Supported lipid bilayers are used as a convenient model cell membrane system to study biologically important molecule-lipid interactions in situ. However, the lipid bilayer models are often simple and the acquired results with these models may not provide all pertinent information related to a real cell membrane. In this work, we use sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy to study molecular-level interactions between the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) MSI-594, ovispirin-1 G18, magainin 2 and a simple 1,2-dipalmitoyl-d62-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (dDPPG)-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) bilayer. We compared such interactions to those between the AMPs and a more complex dDPPG/E. coli polar lipid extract bilayer. We show that to fully understand more complex aspects of peptide-bilayer interaction, such as interaction kinetics, a heterogeneous lipid composition is required, such as the E. coli polar lipid extract. The discrepancy in peptide-bilayer interaction is likely due in part to the difference in bilayer charge between the two systems since highly negative charged lipids can promote more favorable electrostatic interactions between the peptide and lipid bilayer. Results presented in this paper indicate that more complex model bilayers are needed to accurately analyze peptide-cell membrane interactions and demonstrates the importance of using an appropriate lipid composition to study AMP interaction properties.
antimicrobial peptide; sum frequency generation; vibrational spectroscopy; peptide-lipid interactions; Bacterial cell; membrane mimetics
Values of the bending modulus KC are reviewed, and possible causes for the considerable differences are discussed. One possible cause is the use of glucose and sucrose in the classical micromechanical manipulation and shape analysis methods. New data, using the more recent low angle x-ray method, are presented that do not support an effect of glucose or sucrose on KC. Another possible cause is using an incomplete theory to interpret the data. Adding a tilt term to the theory clearly does not affect the value obtained from the shape analysis method. It is shown that a tilt term, using a value of the modulus Kθ indicated by simulations, theory, and estimated from order parameters obtained from NMR and from the wide angle x-ray method, should also not affect the value obtained using the micromechanical manipulation method, although it does require a small correction when determining the value of the area compressibility modulus KA. It is still being studied whether including a tilt term will significantly affect the values of KC obtained using low angle x-ray data. It remains unclear what causes the differences in the experimental values of KC for simple lipid bilayers.
Membrane mechanics; bending modulus; area compressibility modulus; tilt modulus; lipid bilayers; DOPC
Dipole potential is the potential difference within the membrane bilayer, which originates due to the nonrandom arrangement of lipid dipoles and water molecules at the membrane interface. Cholesterol, an essential lipid in higher eukaryotic membranes, has previously been shown to increase membrane dipole potential. In this work, we explored the effect of stereoisomers of cholesterol, ent-cholesterol and epi-cholesterol, on membrane dipole potential, monitored by the dual wavelength ratiometric approach utilizing the probe di-8-ANEPPS. Our results show that cholesterol and ent-cholesterol share comparable ability in increasing membrane dipole potential. In contrast, epi-cholesterol displays a slight reduction in membrane dipole potential. Our results constitute the first report on the effect of stereoisomers of cholesterol on membrane dipole potential, and imply that an extremely subtle change in sterol structure can significantly alter the dipolar field at the membrane interface. These results assume relevance in the context of differential abilities of these stereoisomers of cholesterol in supporting the activity of the serotonin1A receptor, a representative G protein-coupled receptor. The close correlation between membrane dipole potential and receptor activity provides new insight in receptor-cholesterol interaction in terms of stereospecificity. We envision that membrane dipole potential could prove to be a sensitive indicator of lipid-protein interactions in biological membranes.
Cholesterol; di-8-ANEPPS; dipole potential; ent-cholesterol; epi-cholesterol; serotonin1A receptor
New phospholipid analogues incorporating sn-2-peptide substituents have been prepared to probe the fundamental structural requirements for phospholipase A2 catalyzed hydrolysis of PLA2-directed synthetic substrates. Two structurally different antiviral oligopeptides with C-terminal glycine were introduced separately at the sn-2-carboxylic ester position of phospholipids to assess the role of the α-methylene group adjacent to the ester carbonyl in allowing hydrolytic cleavage by the enzyme. The oligopeptide-carrying phospholipid derivatives were readily incorporated into mixed micelles consisting of natural phospholipid (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, DPPC) and Triton X-100 as surfactant. Hydrolytic cleavage of the synthetic peptidophospholipids by the phospholipase A2 occurred slower, but within the same order of magnitude as the natural substrate alone. The results provide useful information toward better understanding the mechanism of action of the enzyme, and to improve the design and synthesis of phospholipid prodrugs targeted at secretory PLA2 enzymes.
