs) contained readily detectable levels of the PTC-containing transcript. Further analysis suggested that this transcript escaped NMD by translational re-initiation at a downstream Kozak sequence, resulting in the omission of 173 amino acids. Treatment of CLs containing the PTC with an aminoglycoside decreased the truncated protein levels, with a reciprocal increase in full-length BMPR2 protein and, importantly, BMPR-II signaling. This is the first demonstration of aminoglycoside-mediated ‘repair’ of a BMPR2 mutation at the protein level in patient-derived cells and has obvious implications for treatment of HPAH where no disease-specific treatment options are available. Our data also suggest the need for a more thorough characterization of mutations prior to labeling them as haploinsufficient or dominant negative based simply on sequencing data.
BMPR2; gentamicin; HPAH; NMD; nonsense mediated decay; premature termination codon; PTC; pulmonary hypertension; translational read-through
Pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing aims to improve therapeutic outcomes through tailoring treatment based on a patient’s genetic risk for non-response and/or an adverse event. Given their expertise, geneticists could facilitate the use of PGx testing; however, , the preparedness and perceived role of the clinical genetics community is unclear. To assess the attitudes, preparedness, and perceived roles of geneticists in the delivery of PGx testing, we conducted a survey of 1500 randomly selected board-certified genetic counselors and clinical geneticists in the U.S (response rate: 37.8% (n=516)). Twelve percent of genetic counselors and 41% of clinical geneticists indicated that they had ordered or coordinated patient care for PGx testing, a seemingly high proportion at this early stage of adoption. Almost all respondents had some education on pharmacogenetics, though only 28% of counselors and 58% of clinical geneticists indicated they felt well-informed about PGx testing. About half of counselors (52%) and clinical geneticists (46%) felt they would play ‘some’ role in the delivery of PGx testing; 17% and 19%, respectively, felt that they would play ‘no’ or ‘a little’ role. At this early stage of PGx testing, the role of geneticists and genetic counselors is unclear. However, their experience may aid in readying PGx testing and informing delivery strategies into clinical practice.
pharmacogenetic testing; survey; attitudes; clinical uptake
Mutations in the TMPRSS3 gene are known to cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI). After undergoing a genome scan, ten consanguineous Pakistani families with ARNSHI were found to have significant or suggestive evidence of linkage to the TMPRSS3 region. In order to elucidate if the TMPRSS3 gene is responsible for ARNSHI in these families, the gene was sequenced using DNA samples from these families. Six TMPRSS3 variants were found to co-segregate in ten families. None of these variants were detected in 500 control chromosomes. Four novel variants, three of which are missense [c.310G>A (p.Glu104Lys), c.767C>T (p.Ala256Val) and c.1273T>C (p.Cys425Arg)] and one nonsense [c.310G>T (p.Glu104Stop)], were identified. The pathogenicity of novel missense variants was investigated through bioinformatics analyses. Additionally, the previously reported deletion c.208delC (p.His70ThrfsX19) was identified in one family and the known mutation c.1219T>C (p.Cys407Arg) was found in five families, which makes c.1219T>C (p.Cys407Arg) the most common TMPRSS3 mutation within the Pakistani population. Identification of these novel variants lends support to the importance of elements within the low-density lipoprotein receptor A (LDLRA) and serine protease domains in structural stability, ligand binding and proteolytic activity for proper TMPRSS3 function within the inner ear.
autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment; LDLRA domain; Pakistan; serine protease domain; TMPRSS3
Following the discovery of two disorders associated with premutation alleles of the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1), primary ovarian insufficiency [fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI)] and a tremor/ataxia syndrome [fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia disorder (FXTAS)], numerous studies have examined other potential co-morbid conditions, including neuropsychological deficits. Here, the frequency of self-reported diagnoses obtained through medical history interviews from FMR1 premutation carriers and non-carriers aged 18–50 were analyzed. Study subjects included 537 women, 334 of whom carry the premutation and 151 men, 37 of whom carry the premutation. Men with the premutation did not report any medical conditions at higher rates compared with non-carriers, controlling for age, ethnicity/race, and household income. Women with the premutation reported mental health disorders [i.e. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, depression] significantly more often than non-carriers. However, after adjusting for covariates, these increased rates were not statistically significant. Additional follow-up analyses examined the consequence of ovarian dysfunction as a cause of co-occurring conditions. Women with an indication of ovarian insufficiency (i.e. irregular cycles) reported higher rates of thyroid problems and depression/anxiety. Because only women, not men, reported these conditions more often, the relationship between FXPOI and hormone irregularities in women should be explored for a potential link with the increase in the reported medical conditions.
