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6.  Obituaries 
PMCID: PMC1346585
7.  Profiles 
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PMCID: PMC1346584
9.  Immunization 
Canadian Medical Association Journal  1985;133(12):1248A-1248D.
Vaccines have eliminated or substantially reduced the incidence in Canada of smallpox, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) advocates a single immunization schedule, complete for all age groups and diseases where immunization is indicated and available. CMA has endorsed in principle (1984), the second edition of the Guide to Immunization for Canadians compiled by the National Advisory Committee on Immunization and requested that it be disseminated to all practising physicians in Canada. CMA also firmly endorses the concept of a readily accessible nationwide method of recording immunization status. In keeping with the World Health Organization's commitment to global control of measles, CMA (1981) supports and encourages mandatory vaccination against measles for children. The association advocates a much more aggressive and sustained public education program to promote public awareness and acceptance of immunization.
PMCID: PMC1346582
10.  AIDS hysteria: a contagious side effect 
Canadian Medical Association Journal  1985;133(12):1241-1248.
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PMCID: PMC1346581  PMID: 2998582
11.  The dilemma of wrongful birth, wrongful life 
Canadian Medical Association Journal  1985;133(12):1238-1240.
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PMCID: PMC1346580  PMID: 2933137
12.  Newsbriefs 
Canadian Medical Association Journal  1985;133(12):1235-1236.
PMCID: PMC1346579
13.  Environmental Legionella 
PMCID: PMC1346578  PMID: 3904972
15.  Risk factors for reactivation of tuberculosis in Manitoba 
Canadian Medical Association Journal  1985;133(12):1221-1224.
Although rates of reported cases of active tuberculosis have been declining in Manitoba and throughout Canada over the past two decades, the percentage of active cases due to reactivated tuberculosis has remained relatively constant. From 1976 to 1981, 113 cases of reactivated tuberculosis were listed in the Manitoba tuberculosis registry. We found that 36 cases did not meet our criteria for reactivation, primarily because there was no 6-month period of inactivity; another 5 cases could not be verified. In more than half of the remaining 72 the initial episode had occurred before 1960. We also randomly selected from the registry as controls 118 age- and sex-matched cases of nonreactivated tuberculosis. We found that registered Indian status was significantly associated with risk of reactivation, especially when the initial disease had been extensive. Awareness of high-risk groups, earlier diagnosis and adequate treatment are needed to prevent reactivated tuberculosis.
PMCID: PMC1346575  PMID: 4063933
16.  Risk factors for perinatal mortality in Canada 
Canadian Medical Association Journal  1985;133(12):1214-1219.
A population-based computer record-linkage study of infant births and deaths in 1978 and 1979 in eight Canadian provinces (Quebec and Newfoundland were excluded) was undertaken to permit analysis of perinatal mortality in relation to maternal and infant characteristics. Perinatal mortality rates were significantly higher in nonurban than in urban areas (p < 0.05). A logistic regression model was used to assess the effects on perinatal mortality of variables reported on birth and stillbirth records. This model included length of gestation, infant's birth weight and sex, number of previous births and number of previous stillbirths as well as an interaction term for length of gestation and birth weight. For early-neonatal mortality, odds ratios over 8 were observed for birth weight less than 2500 g or gestation less than 35 weeks. About 75% of early-neonatal mortality was attributable to low birth weight or fetal immaturity. Greater emphasis should be placed on the prevention of low birth weight.
PMCID: PMC1346574  PMID: 4063932
17.  Efficacy of chlorhexidine cleansing in reducing contamination of bagged urine specimens 
Canadian Medical Association Journal  1985;133(12):1211-1213.
To determine the effectiveness of precleansing with chlorhexidine gluconate-cetrimide in reducing the contamination rate of bagged urine specimens, 62 infants admitted to a children's hospital were randomly assigned to either receive (32 infants) or not receive (30) cleansing before bag application. Perimeatal swabs were taken before bag application and, in the treated group, after cleansing. Of the specimens from the treated group 69% were found to be contaminated, compared with 73% of those from the no-cleansing group. Chlorhexidine was ineffective in eliminating the perimeatal flora in 75% of the infants. The same organisms were present on the perimeatal swab and in the urine specimen in 95% of the infants in the treated group and 96% of those in the no-cleansing group. To estimate the contamination rate of urine specimens routinely cultured in the laboratory, 200 consecutive specimens (142 midstream and 58 bagged) were cultured. The contamination rate of the midstream urine specimens was 15%, compared with 66% for the bagged speciments. The cost of laboratory processing of contaminated bagged urine specimens at the hospital in 1983 may have been as high as $13 365. Chlorhexidine cleansing does not appear to be cost-effective. Further randomized controlled studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of other cleansing agents in reducing the contamination rate of bagged urine specimens.
PMCID: PMC1346573  PMID: 3933810

Results 1-25 (47998)