Phospholipid synthesis; antiviral prodrugs; phospholipase A2 catalysis; lipid-prodrug design
Membrane-targeting proteins are crucial components of many cell signaling pathways, including the secretion of insulin. Granuphilin, also known as synaptotagmin-like protein 4, functions in tethering secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane prior to exocytosis. Granuphilin docks to insulin secretory vesicles through interaction of its N-terminal domain with vesicular Rab proteins; however, the mechanisms of granuphilin plasma membrane targeting and release are less clear. Granuphilin contains two C2 domains, C2A and C2B, that interact with the plasma membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. The goal of this study was to determine membrane-binding mechanisms, affinities, and kinetics of both granuphilin C2 domains using fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Results indicate that both C2A and C2B bind anionic lipids in a Ca2+-independent manner. The C2A domain binds liposomes containing a physiological mixture of lipids including 2% PI(4,5)P2 or PI(3,4,5)P3 with high affinity (apparent Kd,PIPx of 2-5 nM), and binds nonspecifically with moderate affinity to anionic liposomes lacking phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIPx) lipids. The C2B domain binds with sub-micromolar affinity to liposomes containing PI(4,5)P2 but does not have a measurable affinity for background anionic lipids. Both domains can be competed away from their target lipids by the soluble PIPx analogue inositol-(1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate (IP6), which is a positive regulator of insulin secretion. Potential roles of these interactions in the docking and release of granuphilin from the plasma membrane are discussed.
Slp4; protein-lipid interaction; secretory granule docking; inositol polyphosphate signaling; insulin secretion; phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate
The chemotactic migration of eukaryotic ameboid cells up concentration gradients is among the most advanced forms of cellular behavior. Chemotaxis is controlled by a complex network of signaling proteins bound to specific lipids on the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane at the front of the cell, or the leading edge. The central lipid players in this leading edge signaling pathway include the phosphoinositides PI(4,5)P2 (PIP2) and PI(3,4,5)P3 (PIP3), both of which play multiple roles. The products of PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis, diacylglycerol (DAG) and Ins(1,4,5)P3 (IP3), are also implicated as important players. Together, these leading edge phosphoinositides and their degradation products, in concert with a local Ca2+ signal, control the recruitment and activities of many peripheral membrane proteins that are crucial to the leading edge signaling network. The present critical review summarizes the current molecular understanding of chemotactic signaling at the leading edge, including newly discovered roles of phosphoinositide lipids and Ca2+, while highlighting key questions for future research.
Phosphatidylinositol lipid; PH domain; C2 domain; PKC; PI3K; PDK1
Local accumulation of phosphoinositides (PIPs) is an important factor for a broad range of cellular events including membrane trafficking and cell signaling. The negatively charged phosphoinositide headgroups can interact with cations or cationic proteins and this electrostatic interaction has been identified as the main phosphoinositide clustering mechanism. However, an increasing number of reports show that phosphoinositide-mediated signaling events are at least in some cases cholesterol dependent, suggesting other possible contributors to the segregation of phosphoinositides. Using fluorescence microscopy on giant unilamellar vesicles and monolayers at the air/water interface, we present data showing that cholesterol stabilizes fluid phosphoinositide-enriched phases. The interaction with cholesterol is observed for all investigated phosphoinositides (PI(4)P, PI(3,4)P2, PI(3,5)P2, PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3) as well as phosphatidylinositol. We find that cholesterol is present in the phosphoinositide-enriched phase and that the resulting phase is fluid. Cholesterol derivatives modified at the hydroxyl group (cholestenone, cholesteryl ethyl ether) do not promote formation of phosphoinositide domains, suggesting an instrumental role of the cholesterol hydroxyl group in the observed cholesterol/phosphoinositide interaction. This leads to the hypothesis that cholesterol participates in an intermolecular hydrogen bond network formed among the phosphoinositide lipids. We had previously reported that the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bond network between the phosphoinositide lipids leads to a reduction of the charge density at the phosphoinositide phosphomonoester groups (Kooijman et al. Biochemistry 48, (2009) 9360). We believe that cholesterol acts as a spacer between the phosphoinositide lipids, thereby reducing the electrostatic repulsion, while participating in the hydrogen bond network, leading to its further stabilization. To illustrate the effect of phosphoinositide segregation on protein binding, we show that binding of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN to PI(5)P and PI(4,5)P2 is enhanced in the presence of cholesterol. These results provide new insights into how phosphoinositides mediate important cellular events.
