Alkyl β-D-xylopyranosides are highly surface active, biodegradable surfactants that can be prepared from hemicelluloses and are of interest for use as pharmaceuticals, detergents, agrochemicals and personal care products. To gain further insights into their structure-property and structure-activity relationships, the present study synthesized a series of hydrocarbon (-C6H13 to -C16H33) and fluorocarbon (-(CH2)2C6F13) alkyl β-D-xylopyranosides in four steps from D-xylose by acylation or benzoylation, bromination, Koenigs-Knorr reaction and hydrolysis, with the benzoyl protecting group giving better yields compared to the acyl group in the Koenigs-Knorr reaction. All alkyl β-D-xylopyranosides formed thermotropic liquid crystals. The phase transition of the solid crystalline phase to a liquid crystalline phase increased linearly with the length of the hydrophobic tail. The clearing points were near constant for alkyl β-D-xylopyranosides with a hydrophobic tail ≥ 8, but occurred at a significantly lower temperature for hexyl β-D-xylopyranoside. Short and long-chain alkyl β-D-xylopyranosides displayed no cytotoxicity at concentration below their aqueous solubility limit. Hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon alkyl β-D-xylopyranosides with intermediate chain length displayed some toxicity at millimolar concentrations due to apoptosis.
Next-generation surfactants; Renewable precursors; Xylose; Structure-activity relationship; Structure-property relationship; Koenigs-Knorr reaction; Liquid crystals; Biocompatibility; Apoptosis; Necrosis
D-Fructose was analysed by NMR spectroscopy and previously unidentified 1H NMR resonances were assigned to the keto and α-pyranose tautomers. The full assignment of shifts for the various fructose tautomers enabled the use of 1H NMR spectroscopy in studies of the mutarotation (5 – 25 °C) and tautomeric composition at equilibrium (5 – 50 °C). The mutarotation of β-pyranose to furanose tautomers in D2O at a concentration of 0.18 M was found to have an activation energy of 62.6 kJ.mol−1. At tautomeric equilibrium (20 °C in D2O) the distribution of the β-pyranose, β-furanose, α-furanose, α-pyranose and the keto tautomers was found to be 68.23%, 22.35%, 6.24%, 2.67% and 0.50%, respectively. This tautomeric composition was not significantly affected by varying concentration between 0.089 and 0.36 M or acidification to pH 3. Upon equilibrating at 6 temperatures between 5 and 50 °C there was a linear relationship between the change in concentration and temperature for all forms.
D-Fructose; Carbohydrate structural analysis; Mutarotation; Tautomeric equilibrium
O-Specific polysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria are synthesized by two different mechanisms: polymerization of the pre-formed O-repeating unit or sequential addition of the monosaccharides to the growing polysaccharide chain. In the second case, growth of the polymer can be further subdivided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of a special monosaccharide or non-sugar substituent that terminates the glycan. A family of polymannose O-polysaccharides provides prototypes for the chain terminating process. Polysaccharides of Klebsiella pneumoniae O3, Hafnia alvei PCM 1223, and Escherichia coli O9 have the same penta-mannose repeating unit. E. coli O9a has tetra-mannose repeat and this structure can be produced by mutants of E. coli O9. The mechanism of biosynthesis of H. alvei 1223 O-polysaccharide has not been reported. Here we show that all above polysaccharides contain the same modification at the non-reducing end; presence of a methyl phosphate group at O-3 of α-mannopyranose, that serves as the signal for termination of the chain elongation.
Hafnia; Klebsiella; LPS; methyl phosphate; O-specific polysaccharide
InCl3, InBr3, and In(OTf)3 were tested as promoters in the preparation of glycosides from trichloroacetimidate precursors. A range of protecting groups and of alcohol acceptors were used to determine the versatility of these promoters. Disaccharide formation was demonstrated. In most cases, the In(III) compounds were shown to promote glycosylation better than the widely used promoter BF3•OEt2.
