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2.  Prostaglandin concentrations in uterine fluid of cows with pyometra. 
Uterine fluid was obtained from eight clinical cases of pyometra with retained corpus luteum and nine additional samples of fluid were collected from animals slaughtered at an abattoir. These samples, along with uterine flushes from normal cows in their luteal phase were analyzed for prostaglandin of the F (PGF) and E (PGE) groups. Blood samples were also obtained from the clinical cases for analysis of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF (PGFM) the major metabolite of PGF. Pyometrial exudate from clinical cases of abattoir samples had high concentrations of PGF (17.9 ng/mL) and PGE (33.2 ng/mL) and the total amount of PGF and PGE in the uterus was calculated to be several hundred times as great as in normal cows. Furthermore, clinical cases had elevated PGFM in their blood compared to that of controls, which suggests that at least some of the PGF was being absorbed from the uterus. These results are discussed in light of our current understanding of the maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle.
PMCID: PMC1236208  PMID: 4075244
PMCID: PMC1236202
4.  Effects of feeding Ascochyta-infected and normal lentils to rats (short-term study). 
Weanling, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either rat chow with no lentils, 80% normal lentils or 80% diseased lentils heavily infected with the fungus Ascochyta lentis. Body weight, feed consumption and clinical appearance were monitored over 90 days and blood samples were collected at the termination of the experiment. Weight gain and feed consumption were similar in the control group and the group fed diseased lentils. Weight gain was slightly depressed in the group fed normal lentils. These effects were attributed to the lentils being a poorer source of protein than the wheat, barley and soybean meal used in the control diet, but the protein content of the diseased lentils was higher than the normal lentils. Total white blood cell counts and lymphocyte counts were significantly depressed (P = 0.05) in the group fed the diseased lentil diet. Significant differences (P = 0.05) were found among groups in the ratios of liver, kidney and spleen weights to body weight.
PMCID: PMC1236201  PMID: 4075241
5.  Ceruloplasmin as an indicator of copper status in cattle and sheep. 
The relationship between ceruloplasmin, a metalloenzyme with oxidase activity, and copper was investigated in cattle and sheep. The oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin correlated closely with the serum or plasma copper concentrations in cattle. The respective correlation coefficients were 0.83 and 0.60. In sheep serum, a correlation coefficient of 0.92 was obtained. In each instance, the relationship remained linear from the deficient to the high normal ranges of copper. Comparison of the linear regression relationships indicated the ceruloplasmin activity in bovine serum was statistically lower than the activity in bovine plasma (P less than 0.0001), through the intercepts from the regression lines of the two relationships were similar (P = 0.412). Comparisons of ovine and bovine serum-ceruloplasmin relationships indicated that a significant species difference was present. Ovine ceruloplasmin activity increased more rapidly as compared to the corresponding bovine activity over the range of copper concentrations investigated (P less than 0.0001). The intercept from the ovine regression relationship was also lower (P less than 0.0001). A correlation coefficient of 0.35 was observed between the serum ceruloplasmin activity and hepatic copper concentrations in cattle indicating that the mathematical relationship was not as well defined. Ceruloplasmin activity appears to correlate more closely with serum or plasma copper concentrations as compared to corresponding liver copper concentrations.
PMCID: PMC1236200  PMID: 4075240
6.  Inability to experimentally produce a polyneuropathy in dogs given chronic oral low level lead. 
Electromyographic examinations were performed at various times over a 40 week period in four mature dogs receiving chronic oral low doses of lead acetate and a control dog receiving sodium acetate. Blood lead levels in the four dogs were elevated (mean values 1.15, 2.18, 1.13 and 1.72 mumol/liter). No clinical signs of lead intoxication were present. Two dogs had evidence of a nonregenerative anemia. Neither needle electromyographic nor nerve conduction velocity studies showed evidence of a polyneuropathy. Teased nerve fiber preparations of proximal and distal segments of the ulnar and tibial nerves and muscle biopsies of distal appendicular muscles were normal in all dogs. Light microscopic examination of the brain, kidneys and liver revealed no abnormalities in the two dogs necropsied. In conclusion, a polyneuropathy was not produced experimentally in dogs ingesting low doses of inorganic lead for up to 40 weeks.