Polyphosphoinositides (PPI) and in particular PI(4,5)P2, are among the most highly charged molecules in cell membranes, are important in many cellular signaling pathways, and are frequently targeted by peripheral polybasic proteins for anchoring through electrostatic interactions. Such interactions between PIP2 and proteins containing polybasic stretches depend on the physical state and the lateral distribution of PIP2 within the inner leaflet of the cell's lipid bilayer. The physical chemical properties of PIP2 such as pH-dependent changes in headgroup ionization and area per molecule as determined by experiments together with molecular simulations that predict headgroup conformations at various ionization states have revealed the electrostatic properties and phase behavior of PIP2-containing membranes. This review focuses on recent experimental and computational developments in defining the physical chemistry of PIP2 and its interactions with counterions.
Ca2+-induced changes in PIP2 charge, conformation, and lateral structure within the membrane are documented by numerous experimental and computational studies. A simplified electrostatic model successfully predicts the Ca2+-driven formation of PIP2 clusters but cannot account for the different effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+ on PIP2-containing membranes. A more recent computational study is able to see the difference between Ca2+ and Mg2+ binding to PIP2 in the absence of a membrane and without cluster formation. Spectroscopic studies suggest that divalent cation- and multivalent polyamine-induced changes in the PIP2 lateral distribution in model membrane are also different, and not simply related to the net charge of the counterion. Among these differences is the capacity of Ca2+ but not other polycations to induce nm scale clusters of PIP2 in fluid membranes. Recent super resolution optical studies show that PIP2 forms nanoclusters in the inner leaflet of a plasma membrane with a similar size distribution as those induced by Ca2+ in model membranes. The mechanisms by which PIP2 forms nanoclusters and other structures inside a cell remain to be determined, but the unique electrostatic properties of PIP2 and its interactions with multivalent counterions might have particular physiological relevance.
Fusion peptides comprise conserved hydrophobic domains absolutely required for the fusogenic activity of glycoproteins from divergent virus families. After 30 years of intensive research efforts, the structures and functions underlying their high degree of sequence conservation are not fully elucidated. The long-hydrophobic viral fusion peptide (VFP) sequences are structurally constrained to access three successive states after biogenesis. Firstly, the VFP sequence must fulfill the set of native interactions required for (meta) stable folding within the globular ectodomains of glycoprotein complexes. Secondly, at the onset of the fusion process, they get transferred into the target cell membrane and adopt specific conformations therein. According to commonly accepted mechanistic models, membrane-bound states of the VFP might promote the lipid bilayer remodeling required for virus-cell membrane merger. Finally, at least in some instances, several VFPs co-assemble with transmembrane anchors into membrane integral helical bundles, following a locking movement hypothetically coupled to fusion-pore expansion. Here we review different aspects of the three major states of the VFPs, including the functional assistance by other membrane-transferring glycoprotein regions, and discuss briefly their potential as targets for clinical intervention.
Fusion peptide; Membrane fusion; Viral entry; Peptide-lipid interaction
Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease.
Lipid peroxidation; Oxidized phospholipids; Platelet-Activating Factor Acetyl Hydrolase; CD36; Toll-Like Receptors; Lipid aldehydes
Anionic lipids act as signals for the recruitment of proteins containing cationic clusters to biological membranes. A family of anionic lipids known as the phosphoinositides (PIPs) are low in abundance, yet play a critical role in recruitment of peripheral proteins to the membrane interface. PIPs are mono-, bis-, or trisphosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PI) yielding seven species with different structure and anionic charge. The differential spatial distribution and temporal appearance of PIPs is key to their role in communicating information to target proteins. Selective recognition of PIPs came into play with the discovery that the substrate of protein kinase C termed pleckstrin possessed the first PIP binding region termed the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Since the discovery of the PH domain, more than ten PIP binding domains have been identified including PH, ENTH, FYVE, PX, and C2 domains. Representative examples of each of these domains have been thoroughly characterized to understand how they coordinate PIP headgroups in membranes, translocate to specific membrane docking sites in the cell, and function to regulate the activity of their full-length proteins. In addition, a number of novel mechanisms of PIP-mediated membrane association have emerged, such as coincidence detection – specificity for two distinct lipid headgroups. Other PIP-binding domains may also harbor selectivity for a membrane physical property such as charge or membrane curvature. This review summarizes the current understanding of the cellular distribution of PIPs and their molecular interaction with peripheral proteins.