CGG repeat; FMR1; fragile X syndrome; FXPOI; FXTAS; premutation
The potential causes for the incomplete penetrance of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) in female carriers of PLP1 mutations are not well understood. We present a family with a boy having PMD in association with PLP1 duplication and three females who are apparent manifesting carriers. Custom high-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and breakpoint junction sequencing were performed and revealed a familial complex duplication consisting of a small duplicated genomic interval (~56 kb) and a large segmental duplication (~11 Mb) that results in a PLP1 CNV gain. Breakpoint junction analysis implicates a replication-based mechanism underlying the rearrangement formation. X-inactivation studies showed a random to moderate advantageous skewing pattern in peripheral blood cells but a moderate to extremely skewed (≥ 90%) pattern in buccal cells. In conclusion, our data shows that complex duplications involving PLP1 are not uncommon, can be detected at the level of genome resolution afforded by clinical aCGH and duplication and inversion can be produced in the same event. Furthermore, the observation of three manifesting carriers with a large genomic rearrangement supports the contention that duplication size along with genomic content can be an important factor for penetrance of the PMD phenotype in females.
complex rearrangement; FoSTeS; manifesting female carriers; MMBIR; penetrance; PLP1; PMD
Hereditary deafness is a genetically heterogeneous phenotype for which more than 100 genomic loci have been identified thus far. By analysis of a consanguineous Palestinian family, GPSM2 was recently discovered to be the cause of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNB82. Here, we report a second truncating mutation, GPSM2 p.Q562X, identified via autozygosity mapping in a consanguineous Turkish family. This report provides evidence for allelic heterogeneity of GPSM2 and confirms its causative role for nonsyndromic deafness.
Autosomal recessive; deafness; GPSM2; hearing loss; homozygosity; genome-wide SNP genotyping
The common disease/common variant hypothesis has been popular for describing the genetic architecture of common human diseases for several years. According to the originally stated hypothesis, one or a few common genetic variants with a relatively large effect size control the risk of common diseases. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests that rare single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., those with a minor allele frequency of less than 5%, are also an important component of the genetic architecture of common human diseases. In this study, we analyzed the relevance of rare SNPs to the risk of common disease from an evolutionary perspective and found that rare SNPs are more likely than common SNPs to be functional and tend to have a stronger effect size than do common SNPs. This observation, plus the fact that most of the SNPs in the human genome are rare, suggests that rare SNPs are a crucial element of the genetic architecture of common human diseases. We propose that the next generation of genomic studies should focus on analyzing rare SNPs. Further, targeting patients with a family history of the disease, an extreme phenotype, or early disease onset may facilitate the detection of risk-associated rare SNPs.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs); Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS); Minor Allele Frequency (MAF); negative selection
Cancer initiation and progression is controlled by both genetic and epigenetic events. The complexity of carcinogenesis cannot be accounted for by genetic alterations alone but also involves epigenetic changes. Epigenetics refers to the study of mechanisms that alter gene expression without altering the primary DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms are heritable and reversible, and include changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and small noncoding microRNAs (miRNA). Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Aberrant epigenetic modifications probably occur at a very early stage in neoplastic development, and they are widely described as essential players in cancer progression. Recent advances in epigenetics offer a better understanding of the underlying mechanism(s) of carcinogenesis and provide insight into the discovery of putative cancer biomarkers for early detection, disease monitoring, prognosis, and risk assessment. In this review, we summarize the current literature on epigenetic changes causing genetic alterations that are thought to contribute to cancer, and discuss the potential impact of epigenetics future research.
cancer; DNA methylation; epigenetics; histone modification; microRNA
Restrictive dermopathy (RD) results in stillbirth or early neonatal death. RD is characterized by prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, fixed facial expression, micrognathia, mouth in the “o” position, rigid and tense skin with erosions and denudations and multiple joint contractures. Nearly all 25 previously reported neonates with RD had homozygous or compound heterozygous null mutations in the ZMPSTE24 gene. Here, we report 3 new cases of RD; all died within three weeks of birth. One of them had a previously reported homozygous c.1085dupT (p.Leu362PhefsX19) mutation, a second case had a novel homozygous c.1020G>A (p.Trp340X) null mutation in ZMPSTE24, and finally, a stillborn with features of RD except for the presence of tapering rather than rounded, bulbous digits, harbored no disease-causing mutations in LMNA or ZMPSTE24. In the newborn with a novel ZMPSTE24 mutation, unique features included butterfly-shaped thoracic 5th vertebra and the bulbous appearance of the distal clavicles. Skin biopsies from both the stillborn fetus and the newborn with c.1020G>A ZMPSTE24 mutation showed absence of elastic fibers throughout the dermis. This report provides evidence of genetic heterogeneity among RD and concludes that there may be an additional locus for RD which remains to be identified.