Glycosylation; Trichloroacetimidate; Indium(III) promotion; InBr3; InCl3; In(OTf)3
The presence of a novel coaggregation receptor polysaccharide (RPS) on the dental plaque isolate Streptococcus cristatus LS4 was suggested by this strain’s antigenic and coaggregation properties. Examination of RPS isolated from strain LS4 by a combination of 2-dimensional and pseudo 3-dimensional single quantum heteronuclear NMR methods that included detection of 13C chemical shifts at high resolution revealed the following repeat unit structure: →6)-β-d-Galf-(1→6)-β-d-GalpNAc-(1→3)-α-d-Galp-(1→P→6)-α-d-Galp-(1→3)-β-l-Rhap-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→ The identification of this polysaccharide as RPS3Gn, a new structural type, was established by the α-D-Galp-containing epitope of RPS serotype 3 and Gn recognition motif (i.e. β-D-GalpNAc (1→3)-α-D-Galp) for coaggregation with other bacteria.
The Candida albicans cell wall provides an architecture that allows for the organism to survive environmental stresses as well as interaction with host tissues. Previous work has focused on growing C. albicans on media such as Sabouraud or YPD at 30 °C. Because C. albicans normally colonizes a host, we hypothesized that cultivation on blood or serum at 37 °C would result in structural changes in cell wall mannan. C. albicans SC5314 was inoculated onto YPD, 5% blood, or 5% serum agar media three successive times at 30 °C and 37 °C, then cultivated overnight at 30 °C in YPD. The mannan was extracted and characterized using 1D and 2D 1H NMR techniques. At 30 °C cells grown in blood and serum contain less acid-stable terminal β-(1→2)-linked D-mannose and α-(1→2)-linked D-mannose-containing side chains, while the acid-labile side chains of mannan grown in blood and serum contain fewer β-Man-(1→2)-α-Man-(1→ side chains. The decrement in acid-stable mannan side chains is greater at 37 °C than at 30 °C. Cells grown on blood at 37 °C show fewer →6)-α-Man-(1→ structural motifs in the acid-stable polymer backbone. The data indicate that C. albicans, grown on media containing host derived components, produces less complex mannan. This is accentuated when the cells are cultured at 37 °C. This study demonstrates that the C. albicans cell wall is a dynamic and adaptive organelle, which alters its structural phenotype in response to growth in host-derived media at physiological temperature.
Mannan; NMR; Growth conditions
Synthesis of amphiphilic oligosaccharides is problematic because traditional methods for separating and purifying oligosaccharides, including sulfated oligosaccharides, are generally not applicable to working with amphiphilic sugars. We report here RPIP-LC and LC-MS methods that enable the synthesis, separation, and characterization of amphiphilic N-arylacyl O-sulfonated aminoglycosides, which are being pursued as small-molecule glycosaminoglycan mimics. The methods described in this work for separating and characterizing these amphiphilic saccharides are further applied to a number of uses: monitoring the progression of sulfonation reactions with analytical RP-HPLC, characterizing sulfate content for individual molecules with ESI-MS, determining the degree of sulfation for products having mixed degrees of sulfation with HPLC and LC-MS, and purifying products with benchtop C18 column chromatography. We believe the methods described here will be broadly applicable to enabling the synthesis, separation and characterization of amphiphilic, sulfated and phosphorylated oligosaccharides and other types of molecules substituted to varying degrees with both anionic and hydrophobic groups.
Biomimetic synthesis; Aliphatic oligosaccharide; Mass spectrometry; Reversed-phase ion-pairing; Sulfation; Electrospray ionization
The conformational behavior of a series of linear and cyclic oligo-(1→6)-β-D-glucosamines and their N-acetylated derivatives, which are related to fragments of natural poly-N-acetylglucosamine, was studied by theoretical molecular modeling and experimental determination of transglycosidic vicinal coupling constants 3JC,H and 3JH,H. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed under several types of conditions varying in the consideration of ionization of amino groups, solvent effect and temperature. Neural network clustering and asphericity calculations were performed on the basis of molecular dynamics data. It was shown that disaccharide fragments in the studied linear oligosaccharides were not rigid, and tended to have several conformers, thus determining the overall twisted shape with helical elements. In addition, it was found that the behavior of C5–C6 bond depended significantly upon the simulation conditions. The cyclic di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharides mostly had symmetrical ring-shaped conformations. The larger cycles tended to adopt more complicated shapes, and the conformational behavior of their disaccharide fragments was close to that in the linear oligosaccharides.