C2 domain; FYVE domain; lipid binding; membrane binding; phosphoinsoitide; PI(3)P; PI(4,5)P2; PI(3,4,5)P3; PH domain; peripheral protein
This article focuses on discoveries of the mechanisms governing the regulation of glycerolipid metabolism and stress response signaling in response to the phospholipid precursor, inositol. The regulation of glycerolipid lipid metabolism in yeast in response to inositol is highly complex, but increasingly well understood, and the roles of individual lipids in stress response are also increasingly well characterized. Discoveries that have emerged over several decades of genetic, molecular and biochemical analyses of metabolic, regulatory and signaling responses of yeast cells, both mutant and wild type, to the availability of the phospholipid precursor, inositol are discussed.
The signature mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin plays an important role in mitochondrial function, and alterations in cardiolipin metabolism are associated with human disease. Topologically, cardiolipin biosynthesis and remodeling is complex. Precursor phospholipids must be transported from the ER, across the mitochondrial outer membrane to the matrix-facing leaflet of the inner membrane, where cardiolipin biosynthesis commences. Post-synthesis, cardiolipin undergoes acyl chain remodeling, requiring additional trafficking steps, before it achieves its final distribution within both mitochondrial membranes. This process is regulated at several points via multiple independent mechanisms. Here, we review the regulation and topology of cardiolipin biosynthesis and remodeling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although cardiolipin metabolism is more complicated in mammals, yeast have been an invaluable model for dissecting the steps required for this process.
cardiolipin; remodeling; mitochondria; yeast; regulation; lipid trafficking
The organization of individual respiratory Complexes I, III, and IV (mammalian cells) or III and IV (yeast) of the mitochondria into higher order supercomplexes (SCs) is generally accepted. However, the factors that regulate SC formation and the functional significance of SCs are not well understood. The mitochondrial signature phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) plays a central role in formation and stability of respiratory SCs from yeast to man. Studies in yeast mutants in which the CL level can be regulated displayed a direct correlation between CL levels and SC formation. Disease states in which CL levels are reduced also show defects in SC formation. Three-dimensional density maps of yeast and bovine SCs by electron cryo-microscopy show gaps between the transmembrane-localized interfaces of individual complexes consistent with the large excess of CL in SCs over that integrated into the structure of individual respiratory complexes. Finally, the yeast SC composed of Complex III and two Complexes IV was reconstituted in liposomes from purified individual complexes containing integrated CLs. Reconstitution was wholly dependent on inclusion of additional CL in the liposomes. Therefore, non-integral CL molecules play an important role in SC formation and may be involved in regulation of SC stability under metabolic conditions where CL levels fluctuate.
Cardiolipin; respiratory supercomplex; mitochondria; structural analysis; in vitro reconstitution
Cardiolipins (CLs) are ancient and unusual dimeric phospholipids localized in the plasma membrane of bacteria and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes. In mitochondria, two types of asymmetries – trans-membrane and molecular - are essential determinants of CL functions. In this review, we describe CL-based signaling mitochondrial pathways realized via modulation of trans-membrane asymmetry and leading to externalization and peroxidation of CLs in mitophagy and apoptosis, respectively. We discuss possible mechanisms of CL translocations from the inner leaflet of the inner to the outer leaflet of the outer mitochondrial membranes. We present redox reaction mechanisms of cytochrome c-catalyzed CL peroxidation as a required stage in the execution of apoptosis as well as a possible source of lipid mediators. We also emphasize the significance of CL-related metabolic pathways as new targets for drug discovery. Finally, a remarkable diversity of polyunsaturated CL species and their oxidation products have evolved in eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes. This diversity - associated with CL molecular asymmetry - is presented as the basis for mitochondrial communications language.