Restrictive dermopathy; ZMPSTE24; Lamin A/C; mandibuloacral dysplasia
Juvenile Polyposis (JP) is an autosomal dominant hamartomatous polyposis syndrome that carries a significant risk for the development of colorectal cancer. Microdeletions of one of the two predisposing genes to JP, BMPR1A, have been associated with a severe form of JP called juvenile polyposis of infancy. Many of these deletions have also been found to contiguously include PTEN, which is the gene responsible for the development of Cowden syndrome. The advent of molecular techniques that localize genomic copy number variations and others that target specific genes such as multiplex-ligation probe analysis has allowed researchers to explore this area further for deletions. Here, we review the literature for microdeletions described on chromosome 10q22-23 in patients with JP and other intestinal polyposis syndromes.
Mutations in the human GLI2 gene were first reported in association with defective anterior pituitary formation, pan-hypopituitarism, and forebrain anomalies represented by typical holoprosencephaly (HPE) and holoprosencephaly-like (HPE-L) phenotypes and postaxial polydactyly. Subsequent, anophthalmia plus orbital anomalies, heminasal aplasia, branchial arch anomalies and polydactyly have also been incorporated into the general phenotype. Here we described six Brazilian patients with phenotypic manifestations that range from isolated cleft lip/palate with polydactyly, branchial arch anomalies to semi lobar holoprosencephaly. Novel sequence variants were found in the GLI2 gene in patients with marked involvement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a new clinical finding observed with mutations of this gene. Clinical, molecular and genetic aspects are discussed.
branchial arch anomalies; cleft lip and palate; GLI2; HPE; HPE-L; polydactyly; SHH signaling pathway; temporomandibular joint
Disorders of the Ras/MAPK pathway have an overlapping skeletal phenotype (eg. scoliosis, osteopenia). The Ras proteins regulate cell proliferation and differentiation and NF1 individuals have osteoclast hyperactivity and increased bone resorption as measured by urine pyridinium crosslinks [pyridinoline (Pyd) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd)]. Pyd and Dpd are hydroxylysine derived cross-links of collagen found in bone and cartilage and excreted in the urine. Dpd is most abundant in bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate if other syndromes of the Ras/MAPK pathway have increased bone resorption, which may impact the skeletal phenotype.
Methods and Results
Participants: [Noonan syndrome (n=14), Costello syndrome (n=21), and cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome (n=14)]. Pyridinium cross-links from two consecutive first morning urines were extracted after acid hydrolysis and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromotography. Three separate analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to compare Pyd, Dpd, and Dpd/Pyd ratio of each group to controls after controlling for age. Data were compared to 99 healthy controls.
The Dpd and the Dpd/Pyd ratio were elevated (p<0.0001) in all 3 conditions compared to controls suggesting that collagen degradation was predominantly from bone. The data suggest that the Ras/MAPK signal transduction pathway is important in bone homeostasis.
bone; cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome; Costello syndrome; Noonan syndrome; pyridinium
A positive genetic test result may impact on a person’s self-concept and affect quality of life.
The purpose of the study was to develop a self concept scale to measure such impact for individuals carrying mutations for a heritable colorectal cancer- Lynch Syndrome (LS).
Two distinct phases were involved: Phase 1 generated specific colorectal self-concept candidate scale items from interviews with eight LS carriers and five genetic counselors which were added to a previously developed self-concept scale for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Phase II had 115 LS carriers complete the candidate scale and a battery of validating measures.
A 20 item scale was developed with two dimensions identified through factor analysis: stigma/vulnerability and bowel symptom-related anxiety. The scale demonstrated excellent reliability (Cronbach’s α = .93), good convergent validity by a high correlation with impact of event scale (r(102) = .55, p< .001) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (r(108) = −.59, p< .001), and a low correlation with the Fear questionnaire (r(108)=.37 p< .001). The scale’s performance was stable across participant characteristics.
This new scale for measuring self-concept has potential to be used as a clinical tool and as a measure for future studies.
