The potential for genomic incidental findings is increasing with the use of genome-based testing. At the same time approaches to clinical decision making are shifting to shared decision-making models involving both the healthcare community and the public. The public’s voice has been nearly absent in discussions on managing incidental findings.
We conducted 9 focus groups and 9 interviews (N=63) with a broad cross-section of lay public groups to elucidate public viewpoints on incidental findings that could occur as a result of genome-based testing in clinical and research situations. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.
Participants wanted incidental findings disclosed to them whether or not these were clinical or research findings. Participants used different terms to define and describe incidental findings; they wanted to know that incidental findings are possible and be given a choice to learn about them. Personal utility was an important reason for disclosure, and participants believed that managing information is a shared responsibility between professionals and themselves.
Broad public input is needed in order to understand and incorporate the public’s perspective on management of incidental findings as disclosure guidelines and policies are developed in clinical and research settings.
genome-based testing; incidental findings; public perspective; personal utility
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenetic disease with a complex phenotype. Over 1500 mutations in the CFTR gene have been identified; however, the p.F508del mutation is most common. There has been limited correlation between the CFTR mutation genotype and the disease phenotypes. We evaluated the non-p.F508del mutation of 108 p.F508del compound heterozygotes using the biological classification method, Grantham and Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) scores to assess whether these scoring systems correlated with sweat chloride levels, pancreatic sufficiency, predicted FEV1, and risk of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the last year. Mutations predicted to be ‘mild’ by the biological classification method are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001), pancreatic sufficiency (p < 0.001) and decreased risk of infection with Pseudomonas in the last year (p = 0.014). Lower Grantham scores are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001), and pancreatic sufficiency (p = 0.014). Higher SIFT scores are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001) and pancreatic sufficiency (p = 0.011). There was no association between pulmonary function measured by predicted FEV1 and the biological classification (p = 0.98), Grantham (p = 0.28) or SIFT scores (p = 0.62), which suggests the pulmonary disease related to CF may involve other modifier genes and environmental factors.
cystic fibrosis; Grantham; pulmonary function; SIFT; sweat chloride
Within the last decade, technological advances have led to amazing genetic insights into Mendelian and multifactorial ocular diseases. We provide a perspective of the progress in gene discovery and discuss the implications. We believe that the time has come to redefine the goals and begin utilizing the genetic knowledge for clinical management and treatment design. The unbelievable opportunities now exist for those nimble enough to seize them.
clinical management; genetics; next-generation sequencing; ocular disease; therapies; vision
Dental care costs in the United States exceed $100 billion annually. Personalized medicine efforts in dentistry are driven by potentially compelling clinical utility and cost-effectiveness prospects in the major diseases of periodontitis, caries, and oral cancers. This review discusses progress and challenges identifying genetic markers and showing clinical utility in dentistry. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic periodontitis (CP) identified no significant variants, but CDKN2BAS variants on chromosome 9 were significantly associated with aggressive periodontitis. Stratifying patients by interleukin (IL)-1 gene variants, smoking and diabetes differentiated CP prevention outcomes. Dental caries’ GWAS identified significant signals in LYZL2, AJAp1, and KPNA4; and efforts are ongoing to identify genetic factors for multiple caries phenotypes. Trials of molecularly targeted therapies are in progress for oral, head, and neck squamous cell carcinomas (OHNSCC) and results have been promising but limited in their effectiveness. Current opportunities and challenges for molecular targeting for OHNSCC are discussed.
caries; genetics; oral cancer; periodontitis
Eye misalignment, called strabismus, is amongst the most common phenotypes observed, occurring in up to 5% of individuals in a studied population. While misalignment is frequently observed in rare complex syndromes, the majority of strabismus cases are non-syndromic. Over the past decade, genes and pathways associated with syndromic forms of strabismus have emerged, but the genes contributing to non-syndromic strabismus remain elusive. Genetic testing for strabismus risk may allow for earlier diagnosis and treatment, as well as decreased frequency of surgery. We review human and model organism literature describing non-syndromic strabismus, including family, twin, linkage, and gene expression studies. Recent advances in the genetics of Duane retraction syndrome are considered, as relatives of those impacted show elevated familial rates of non-syndromic strabismus. As whole genome sequencing efforts are advancing for the discovery of the elusive strabismus genes, this overview is intended to support the interpretation of the new findings.