Cyclic oligosaccharides; Glucosamine; Conformation analysis; MM3; SASA; Transglycosidic coupling constants
We report the efficient O-glycosidation of glycosyl bromides with therapeutically relevant acceptors facilitated by silver N-heterocyclic carbene (Ag-NHC) complexes. A set of four Ag-NHC complexes was synthesized and evaluated as promoters for glycosidation reactions. Two new bis-Ag-NHC complexes derived from ionic liquids 1-benzyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride were found to efficiently promote glycosidation, whereas known mono-Ag complexes of 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride and 1,3-bis(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)imidazolium chloride failed to facilitate the reaction. The structures of the promoters were established by X-ray crystallography, and these complexes were employed in the glycosidation of different glycosyl bromide donors with biologically valuable acceptors, such as estrone, estradiol, and various flavones. The products were obtained in yields considered good to excellent, and all reactions were highly selective for the β isomer regardless of neighboring group effects.
O-glycosidation; Silver N-heterocyclic carbene complex; Carbohydrates
Ozone is known to add across and cleave carbon–carbon double bonds. Ozonolysis is widely used for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, for bleaching substances and for killing microorganisms in air and water sources. Some polysaccharides and oligosaccharides, such as those prepared using chemical or enzymatic β-elimination, contain a site of unsaturation. We examined ozonolysis of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), enoxaparin and logiparin, and heparosan oligo- and polysaccharide for the removal of the nonreducing terminal unsaturated uronate residue. 1D 1H NMR showed that these ozone-treated polysaccharides retained the same structure as the starting polysaccharide, except that the C4–C5 double bond in the nonreducing end unsaturated uronate had been removed. The anticoagulant activity of the resulting product from enoxaparin and logiparin was comparable to that of the starting material. These results demonstrate that ozonolysis is an important tool for the removal of unsaturated uronate residues from LMWHs and heparosan without modification of the core polysaccharide structure or diminution of anticoagulant activity. This reaction also has potential applications in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of bioengineered heparin from Escherichia coli-derived K5 heparosan.
heparosan; low-molecular-weight heparin; ozone; beta elimination; unsaturated uronic acid
This paper describes an enzymatic approach to obtain a thio-containing UDP-GlcNAc analog. We use an assay based on capture of the carbohydrate and analysis by mass spectrometry to quantitatively characterize the activity of this unnatural sugar donor in a LgtA-mediated glycosylation reaction.
Enzymatic synthesis; UDP-GlcNAc; Glycosylation; SAMDI MS
Traditional strategies for oligosaccharide synthesis often require extensive protecting and/or leaving group manipulations between each glycosylation step, thereby increasing the total number of synthetic steps while decreasing the efficiency of the synthesis. In contrast, expeditious strategies allow for the rapid chemical synthesis of complex carbohydrates by minimizing extraneous chemical manipulations. Oligosaccharide synthesis by selective activation of one leaving group over another is one such expeditious strategy. Herein, the significant improvements that have recently emerged in the area of the selective activation are discussed. The development of orthogonal strategy further expands the scope of the selective activation methodology. Surveyed in this article, are representative examples wherein these excellent innovations have been applied to the synthesis of various oligosaccharide sequences.
Oligosaccharides; selective activation; strategy; orthogonality; glycosylation
Borrelia burgdorferi is the etiological agent for Lyme disease (LD), the most common vector borne disease in the United States. There is no human vaccine against LD currently available. Our approach to a vaccine is based on its surface-exposed glycolipids. One group of these glycolipids termed BBGL-2 consists of 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-(α-D-galactopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol congeners having palmitic, oleic, stearic, linoleic, and myristic acids. In order to delineate the immunodominant region(s) of the BBGL-2 components, we embarked on a synthetic project to provide available structurally defined, homogeneous analogs of BBGL-2 that might help identify the best vaccine candidate. The antigenicity of the synthetic glycolipids was examined by dot-blot analysis using mice sera obtained by immunization with killed B. burgdorferi cells, with native BBGL-2 in complete Freund's adjuvant, as well as sera obtained from patients with Lyme disease. We found that the presence of two acyl groups in the glycerol moiety was essential for antigenicity. At least one of these groups must be an oleoyl moiety. Neither the anomeric configuration of the galactose nor the configuration of the glycerol at C-2 was a decisive factor. Based on these findings we designed an `unnatural' BBGL-2 analog having the structure 3-O-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)-1,2-di-O-oleoyl-DL-glycerol which is easier and less expensive to synthesize than the other BBGL-2 congeners prepared in this study. This substance proved to be antigenic and is considered a candidate vaccine for Lyme disease.