Adjustment; Genetic Testing; Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC); Lynch Syndrome (LS); Psychosocial; Self-Concept
Susceptibility testing for common, complex adult-onset diseases is projected to become more commonplace as the rapid pace of genomic discoveries continues, and evidence regarding the potential benefits and harms of such testing is needed to inform medical practice and health policy. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) testing for risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) provides a paradigm in which to examine the process and impact of disclosing genetic susceptibility for a prevalent, severe and incurable neurological condition. This review summarizes findings from a series of multi-site randomized clinical trials examining psychological and behavioral responses to various methods of genetic risk assessment for AD using APOE disclosure. We discuss challenges involved in disease risk estimation and communication and the extent to which participants comprehend and perceive utility in their genetic risk information. Findings on the psychological impact of test results are presented (e.g., distress), along with data on participants’ health behavior and insurance purchasing responses (e.g., long term care). Finally, we report comparisons of the safety and efficacy of intensive genetic counseling approaches to briefer models that emphasize streamlined processes and educational materials. The implications of these findings for the emerging field of personal genomics are discussed, with directions identified for future research.
The effects of DNA repair and transcription gene abnormalities in human pre-natal life have never been studied. Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare (affected frequency of 10−6) recessive disorder caused by mutations in genes involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and in transcription. Based on our novel clinical observations, we conducted a genetic epidemiologic study to investigate gestational outcomes associated with TTD. We compared pregnancies resulting in TTD-affected offspring (n = 24) with respect to abnormalities during their antenatal and neonatal periods to pregnancies resulting in their unaffected siblings (n = 18), accounting for correlation, and to population reference values. Significantly higher incidence of several severe gestational complications was noted in TTD-affected pregnancies. Small for gestational age (SGA) <10th percentile [Relative risk (RR) = 9.3, 95% CI = 1.4–60.5, p = 0.02], SGA <3rd percentile (RR = 7.2, 95% CI = 1.1–48.1, p = 0.04), and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization (RR = 6.4, 95% CI = 1.4–29.5, p = 0.02) occurred more frequently among TTD-affected neonates compared with their unaffected siblings. Compared with reference values from general obstetrical population, pregnancies that resulted in TTD-affected infants were significantly more likely to be complicated by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome (RR = 35.7, 95% CI = 7.6–92.5, p = 0.0002), elevated mid-trimester maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels (RR = 14.3, 95% CI = 7.0–16.6, p < 0.0001), SGA <3rd percentile (RR = 13.9, 95% CI = 7.4–21.1, p < 0.0001), pre-term delivery (<32 weeks) (RR = 12.0, 95% CI = 4.9–21.6, p < 0.0001), pre-eclampsia (RR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.6–7.4, p = 0.006), and decreased fetal movement (RR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.6–5.2, p = 0.0018). Abnormal placental development is an underlying mechanism that may explain the constellation of observed complications in our study. Thus, we hypothesize that TTD DNA repair and transcription genes play an important role in normal human placental development.
development; DNA repair; human fetal; transcription; trichothiodystrophy genes
Mutations in OTOF, encoding otoferlin, cause non-syndromic recessive hearing loss. The goal of our study was to define the identities and frequencies of OTOF mutations in a model population. We screened a cohort of 557 large consanguineous Pakistani families segregating recessive, severe-to-profound, prelingual-onset deafness for linkage to DFNB9. There were 13 families segregating deafness consistent with linkage to markers for DFNB9. We analyzed the genomic nucleotide sequence of OTOF and detected probable pathogenic sequence variants among all 13 families. These include the previously reported nonsense mutation p.R708X and 10 novel variants: 3 nonsense mutations (p.R425X, p.W536X, and p.Y1603X), 1 frameshift (c.1103_1104delinsC), 1 single amino acid deletion (p.E766del) and 5 missense substitutions of conserved residues (p.L573R, p.A1090E, p.E1733K, p.R1856Q and p.R1939W). OTOF mutations thus account for deafness in 13 (2.3%) of 557 Pakistani families. This overall prevalence is similar, but the mutation spectrum is different from those for Western populations. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of an alternative splice isoform of OTOF expressed in the human cochlea. This isoform must be required for human hearing because it encodes a unique alternative C-terminus affected by some DFNB9 mutations.
DFNB9; hearing; OTOF; otoferlin
The FMR1 gene contains a CGG-repeat present in the 5’UTR which can be unstable upon transmission to the next generation. The repeat is up to 55 CGGs long in the normal population. In patients with fragile X syndrome, a repeat length exceeding 200 CGGs (full mutation: FM) generally leads to methylation of the repeat and the promoter region, which is accompanied by silencing of the FMR1 gene. The absence of FMR1 protein, FMRP, seen in FM is the cause of the mental retardation in patients with fragile X syndrome. The premutation (PM) is defined as 55-200 CGGs. Female PM carriers are at risk of developing primary ovarian insufficiency. Elderly PM carriers might develop a progressive neurodegenerative disorder called fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. Although arising from the mutations in the same gene, distinct mechanisms lead to fragile X syndrome (absence of FMRP), FXTAS (toxic RNA gain of function) and FXPOI. The pathogenic mechanisms thought to underlie these disorders are discussed. This review gives insight on the implications of all possible repeat length categories seen in fragile X families.