PMCID: PMC1236199  PMID: 3000550
7.  A comparison of standard serological tests for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Canada. 
Six agglutination and two complement fixation tests were compared with respect to specificity, sensitivity and relative sensitivity for the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Based on 1051 sera from brucellosis free herds, the specificity of the tests was 98.9% for the buffered plate antigen test (BPAT), 99.2% and 99.3% for the standard tube and plate agglutination tests (STAT and SPAT), respectively, and 99.8% for the 2-mercaptoethanol test (2MET). On this small sample, the rose bengal plate test (RBPT), card test (CARD) and the complement fixation test (CFT) correctly classed all sera as negative. On a sample of 167 culture positive cattle, the sensitivities of the tests were CFT: 79.0%, BPAT: 75.4, RBPT: 74.9%, CARD: 74.3%, SPAT: 73.1%, STAT: 68.9%, and 2MET: 59.9%. All tests combined detected only 82% of these infected cattle. Analysis of the relative sensitivity of the six agglutination tests gave the following ranking: BPAT greater than RBPT greater than CARD greater than SPAT greater than STAT. The 2MET ranked between the BPAT and RBPT or between the RBPT and CARD depending on the analysis used. The use of the BPAT as a screening test is recommended provided that a test of high specificity and sensitivity such as the CFT is used to confirm screening test reactions.
PMCID: PMC1236197  PMID: 4075239
8.  Strongylus equinus: development and pathological effects in the equine host. 
The development and pathological effects of Strongylus equinus were studied in 17 pony foals and one horse foal raised in isolation and examined at necropsy from seven days to 40 wk postinfection (PI). Following inoculation of 15000 +/- 6% or 16000 +/- 6% infective larvae by stomach tube foals were monitored for clinical signs and selected blood changes. Larvae penetrated the wall of the ileum, cecum and colon. The molt to the fourth stage occurred mostly in the wall of the ventral colon before 2 wk PI and larvae attained the liver mainly via the peritoneal cavity as early as eight days PI and persisted in the liver until 17 wk PI. Following active migration within the liver, invasion of the pancreas was accomplished at least by 7 wk PI with maximum numbers at 17 wk. The fourth molt occurred about 15 wk PI and preadults were present in the wall of the ventral colon at 30 wk PI and in the lumen of the colon at 40 wk. Strongylus equinus tends to wander retroperitoneally to the flanks, perirenal fat, diaphragm, omentum and occasionally to the lungs. Between 1 and 4 wk PI small raised hemorrhagic areas were present on the serosa of the ileum and colon. Small white foci on the surface of the liver at 1 wk PI were followed by tortuous tracks 3 wk later. Pathological changes in the pancreas were evident at three months PI and more severe by four months. Granulomas containing larvae were common in the flanks, diaphragm, omentum and occasionally beneath the pleura of the lungs. Clinical signs were correlated with invasion of the pancreas, the fourth molt, maximum globulin values and high eosinophil counts.
PMCID: PMC1236195  PMID: 4075237
9.  Studies on the immunogenicity of Streptococcus equi vaccines in foals. 
The ability of either formalin-treated or heat-inactivated whole Streptococcus equi cell vaccines or partially purified M-protein of S. equi to give rise to protective antibody levels was studied in Standardbred foals by serological means. Two commercial preparations, i.e. a beta-propiolactone killed whole S. equi cell bacterin and a cell-free extract of S. equi cells were included in the study. The mean passive hemagglutination antibody titers (10 X log2) in sera of foals given either four doses of formalin-treated whole cell vaccine or an initial dose of formalin-treated followed by three doses of heat-inactivated vaccine with or without levamisole were significantly higher two weeks after the final dose. These passive hemagglutination antibody titers were higher in foals given formalin-treated whole cell vaccine (6.7 +/- 1.5) than given commercial bacterin (4.5 +/- 2.1). The passive hemagglutination antibody titers in all the groups decreased at 12 to 16 weeks after fourth dose of the vaccine. Foals given a commercial cell-free extract did not show a significant increase in passive hemagglutination antibody titers even up to four weeks after third dose. A group of six pony foals immunized with partially-purified M protein showed mean passive hemagglutination antibody titers lower than those observed in foals given whole cell vaccines. In a challenge experiment with S. equi, two of six foals vaccinated with partially-purified M-protein and all three controls developed clinical disease. The passive hemagglutination antibody of vaccinated foals increased after challenge, while at 28 days postchallenge the passive hemagglutination antibody titers of vaccinates and recovered controls were similar.