Duane retraction syndrome; genetics; linkage analysis; non-syndromic strabismus
The vast range of genetic diversity contributes to a wonderful array of human traits and characteristics. Unfortunately, a consequence of this genetic diversity is large variability in drug response between people, meaning that no single medication is safe and effective in everyone. The debilitating and sometimes deadly consequences of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major and unmet problem of modern medicine. Pharmacogenomics can uncover associations between genetic variation and drug safety and has the potential to predict ADRs in individual patients. Here we review pharmacogenomic successes leading to changes in clinical practice, as well as clinical areas probably to be impacted by pharmacogenomics in the near future. We also discuss some of the challenges, and potential solutions, that remain for the implementation of pharmacogenomic testing into clinical practice for the significant improvement of drug safety.
ADRs; adverse drug reactions; anthracycline; carbamazepine; cisplatin; codeine; pharmacogenomics; warfarin
Next-generation sequencing is increasingly being chosen as a diagnostic tool for cases of expected genetic, but unresolved origin. The consequential increased need for decisions on disclosure of unsolicited findings poses a challenge for the informed consent procedure. This study explored the first experiences with, and needs for, the informed consent procedure in diagnostic exome sequencing, with the stakeholders involved. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 professional experts and one professional gave a written response. Furthermore, the counseling process was observed in three cases where exome sequencing was offered, followed by interviews with the patient (representative) and the genetic counselor. The respondents not only preferred an opt-out for unsolicited findings but also identified many challenges and therefore more experiences with exome sequencing was considered needed. Context-dependent decision-making was observed and an Advisory Board for unsolicited findings was considered helpful while doubts were raised about the feasibility and the possibility of undermining patients' autonomy. Finally, respondents brought up the complexity of information provision, and division of responsibilities between clinicians and the lab. These challenges and needs, raised by stakeholders involved, provide more insight in the next steps needed for an optimal informed consent procedure for exome sequencing in diagnostics.
exome sequencing; high-throughput nucleotide sequencing; incidental findings; informed consent; molecular diagnostics; qualitative research; unsolicited findings
Molecular genetic testing informs diagnosis, prognosis, and risk assessment for patients and their family members. Recent advances in low-cost, high-throughput DNA sequencing and computing technologies have enabled the rapid expansion of genetic test content, resulting in dramatically increased numbers of DNA variants identified per test. To address this challenge, our laboratory has developed a systematic approach to thorough and efficient assessments of variants for pathogenicity determination. We first search for existing data in publications and databases including internal, collaborative and public resources. We then perform full evidence-based assessments through statistical analyses of observations in the general population and disease cohorts, evaluation of experimental data from in vivo or in vitro studies, and computational predictions of potential impacts of each variant. Finally, we weigh all evidence to reach an overall conclusion on the potential for each variant to be disease-causing. In this report, we highlight the principles of variant assessment, address the caveats and pitfalls, and provide examples to illustrate the process. By sharing our experience and providing a framework for variant assessment, including access to a freely available customizable tool, we hope to help move towards standardized and consistent approaches to variant assessment.
Clinical Interpretation; Gain of Function (GOF); Genetic Variant; Loss of Function (LOF); Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS); Sequence Analysis; Variant Assessment; Variant of Uncertain Significance (VUS)
Studies suggest that patients carrying a BRCA variant of uncertain significance (VUS) may have lingering confusion concerning results interpretation. Counseling for uninformative BRCA-negative (UN) results is thought to be more straightforward, despite the fact that both results lead to similar methods of empiric cancer risk counseling. This study compared surgical choices and perceptions between 71 patients with VUS results and 714 patients with UN results. All patients underwent genetic counseling because of a personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer between 1997 and 2010, and completed a two-year follow-up survey. Risk-reducing mastectomy rates in both groups were 7% (p=1.00) and risk-reducing oophorectomy rates were 5% and 3%, respectively (p=0.42). The VUS group reported less cancer distress reduction than the UN group (23.0% versus 35.8%, respectively, p=.043). Over 90% of both groups found the counseling process helpful. Overall, the study suggests that VUS results disclosed in genetic counseling did not cause excessive surgery or exaggerated cancer distress, though patients with a VUS found counseling somewhat less informative or reassuring. Future research on communication of VUS results, including pre-and post-test counseling, is essential for full realization of the potential for genomic medicine.