CGG repeat; FMR1; FXPOI; FXTAS; mental retardation; treatment
Exome Sequencing is rapidly becoming a fundamental tool for genetics and functional genomics laboratories. This methodology has enabled the discovery of novel pathogenic mutations causing mendelian diseases that had, until now, remained elusive. In this review we discuss not only how we envisage exome sequencing being applied to a complex disease, such as Parkinson’s disease, but also what are the known caveats of this approach.
Exome sequencing; Genetics; Parkinson’s disease; Genomics
Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited form of colorectal cancer. Mutation carriers can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with colorectal cancer through colonoscopy. Theoretical models suggest that such health related behaviors might also bring psychological benefits. This study assessed whether colonoscopy following mutation detection was associated with levels of depressive symptoms.
Data were obtained from a prospective family cohort study offering genetic services for Lynch syndrome. Participants completed questionnaires prior to the provision of services and 6-months post receipt of mutation results. One hundred thirty four (134) persons were identified to carry a mutation and completed both questionnaires. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms 6-months post-receipt of test results.
Mutation carriers who did not complete a colonoscopy within the 6 months following receipt of results were 6 times (p<0.01; OR=6.06) more likely to report depressive symptoms at a level of clinical importance compared to those who did undergo colonoscopy.
Facilitating the expeditious use of colonoscopy following mutation detection may benefit newly identified mutation carriers by addressing the objective risks for cancer and moderating underlying emotional distress responses to genetic risk information. Further, depressive symptoms may interfere with behavioral compliance in some patients, suggesting referral to mental health specialists.
Colonoscopy; health behavior; genetic testing; HNPCC / Lynch syndrome
Vangl2 was identified as the gene defective in the Looptail mouse model for neural tube defects (NTDs). This gene forms part of the planar cell polarity pathway, also called the non-canonical Frizzled/Dishevelled pathway, which mediates the morphogenetic process of convergent extension essential for proper gastrulation and neural tube formation in vertebrates. Genetic defects in PCP signaling have strongly been associated with NTDs in mouse models. To assess the role of VANGL2 in the complex etiology of NTDs in humans, we resequenced this gene in a large multi-ethnic cohort of 673 familial and sporadic NTD patients, including 453 open spina bifida and 202 closed spinal NTD cases. Six novel rare missense mutations were identified in 7 patients, five of which were affected with closed spinal NTDs. This suggests that VANGL2 mutations may predispose to NTDs in approximately 2.5% of closed spinal NTDs (5 in 202), at a frequency that is significantly different from that of 0.4% (2 in 453) detected in open spina bifida patients (P=0.027). Our findings strongly implicate VANGL2 in the genetic causation of spinal NTDs in a subset of patients and provide additional evidence for a pathogenic role of PCP signaling in these malformations.
VANGL2; neural tube defects; planar cell polarity
Flanagan SE, Kapoor RR, Banerjee I, Hall C, Smith VV, Hussain K, Ellard S. Dominantly acting ABCC8 mutations in patients with medically unresponsive hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia.
Recessive inactivating mutations in the ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes encoding the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel subunit sulphonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) and inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunit (Kir6.2) are the most common cause of hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH). Most of these patients do not respond to treatment with the KATP channel agonist diazoxide. Dominant inactivating ABCC8 and KCNJ11 mutations are less frequent, but are usually associated with a milder form of hypoglycaemia that is responsive to diazoxide therapy. We studied five patients from four families with HH who were unresponsive to diazoxide and required a near total pancreatectomy. Mutations in KCNJ11 and ABCC8 were sought by sequencing and dosage analysis. Three novel heterozygous ABCC8 mis-sense mutations (G1485E, D1506E and M1514K) were identified in four probands. All the mutations affect residues located within the Nucleotide Binding Domain 2 of the SUR1 subunit. Testing of family members showed that the mutations had arisen de novo with dominant inheritance in one pedigree. This study extends the clinical phenotype associated with dominant KATP channel mutations to include severe congenital HH requiring near total pancreatectomy in addition to a milder form of diazoxide responsive hypoglycaemia. The identification of dominant vs recessive mutations does not predict clinical course but it is important for estimating the risk of HH in future siblings and offspring.
ABCC8; diazoxide; hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia; pancreatectomy