Interactions of cytochrome c (cyt c) with cardiolipin (CL) play a critical role in early stages of apoptosis. Upon binding to CL, cyt c undergoes changes in secondary and tertiary structure that lead to a dramatic increase in its peroxidase activity. Insertion of the protein into membranes, insertion of CL acyl chains into the protein interior, and extensive unfolding of cyt c after adsorption to the membrane have been proposed as possible modes for interaction of cyt c with CL. Dissociation of Met80 is accompanied by opening of the heme crevice and binding of another heme ligand. Fluorescence studies have revealed conformational heterogeneity of the lipid-bound protein ensemble with distinct polypeptide conformations that vary in the degree of protein unfolding. We correlate these recent findings to other biophysical observations and rationalize the role of experimental conditions in defining conformational properties and peroxidase activity of the cyt c ensemble. Latest time-resolved studies propose the trigger and the sequence of cardiolipin-induced structural transitions of cyt c.
apoptosis; peroxidase; protein folding; heme
Cardiolipins, a class of mitochondria-specific lipid molecules, is one of the most unusual and ancient phospholipids found in essentially all living species. Typical of mammalian cells is the presence of vulnerable to oxidation polyunsaturated fatty acid resides in CL molecules. The overall role and involvement of cardiolipin oxidation (CLox) products in major intracellular signaling as well as extracellular inflammatory and immune responses have been established. However, identification of individual peroxidized molecular species in the context of their ability to induce specific biological responses has not been yet achieved. This is due, at least in part, to technological difficulties in detection, identification, structural characterization and quantitation of CLox associated with their very low abundance and exquisite diversification. This dictates the need for the development of new methodologies for reliable, sensitive and selective analysis of both CLox. LC-MS-based oxidative lipidomics with high mass accuracy instrumentation as well as new software packages are promising in achieving the goals of expedited and reliable analysis of cardiolipin oxygenated species in biosamples.
The phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) plays a role in many cellular functions and signaling pathways both inside and outside of mitochondria. This review focuses on the role of CL in energy metabolism. Many reactions of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, the transport of metabolites required for these processes, and the stabilization of electron transport chain supercomplexes require CL. Recent studies indicate that CL is required for the synthesis of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) co-factors, which are essential for numerous metabolic pathways. Activation of carnitine shuttle enzymes that are required for fatty acid metabolism is CL dependent. The presence of substantial amounts of CL in the peroxisomal membrane suggests that CL may be required for peroxisomal functions. Understanding the role of CL in energy metabolism may identify physiological modifiers that exacerbate the loss of CL and underlie the variation in symptoms observed in Barth syndrome, a genetic disorder of CL metabolism.
Sphingolipids are recognized as signaling mediators in a growing number of pathways, and represent potential targets to address many diseases. The study of sphingolipid signaling in yeast has created a number of breakthroughs in the field, and has the potential to lead future advances. The aim of this article is to provide an inclusive view of two major frontiers in yeast sphingolipid signaling. In the first section, several key studies in the field of sphingolipidomics are consolidated to create a yeast sphingolipidome that ranks nearly all known sphingolipid species by their level in a resting yeast cell. The second section presents an overview of most known phenotypes identified for sphingolipid gene mutants, presented with the intention of illuminating not yet discovered connections outside and inside of the field.
The lipid membrane not only provides a rich interface with an array of receptor signaling complexes with which a cell communicates, but it also serves as a source of lipid derived bioactive molecules. In pathologic conditions of acute lung injury (ALI) associated with activation of oxidative stress, unsaturated phosphatidyl cholines overlooking a luminal space undergo oxidation leading to generation of fragmented phospholipids such as 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lysoPC), or 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC) full length oxygenation products (oxPAPC). Using Langmuir monolayers as models of the lipid bilayer, we evaluated the propensity of these phospholipids to solubilize from the cell membrane. The results suggest that lysoPC is rapidly released as it is produced, while oxPAPC has a longer membrane bound lifetime. After being released from cell membranes, these oxidized phospholipids exhibit potent agonist-like effects on neighboring cells. Therefore, we correlate the presence of the two phospholipid groups with the onset and resolution of increased vascular leakiness associated with ALI through testing their effect on vascular endothelial barrier integrity. Our work shows that cells respond differently to these two groups of products of phosphatidyl choline oxidation. LysoPC disrupts cell–cell junctions and increases endothelial permeability while oxPAPC enhances endothelial barrier. These data suggest a model whereby rapid release of lysoPC results in onset of ALI associated vascular leak, and the release of a reserve of oxPAPC as oxidative stress subsides restores the vascular barrier properties.