BRCA1 gene; BRCA2 gene; genetic counseling; hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome; mutation missense; variant of uncertain significance
Rare coding variants are a current focus in studies of complex disease. Previously, at least 68 rare coding variants were reported from candidate gene sequencing studies in nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCL/P), a common birth defect. Advances in sequencing technology have now resulted in thousands of sequenced exomes, providing a large resource for comparative genetic studies. We collated rare coding variants reported to contribute to NSCL/P and compared them to variants identified from control exome databases to determine if some might be rare but benign variants. 71% of the variants described as etiologic for NSCL/P were not present in the exome data, suggesting that many likely contribute to disease. Our results strongly support a role for rare variants previously reported in the majority of NSCL/P candidate genes but diminish support for variants in others. However, because clefting is a complex trait it is not possible to be definitive about the role of any particular variant for its risk for NSCL/P.
cleft lip; cleft palate; candidate gene; sequencing
Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) represent severe developmental ocular malformations. Currently, mutations in known genes explain less than 40% of A/M cases. We performed whole genome copy number variation analysis in sixty patients affected with isolated or syndromic A/M. Pathogenic deletions of 3q26 (SOX2) were identified in four independent patients with syndromic microphthalmia. Other variants of interest included regions with a known role in human disease (likely pathogenic) as well as novel rearrangements (uncertain significance). A 2.2-Mb duplication of 3q29 in a patient with nonsyndromic anophthalmia and an 877-kb duplication of 11p13 (PAX6) and a 1.4-Mb deletion of 17q11.2 (NF1) in two independent probands with syndromic microphthalmia and other ocular defects were identified; while ocular anomalies have been previously associated with 3q29 duplications, PAX6 duplications, and NF1 mutations in some cases, the ocular phenotypes observed here are more severe than previously reported. Three novel regions of possible interest included a 2q14.2 duplication which cosegregated with microphthalmia/microcornea and congenital cataracts in one family, and 2q21 and 15q26 duplications in two additional cases; each of these regions contains genes that are active during vertebrate ocular development. Overall, this study identified causative copy number mutations and regions with a possible role in ocular disease in 17% of A/M cases.
anophthalmia; microphthalmia; copy number variation; NF1; PAX6; SOX2; 2q14; 3q29
Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder that is often associated with mutations in epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE), a maternally imprinted gene at 7q21.3. We report a 24-year-old male with short stature (<5th percentile) and a movement disorder clinically consistent with M-D. SNP array did not identify significant copy number changes, but revealed three long continuous stretches of homozygosity on chromosome 7 suggestive of uniparental disomy. Parental SNP arrays confirmed that the proband had maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD7) with regions of heterodisomy and isodisomy. mUPD7 is the cause of approximately 5–10% of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), a disorder characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation. Although SRS was not suspected in our patient, these findings explain his short stature. SGCE methylation testing showed loss of the unmethylated paternal allele. Our findings provide a unifying diagnosis for his short stature and M-D and help to optimize his medication regimen. In conclusion, we show that M-D is a clinical feature that may be associated with SRS due to mUPD7. Individuals with mUPD7 should be monitored for the development of movement disorders. Conversely, individuals with M-D and short stature should be evaluated for SRS.
Epsilon-sarcoglycan; maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7; myoclonus-dystonia; Silver-Russell syndrome
Fragile X Syndrome is caused by expansion of CGG repeats to >200 in 5′-untranslated region of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene [full mutation (FM)]. Carriers of an FMR1 repeat expansion in premutation range (55–200 CGG repeats) often develop a syndrome similar to parkinsonism, designated fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Neurological signs of FXTAS, parkinsonism and rapid onset of cognitive decline have not been reported in individuals with an unmethylated FM. We report a Chilean family affected with FXS, inherited from a parent carrier of an FMR1 unmethylated full mosaic allele, who presented with a fast progressing FXTAS Our case suggests that the definition of FXTAS may need to be broadened to not only include those with a premutation and to include in addition those with an expanded allele in FM range with a lack of methylation leading to elevated FMR1-mRNA expression levels and subsequent RNA toxicity.
FXTAS; Fragile X; unmethylated full mutation; parkinsonism
Whole exome sequencing and chromosomal microarrays are two powerful technologies that have transformed the ability of researchers to search for potentially causal variants in human disease. This study combines these tools to search for causal variants in a patient found to have maternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 2. This subject has a complex phenotype including skeletal and renal dysplasia, immune deficiencies, growth failure, retinal degeneration, and ovarian insufficiency. Eighteen nonsynonymous, rare homozygous variants were identified on chromosome 2. Additionally, 5 genes with compound heterozygous mutations were detected on other chromosomes that could lead to a disease phenotype independent of the uniparental disomy found in this case. Several candidate genes with potential connection to the phenotype are described but none are definitively proven to be causal. This study highlights the potential for detection of a large number of candidate genes using whole exome sequencing complicating interpretation in both the research and clinical settings. Forums must be created for publication and sharing of detailed phenotypic and genotypic reports to facilitate further biological discoveries and clinical counseling.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome; Comparative genomic hybridization; DNA copy number variations; Whole exome sequencing; High-throughput nucleotide sequencing; Uniparental disomy
Alternative splicing is highly regulated in tissue-specific and development-specific patterns, and it has been estimated that 15% of disease-causing point mutations affect pre-mRNA splicing. In this review, we consider the cis-acting splice site and trans-acting splicing factor mutations that affect pre-mRNA splicing and contribute to retinal degeneration. Numerous splice site mutations have been identified in retinitis pigmentosa and various cone-rod dystrophies. For example, mutations in alternatively spliced retina-specific exons of the widely expressed RPGR and COL2A1 genes lead primarily to X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and ocular variants of Stickler Syndrome, respectively. Furthermore, mutations in general pre-mRNA splicing factors, such as PRPF31, PRPF8, and PRPF3, predominantly cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. These findings suggest an important role for pre-mRNA splicing in retinal homeostasis and the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. The development of novel therapeutic strategies to modulate aberrant splicing, including small molecule based therapies, has the potential to lead to the development of new treatments for retinal degenerative diseases.