PMCID: PMC1236191  PMID: 4075235
10.  Atrial septal defect of the persistent ostium primum type with hypoplastic right ventricle in a Welsh pony foal. 
Valvular competency of the foramen ovale (patent foramen ovale) is regarded as a common finding in the neonatal foal and usually occurs in isolation. True atrial septal defects appear to be uncommon and are usually associated with other congenital cardiac lesions. The present report describes a case of atrial septal defect type 1 (persistent ostium primum) complicated by hypoplastic right ventricle, and tricuspid dysplasia, in a Welsh Mountain pony foal, and discusses the embryogenesis of the abnormality. A critical review of the literature suggests that atrial septal defects may occur more frequently than they are reported, and that on occasion they may be described erroneously as patent foramen ovale. The clinical significance of uncomplicated discontinuity of the atrial septum is slight, depending upon the size and location of the defect. Complicated atrial septal defects vary in clinical significance according to the nature of the associated defects.
PMCID: PMC1236206  PMID: 4075243
11.  Epizootiological survey of parainfluenza-3, reovirus-3, respiratory syncytial and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral antibodies in sheep and goat flocks in Quebec. 
A serological survey was conducted in an attempt to detect antibodies against bovine respiratory viruses in sheep and goats from seven geographical areas of Quebec. Sera from 10% of the animals in 182 sheep flocks and 40 goat flocks were collected and specific antibodies against parainfluenza-3, reovirus type 3, respiratory syncytial and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses were detected by hemagglutination-inhibition tests for the former viruses and complement fixation and seroneutralization assays for the latter viruses. Results showed prevalence rates of serological reaction to parainfluenza-3, reovirus type 3 and respiratory syncytial viruses of 28, 72 and 35% in sheep and 26, 64 and 36% in goats, respectively. No antibodies in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were detected in sheep or goats tested. Prevalence rates varied according to the geographical area. No relationships were detected between age, sex, breed, size of flock and prevalence rates of different antibodies except that parainfluenza-3 antibodies were more common in large goat flocks and in sheep flocks with total confinement housing. A relationship between presence of clinical signs in the flocks and prevalence rates of antibodies was only demonstrated for parainfluenza-3 infection in goat flocks.
PMCID: PMC1236205  PMID: 3000551
12.  Evaluation of the arterial blood pressure of dogs by two noninvasive methods. 
The determination of the arterial blood pressure was done on 12 healthy mixed breed dogs in both the anesthetized and the conscious state, to evaluate two instruments (Doppler flow detector and infrasonde D4000), in their ability to indirectly determine arterial blood pressure. The coefficients of variation were higher with indirect methods when compared with the results obtained by cannulation. These coefficients were lower with the Doppler flow detector. The correlation study showed that both apparatuses were reliable in most situations. The infrasonde D4000 was more accurate than the Doppler in the conscious animals. However the results showed a lack of precision in hypertensive conscious dogs. The diastolic arterial blood pressure was particularly precise in the case of the anesthetized hypotensive dogs. Its sensitivity allowed it to register muscle movement artifacts. The Doppler flow detector showed less variation and was particularly accurate in both anesthetized and conscious hypertensive dogs. Its sensitivity allowed artifact movement sounds to be detected. The Doppler should be used in quiet surroundings or earphones should be worn by the evaluator. Some form of restraint is needed with the use of both instruments. Even if the correlations with the direct arterial blood pressure values were better with the infrasonde D4000, greater variations were found in the individual readings. The Doppler instrument represents in the hands of the investigators a better instrument for routine monitoring of blood pressure in the dog.
PMCID: PMC1236204  PMID: 4075242
13.  A class capture enzyme immunoassay for immunoglobulin level determinations in bovine sera. 
An enzyme immunoassay for determination of individual isotype concentrations in bovine serum was developed. Polystyrene tubes were coated with affinity purified goat antibovine IgA, IgG1, IgG2 or IgM, washed and then incubated with purified isotypes to ascertain crossreactivity and sensitivity limits. Bound isotype was detected using the homologous affinity purified antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide-2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid), as the substrate/chromogen. A standardized serum was diluted and used as a control for comparison. Several dilutions were used initially, however, determinations may be made with a single dilution, 1:200, for all isotypes. Results for 100 sera were compared to data obtained with the same samples using a radial immunodiffusion technique. A low correlation coefficient was noted between results from the two assays. Day to day variation and within test repeatability were determined for both assays using ten samples. For the enzyme immunoassay method, day to day variation for IgA, IgM, IgG1 and IgG2 determinations was 17.5, 19.3, 7.6 and 7.3% while variation in repeatability (within a test) was 6.2, 5.9, 3.3 and 4.5%, respectively. Day to day variation for the single radial immunodiffusion test for IgA, IgM, IgG1 and IgG2 was 15.4, 26.0, 11.5 and 18.3% and variation repeatability (within a test) was 11.6, 13.9, 5.9 and 8.3%, respectively. The procedures consistently detected 0.1 micrograms of immunoglobulin whereas the radial diffusion sensitivity limit was approximately 500 micrograms.