Oxidized phospholipid; Cell mechanics; Langmuir monolayer; Surface thermodynamics; Gibbs isotherm
The first total synthesis for the novel fatty acid (±)-2-methoxy-6-icosynoic acid was accomplished in seven steps and in a 14% overall yield starting from 2-(4-bromobutoxy)- tetrahydro-2H-pyran. The title compound displayed an EC50 = 23 ± 1 µM against the human SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and an EC50 = 26 ± 1 µM against the human adenocarcinoma cervix cell line (HeLa) after 48 h of exposure. The corresponding non-methoxylated analog 6- icosynoic acid did not display cytotoxicity (EC50 > 500 µM) towards the studied cell lines as well as the 2-methoxyicosanoic acid (EC50 > 300 µM). The critical micelle concentration (CMC = 20–30 µM) for the (±)-2-methoxy-6-icosynoic acid was also determined. It was found that α- methoxylation decreases the CMC of a fatty acid.
Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Methoxylated Fatty Acids; Micelles; Synthesis
The 2-alkynoic fatty acids are an interesting group of synthetic compounds that display antimycobacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and pesticidal activities but their antiprotozoal activity has received little attention until recently. In this review we have summarized our present knowledge of the biomedical potential of the 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA) and 2-octadecynoic acid (2-ODA) together with several mechanistic pieces of work attesting to the fact that these compounds, and their metabolites, are good fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitors. The antiprotozoal activity of 2-HDA and 2-ODA against Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum, parasites responsible for visceral leishmaniasis and malaria, respectively, is also reviewed. The evidence obtained so far supports the fact that these fatty acids are good inhibitors of the L. donovani DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB) and the potency of LdTopIB inhibition is chain length dependent. We also demonstrate the generality of the antiprotozoal activity of 2-HDA and 2-ODA against P. falciparum, and review our present knowledge of their inhibition of key P. falciparum enzymes such as PfFabZ, PfFabG, and PfFabI together with some possible modes of inhibition. Recent research by our group has also demonstrated that 2-ODA displays antineoplastic activity, specifically against the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line via lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, which is a cell death mechanism principally associated to necrosis. This is the first comprehensive review of the medicinal chemistry of this interesting group of acetylenic fatty acids.
2-Alkynoic fatty acids; Leishmaniasis; Leishmania donovani; Malaria; Necrosis; Neuroblastoma; Plasmodium falciparum; Topoisomerase IB
Peripheral membrane proteins bound to lipids on bilayer surfaces play central roles in a wide array of cellular processes, including many signaling pathways. These proteins diffuse in the plane of the bilayer and often undergo complex reactions involving the binding of regulatory and substrate lipids and proteins they encounter during their 2-D diffusion. Some peripheral proteins, for example pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, dock to the bilayer in a relatively shallow position with little penetration into the bilayer. Other peripheral proteins exhibit more complex bilayer contacts, for example classical protein kinase C isoforms (PKCs) bind as many as six lipids in stepwise fashion, resulting in the penetration of three PKC domains (C1A, C1B, C2) into the bilayer headgroup and hydrocarbon regions. A molecular understanding of the molecular features that control the diffusion speeds of proteins bound to supported bilayers would enable key molecular information to be extracted from experimental diffusion constants, revealing protein-lipid and protein-bilayer interactions difficult to study by other methods. The present study investigates a range of 11 different peripheral protein constructs comprised by 1 to 3 distinct domains (PH, C1A, C1B, C2, anti-lipid antibody). By combining these constructs with various combinations of target lipids, the study measures 2-D diffusion constants on supported bilayers for 17 different protein-lipid complexes. The resulting experimental diffusion constants, together with the known membrane interaction parameters of each complex, are used to analyze the molecular features correlated with diffusional slowing and bilayer friction. The findings show that both 1) individual bound lipids and 2) individual protein domains that penetrate into the hydrocarbon core make additive contributions to the friction against the bilayer, thereby defining the 2-D diffusion constant. An empirical formula is developed that accurately estimates the diffusion constant and bilayer friction of a peripheral protein in terms of its number of bound lipids and its geometry of penetration into the bilayer hydrocarbon core, yielding an excellent global best fit (R2 of 0.97) to the experimental diffusion constants. Finally, the observed additivity of the frictional contributions suggests that further development of current theory describing bilayer dynamics may be needed. The present findings provide constraints that will be useful in such theory development.
PKC; GRP1; cPLA2; PH domain; C1 domain; C2 domain; phosphatidylinositol lipid