alternative splicing; retinal degeneration; retinitis pigmentosa; small molecules
Cranio-lenticulo-sutural dysplasia (CLSD) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome manifesting with large and late closing fontanels and calvarial hypomineralization, Y-shaped cataracts, skeletal defects, and hypertelorism and other facial dysmorphisms. The CLSD locus was mapped to chromosome 14q13-q21 and a homozygous SEC23A
F382L missense mutation was identified in the original family. Skin fibroblasts from these patients exhibit features of a secretion defect with marked distension of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), consistent with SEC23A function in protein export from the ER. We report an unrelated family where a male proband presented with clinical features of CLSD. A heterozygous missense M702V mutation in a highly conserved residue of SEC23A was inherited from the clinically unaffected father, but no maternal SEC23A mutation was identified. Cultured skin fibroblasts from this new patient showed a severe secretion defect of collagen and enlarged ER, confirming aberrant protein export from the ER. Milder collagen secretion defects and ER distention were present in paternal fibroblasts, indicating that an additional mutation(s) is present in the proband. Our data suggest that defective ER export is the cause of CLSD and genetic element(s) besides SEC23A may influence its presentation.
Cranio-lenticulo-sutural dysplasia; craniofacial development; skull hypomineralization; ER export; SEC23A
Refractive errors, myopia and hyperopia, are the most common causes of visual impairment worldwide. Recent advances in genetics have been utilized to identify a wealth of genetic loci believed to contain susceptibility genes for refractive error. The current genetic evidence confirms that refractive error is influenced by both common and rare variants with a significant environmental component. These studies argue that only by combining genetic knowledge with in vivo measurements of biological states will it be possible to understand the underlying biology of refractive error that will lead to novel therapeutic targets and accurate genetic predictions.
Refractive Error; Myopia; Hyperopia; Genetic Variation; Animal Models; Gene-Environment Interaction
Polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is characterized by intralobular bile duct cysts in the liver. It is caused by mutations in PRKCSH, encoding hepatocystin, and SEC63, encoding Sec63p. The main goals of this study were to screen for novel mutations and to analyze mutations for effects on protein structure and function. We screened 464 subjects including 76 probands by direct sequencing or conformation-sensitive capillary electrophoresis. We analyzed the effects of all known and novel mutations using a combination of splice site recognition, evolutionary conservation, secondary and tertiary structure predictions, PolyPhen, and pMut and sift. We identified a total of 26 novel mutations in PRKCSH (n = 14) and SEC63 (n = 12), including four splice site mutations, eight insertions/deletions, six non-sense mutations, and eight missense mutations. Out of 48 PCLD mutations, 13 were predicted to affect splicing. Most mutations were located in highly conserved regions and homology modeling for two domains of Sec63p showed severe effects of the residue substitutions. In conclusion, we identified 26 novel mutations associated with PCLD and we provide in silico analysis in order to delineate the role of these mutations.
homology modeling; polycystic liver disease; PRKCSH; SEC63; structural effects
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision impairment in persons over the age of 50 years in developed countries. Both genetic and non-genetic (environmental) factors play major roles in AMD etiology, and multiple gene variants and lifestyle factors such as smoking have been associated with the disease. While dissecting the basic etiology of the disease remains a major challenge, current genetic knowledge has provided opportunities for improved risk assessment, molecular diagnosis and clinical testing of genetic variants in AMD treatment and management. This review addresses the potential of translating the wealth of genetic findings for improved risk prediction and therapeutic intervention in AMD patients. Finally, we discuss the recent advancement in genetics and genomics and the future prospective of personalized medicine in AMD patients.
Age-related macular degeneration; risk-prediction; disease management; GWAS; rare-variant association; exome-chip; whole-exome sequencing; whole-genome sequencing