PMCID: PMC1236203  PMID: 3935300
14.  Pulmonary response to intratracheal challenge with Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. 
Calves were inoculated intratracheally with 5 X 10(7), 5 X 10(8), or 5 X 10(9) colony forming units of either 18-hour stationary phase cultures or 4-hour log phase cultures of Pasteurella haemolytica. The log phase culture at all concentrations produced more severe clinical signs, hematological changes and pulmonary lesions at postmortem examination than did the corresponding stationary phase culture. More severe effects were seen with the larger doses especially with the log phase culture. Fibrinous bronchopneumonia with focal or multifocal necrosis was consistently produced by both the stationary and log phase cultures. To determine if this lesion was peculiar to P. haemolytica or whether it could be produced generally by rapidly growing Gram negative organisms, a 4-hour log phase culture of Pasteurella multocida was prepared in an identical manner to that used for the culture of P. haemolytica and given to calves intratracheally at the high bacterial dose (5 X 10(9]. The P. haemolytica produced more severe clinical, hematological and morphological changes than did the P. multocida. The lesions observed with P. multocida differed morphologically from those of P. haemolytica; there was a suppurative exudative component and minimal to no necrosis with P. multocida. It appears that an important pathogenic principle is produced by the rapidly growing P. haemolytica that causes it to produce a more severe clinical disease and more necrotizing pulmonary lesions than P. multocida.
PMCID: PMC1236198  PMID: 3907805
15.  Ultrastructural characterization of colonic lesions in pigs inoculated with Treponema hyodysenteriae. 
Twelve pigs were inoculated orally with pure cultures of Treponema hyodysenteriae. Pigs were necropsied at different time intervals postinoculation; colonic specimens were collected and prepared for light and electron microscopy. The earliest colonic lesion detected by electron microscopy consisted of superficial vascular congestion and dilatation, edema of the lamina propria and intercellular separation of the epithelial cells at the crypt shoulders. This lesion progressed to epithelial cell necrosis and extrusion into the lumen and extravasation of red cells. Large numbers of spirochetes were present and free, between, over and under necrotic epithelial cells whether in place or partially extruded. Spirochetal penetration of colonic enterocytes and intracytoplasmic multiplication were confirmed in this study. The spirochetes were found to invade the epithelial cells only from their lateral borders. The relationship between T. hyodysenteriae and the colonic anaerobes was not determined.
PMCID: PMC1236196  PMID: 4075238
16.  Preliminary studies with a live streptomycin-dependent Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella haemolytica vaccine for the prevention of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. 
Twelve Pasteurella-free Holstein-Friesian calves were used in a study to test the efficacy of a live streptomycin-dependent Pasteurella multocida A:3 and streptomycin-dependent Pasteurella haemolytica A1 vaccine. The calves were inoculated intramuscularly twice at 14-day intervals with either the streptomycin-dependent vaccine, containing 1 X 10(6) colony forming units/mL P. multocida and 4 X 10(8) colony forming units/mL P. haemolytica, commercial bacterin, or phosphate buffered saline. Two weeks following the second vaccination, all calves were challenged by intranasal inoculation of 10(8) TCID50/4.0 mL infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus followed three days later by intratracheal injection with 2.3 X 10(7) colony forming units/mL of a 16 hour culture of P. multocida A:3 and 2.6 X 10(8) colony forming units/mL of an 8 hour culture of P. haemolytica A1. Seven days after challenge with Pasteurella, calves were killed for collection of tissues at necropsy. Each calf was given a score based on macroscopic and microscopic lesions. The scores for the calves receiving live vaccines were significantly lower (p less than 0.025) than those for the controls. Also, the calves receiving live vaccines had a significant (p less than 0.05) increase in the level of serum antibody to P. haemolytica. The results of this preliminary study showed that the streptomycin-dependent vaccine offered better protection than the commercial bacterin against a virulent homologous challenge.