Antigen; Borrelia burgdorferi; Vaccine; Diacylglycerol; Dot-blot; Glycolipid
An exo-β-(1→3)-D-galactanase (SGalase1) that specifically cleaves the β-(1→3)-D-galactan backbone of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) was isolated from culture filtrates of a soil Streptomyces sp. Internal peptide sequence information was used to clone and recombinantly express the gene in E. coli. The molecular mass of the isolated enzyme was ~45 kDa, similar to the 48.2 kDa mass predicted from the amino acid sequence. The pI, pH and temperature optima for the enzyme were ~7.45, 3.8 and 48 °C, respectively. The native and recombinant enzymes specifically hydrolysed β-(1→3)-D-galacto-oligo- or poly-saccharides from the upstream (non-reducing) end, typical of an exo-acting enzyme. A second homologous Streptomyces gene (SGalase2) was also cloned and expressed. SGalase2 was similar in size (47.9 kDa) and enzyme activity to SGalase1 but differed in its pH optimum (pH 5). Both SGalase1 and SGalase2 are predicted to belong to the CAZy glycosyl hydrolase family GH 43 based on activity, sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis. The Km and Vmax of the native exo-β-(1→3)-D-galactanase for de-arabinosylated gum arabic (dGA) were 19 mg/ml and 9.7 μmol D-Gal/min/mg protein, respectively. The activity of these enzymes is well suited for the study of type II galactan structures and provides an important tool for the investigation of the biological role of AGPs in plants. De-arabinosylated gum arabic (dGA) was used as a model to investigate the use of these enzymes in defining type II galactan structure. Exhaustive hydrolysis of dGA resulted in a limited number of oligosaccharide products with a trisaccharide of Gal2GlcA1 predominating.
β-D-Galactanases; Arabinogalactan-protein; Streptomyces sp; De-arabinosylate gum arabic; CAZy family GH 43
The linker-equipped disaccharide, 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctyl 2,6-dideoxy-2-acetamido-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyluronate-β-d-glucopyranoside (10), was synthesized in eight steps from acetobromogalactose and ethyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-2-deoxy-2-trichloroacetamido-1-thio-β-d-glucopyranoside. The hydroxyl group present at C-4II in the last intermediate, 8-azido-3,6-dioxaoctyl 4-O-benzyl-6-bromo-2,6-dideoxy-2-trichloroacetamido-3-O-(benzyl 2,3-di-O-benzyl-β-d-galactopyranosyluronate)-β-d-glucopyranoside (9), is positioned to allow further build-up of the molecule and, eventually, construction of the complete hexasaccharide. Global deprotection (9→10) was done in one step by catalytic hydrogenolysis over palladium-on-charcoal.
Glycosylation; Vibrio cholerae O:139; Conjugation; Neoglycoconjugate
Human UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (hUGDH) catalyzes the biosynthetic oxidation of UDP-glucose into UDP-glucuronic acid. The catalytic reaction proceeds in two NAD+-dependent steps via covalent thiohemiacetal and thioester enzyme intermediates. Formation of the thiohemiacetal adduct occurs through attack of Cys276 on C-6 of the UDP-gluco-hexodialdose produced in the first oxidation step. Because previous studies of the related enzyme from bovine liver had suggested loss of the C-5 hydrogen from UDP-gluco-hexodialdose due to keto-enol tautomerism, we examined incorporation of solvent deuterium into product(s) of UDP-glucose oxidation by hUGDH. We used wild-type enzyme and a slow-reacting Glu161→Gln mutant that accumulates the thioester adduct at steady state. In situ proton NMR measurements showed that UDP-glucuronic acid was the sole detectable product of both enzymatic transformations. The product contained no deuterium at C-5 within the detection limit (⩽2%). The results are consistent with the proposed mechanistic idea for hUGDH that incipient UDP-gluco-hexodialdose is immediately trapped by thiohemiacetal adduct formation.