PMCID: PMC1236194  PMID: 3907804
17.  Chlorpyrifos for control of the short-nosed cattle louse, Haematopinus eurysternus (Nitzsch) (Anoplura, Haematopinidae) during winter. 
Two groups (A and C) of range cows were treated in February with chlorpyrifos (16 mL Dursban 44/cow) for the control of heavy infestations of the short-nosed cattle louse. Group A was treated in 1977 and group C in 1979 and each treated group was compared with a separate untreated group. Some of the treated cows were identified as carriers of louse infestation (subgroups A1 and C1), while others were noncarriers (subgroups A2 and C2). The maximum level of reduction in louse populations was 99% at week 4 posttreatment in subgroup A1, 99% from weeks 2-16 posttreatment in subgroup A2, 92% at week 3 posttreatment in subgroup C1 and 100% at weeks 15-17 in subgroup C2. Clinically, the treated cows, which were anemic at the time of treatment, recovered from anemia during the posttreatment period of 25 weeks for group A and 17 weeks for group C. Remission of anemia also occurred in the two untreated groups, possibly because of natural summer decline in louse population. The treatment had no effect on the whole blood cholinesterase of the cows and the treated cows showed no signs of organophosphorous toxicity.
PMCID: PMC1236193  PMID: 2416414
18.  Fluid therapy trials in neonatal piglets infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. 
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an oral fluid therapy alone or combined with parenteral administration of a 5% dextrose solution to attenuate the clinical signs and the pathophysiological consequences of transmissible gastroenteritis in neonatal piglets. Eighteen two day old conventional piglets were infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus while six others were used as controls (Group 1). At the onset of diarrhea, infected piglets were divided into three groups of six (Groups 2, 3 and 4). Piglets in group 2 were not treated and were fed a milk replacer ad libitum. Piglets in group 3 were removed from the milk replacer and placed on an oral glucose-glycine-electrolyte solution ad libitum. Those in group 4 were placed on oral fluid therapy and received a 5% dextrose solution intraperitoneally at the rate of 25 mL/kg of body weight once a day. Blood samples were collected in heparin within minutes after the infected piglets became comatose and from the controls at four or five days of age. The following variables were measured: packed red cell volume, blood pH, total plasma protein and bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose, creatinine, chloride, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Vomiting and diarrhea appeared 12 to 24 hours postinoculation in the infected piglets. There was a sudden and rapid progression into a comatose and moribund state one or two days later whether the infected piglets were treated or not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1236192  PMID: 4075236
19.  A Simple Aerosol Chamber for Experimental Reproduction of Respiratory Disease in Pigs and Other Species 
The design of a simple aerosol chamber for experimental challenge of pigs and other species with respiratory pathogens is described.
PMCID: PMC1236207  PMID: 3935301
Respiratory disease; experimental production; aerosol chamber; pigs
25.  The sensitivity and specificity of postbreeding plasma progesterone levels as a pregnancy test for dairy cows. 
Plasma progesterone levels on day 4 and day 8 postbreeding were measured for one hundred and eighty-four dairy cows. These two parameters (PPD4, PPD8), their absolute difference (PPDIFF) and their ratio (PPRATIO) were assessed for their ability to identify cows not conceiving, using the principles of sensitivity and specificity. PPD4 was significantly higher (p less than 0.10) and PPD8, PPDIFF and PPRATIO were significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in cows remaining open than in pregnant cows. Evaluating each parameter separately, PPDIFF greater than 3.00 units had the highest specificity, 85.7%, but a low sensitivity (27.0%). Combining two parameters using series interpretation to increase specificity resulted in the best combination of specificity (87%) and sensitivity (27%). Maximum specificity was 97% for PPD4 less than or equal to 1.00 units and PPD8 greater than 4.00 units, and also for PPD4 less than or equal to 1.00 units and PPDIFF greater than 3.00 units, but sensitivity was very low (7% and 10% respectively). Predictive values of the test results with the best specificity were evaluated; given the population pregnancy rate of 54%, none exceeded 50%, indicating that the plasma progesterone parameters were not very useful for identifying open dairy cows.
PMCID: PMC1236186  PMID: 4041979

Results 1-25 (1473)