UDP-glucose dehydrogenase; Thiohemiacetal and thioester intermediates; Catalytic mechanism; Deuterium incorporation; UDP-gluco-hexodialdose
A library of dimeric CD1d ligands, containing two α-galactosyl ceramide (α-GalCer) units linked by spacers of varying lengths has been synthesised. The key dimerisation reactions were carried out via copper-catalysed click reactions between a 6″-azido-6″-deoxy-α-galactosyl ceramide derivative and various diynes. Each α-GalCer dimer was tested for its ability to stimulate iNKT cells.
α-GalCer; Dimer; Multivalency; CD1d; iNKT cells; Click chemistry
A series of five 3-acetamidopropyl β-glycoside of nona-β-(1→6)-glucosamines containing two N-acetylglucosamine residues separated by a different number of glucosamine units with free amino groups has been synthesized using a convergent blockwise approach. Oxazoline glycosylation was used to introduce N-acetylglucosamine residues. These nonasaccharides are structurally related to the poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) extracellular polysaccharide of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used as models for biochemical and immunological studies.
Staphylococcus aureus; Poly-β-(1→6)-N-acetylglucosamine; PNAG; Oligoglucosamines; Convergent synthesis; Oxazoline
Gb3 and iGb3 are physiologically important trihexosylceramides with a terminal α-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Galp- and α-d-Galp-(1→3)-β-d-Galp sequence, respectively. In particular iGb3 is attracting considerable attention as it is believed to serve as a ligand for natural killer T cells. Whether or not iGb3 is present in humans and which enzyme might be responsible for its synthesis is at present a matter of lively debate. In the current investigation we evaluated human blood group B galactosyltransferase (GTB) for its ability to catalyze the formation of iGb3 from lactosylceramide and UDP-Gal. GTB is a retaining glycosyltransferase that in vivo catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-Gal donors to OH-3 of Gal on the H-antigen (α-l-Fucp-(1→2)-β-d-Galp) acceptor forming the blood group B antigen. GTB tolerates modifications in donor and acceptor substrates and its ability to accept lactosides as acceptors makes it a possible candidate for iGb3 production in humans. For comparison iGb3 and Gb3 were also synthesized from the same acceptor using an α-(1→3)- and α-(1→4)- specific galactosyltransferase, respectively. All of the enzymes tested catalyzed the desired reactions. Product characterization by NMR analysis clearly differentiated between the Gal-α-(1→3)-Gal and Gal-α-(1→4)-Gal product, with the GTB product being identical to that of the α-(1→3)-GalT-catalyzed reaction. The rate of transfer by GTB however was very low, only 0.001% of the rate obtained with a good substrate, H antigen disaccharide (octyl α-l-Fucp-(1→2)-β-d-Galp). This is too low to account for the possible formation of the iGb3 structure in humans in vivo.
NKT cells; iGb3; Gb3; Human blood group B galactosyltransferase; α-(1→4)-Galactosyltransferase; Bovine α-(1→3)-galactosyltransferase
Methyl L-glycero-α-D-manno-heptopyranoside was synthesized in good yield by a Fischer-type glycosylation of the heptopyranose with methanol in the presence of cation-exchange resin under reflux and microwave conditions, respectively. The compound crystallized from 2-propanol in an orthorhombic lattice of space group P21212 showing a comparatively porous structure with a 2-dimensional O-H⋯O hydrogen bond network. As model compounds for the side chain domains of the inner core structure of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, L-glycero-α-D-manno-heptopyranosyl-(1→7)-L-glycero-D-manno-heptopyranose and the corresponding disaccharide methyl α-glycoside were prepared. The former compound was generated via glycosylation of a benzyl 5,6-dideoxy-hept-5-enofuranoside intermediate followed by catalytic osmylation and deprotection. The latter disaccharide was efficiently synthesized in good yield by a straightforward coupling of an acetylated N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidate heptopyranosyl donor to a methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl heptopyranoside acceptor derivative followed by Zemplén deacetylation.
glycoside; lipopolysaccharide; heptose; crystal structure; glycosyl donor
Recently it was demonstrated that Shigella dysenteriae type 1, a cause of severe dysentery epidemics, gained its O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) from Escherichia coli O148. The O-SPs of these bacteria differ only by a galactose residue in the repeat unit of S. dysenteriae type 1 in place of a glucose residue in E. coli O148. Here we analyzed the core structure and its linkage to the O-SP in E. coli O148 LPS. Both were found to be identical to those of S. dysenteriae type 1 structures, further supporting the relatedness of these two bacteria. The following structure of the core with one repeat unit of the O-SP has been assigned (all have d-configuration except l-Rha):
E. coli O148; LPS; O-specific polysaccharide; core; structure
Ribose 5-phosphate (R5P) is a sugar known to undergo the Maillard reaction (glycation) at a rapid rate. In a reaction with the lysines of bovine heart cytochrome c, R5P generates superoxide (O2-) that subsequently reduces ferri-cytochrome c to ferro-cytochrome c. The rate equation for the observed cytochrome c reduction is first order in respect to cytochrome c and half order in respect to R5P. The addition of amines to the cytochrome c-R5P system greatly increases the O2- generation with rates of approximately 1.0 μM min-1 being observed with millimolar levels of R5P and amine at 37 °C. Pre-incubation of R5P with the amine prior to cytochrome c addition further enhances the rate of cytochrome c reduction approximately 2-fold for every 30 minutes of incubation. While clearly accounting for a portion of the reduction of cytochrome c, O2- is not the sole reductant of the system as the use of superoxide dismutase only partially limits cytochrome c reduction, and the contribution of O2- proportionally decreases with longer amine-R5P incubation times. The remainder of the cytochrome c reduction is attributed to either the Amadori product or a cross-linked Schiff base created when a Maillard reaction-derived dicarbonyl compound(s) reacts with the amine. It is believed these compounds directly transfer electrons to ferri-cytochrome c and subsequently become stable free-radical cations. ATP, a putative regulator of cytochrome c activity, does not inhibit electron transport from O2- or the cross-linked Schiff base but does prevent R5P from reacting with surface lysines to generate superoxide. The spontaneous reaction between R5P and amines could serve as an alternative system for generating O2- in solution.
Ribose 5-phosphate; Superoxide; Cytochrome c; Glycation; Maillard reaction
The synthesis of glycosylated Fmoc amino acids by reaction of mono- and disaccharide peracetates with Fmoc amino acids having free carboxyl groups was rapidly promoted by Lewis acids (SnCl4, BF3·Et2O) under microwave irradiation. The products are useful building blocks for the synthesis of glycopeptides.
Fmoc amino acids; Glycosylation; Microwave irradiation
Adhesive interactions between selectins and their ligands play an essential role during cancer extravasation. Fucosylation of these proteins by fucosyltransferases, or FUTs, is critical for their functions. Using quantitative RT–PCR, we demonstrated that FUT4 and FUT7 are the predominant FUTs expressed in hematopoietic cell line, while FUT3 is heavily expressed by multiple cancer cell lines including the prostate cancer cell line MDA PCa2b. Knockdown of FUT3 expression in MDA PCa2b cells by small interference RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced FUT3 expression. Cell-surface sialyl Lewis antigens were largely abolished. Cell adhesion and cell rolling on the blood vessel wall were simulated by perfusing cancer cells through microtubes coated with recombinant human E-selectin. At physiological levels of wall shear stress, the number of flowing cancer cells recruited to the microtube surface was dramatically reduced by FUT3 knockdown. Higher rolling velocity was also observed, which is consistent with reduced E-selectin binding activity. Interestingly, FUT3 siRNA treatment also significantly reduced cell growth rate. Combined with the novel siRNA delivery platform recently developed in our laboratory, FUT3 siRNA could be a promising conjunctive therapy aiming at reducing the metastatic virulence of circulating epithelial cancer cells.
Selectin; Fucosyltransferase; Metastasis
Cyclization by double reductive amination of D-xylo-hexos-5-ulose with methyl 6-aminohexanoate gave (methoxycarbonyl)pentyl-1-deoxynojirimycin. Reaction of the terminal carboxylic acid with N-dansyl- 1,6-diaminohexane provided the corresponding chain-extended fluorescent derivative. By reaction with bis(6-dansylaminohexyl)amine, the corresponding branched di-N-dansyl compound was obtained. Both compounds are strong inhibitors of D-glucosidases and could also be shown to distinctly improve, at sub-inhibitory concentrations, the activity of β-glucocerebrosidase in a Gaucher fibroblast (N370S) cell-line through chaperoning of the enzyme to the lysosome.
PMID: 20471633 CAMSID: cams1978
Iminoalditol; N-Alkylation; Glucosidase inhibitor; Molecular chaperone; Gaucher’s disease