In the hematopoietic compartment, the CD13/APN metalloprotease is one of the earliest markers of cells committed to the myeloid lineage where it is expressed exclusively on the surface of myeloid progenitors and their differentiated progeny. CD13/APN is also found in nonhematopoietic tissues, and its novel expression on the endothelial cells of angiogenic, but not normal, vasculature was recently described. Treatment of animals with CD13/APN inhibitors significantly impaired retinal neovascularization, chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis, and xenograft tumor growth, indicating that CD13/APN plays an important functional role in vasculogenesis and identifying it as a critical regulator of angiogenesis. To investigate the mechanisms of CD13/APN induction in tumor vasculature, the regulation of CD13/APN by factors contributing to angiogenic progression was studied. In this report, it is shown that endogenous CD13/APN levels in primary cells and cell lines are up-regulated in response to hypoxia, angiogenic growth factors, and signals regulating capillary tube formation during angiogenesis. Transcription of reporter plasmids containing CD13/APN proximal promoter sequences is significantly increased in response to the same angiogenic signals that regulate the expression of the endogenous gene and in human tumor xenografts, indicating that this fragment contains elements essential for the angiogenic induction of CD13/APN expression. Finally, functional antagonists of CD13/APN interfere with tube formation but not proliferation of primary vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that CD13/APN functions in the control of endothelial cell morphogenesis. These studies clearly establish the CD13/APN metalloprotease as an important regulator of endothelial morphogenesis during angiogenesis.
We investigated the cause of mild mucocutaneous bleeding in a 14-year-old male patient (P1). Platelet aggregation and ATP secretion induced by arachidonic acid and the thromboxane A2 receptor (TxA2R) agonist U46619 were reduced in P1 compared with controls, whereas the responses to other platelet agonists were retained. P1 was heterozygous for a transversion within the TBXA2R gene predictive of a D304N substitution in the TxA2R. In Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing the variant D304N TxA2R, U46619 did not increase cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, indicating loss of receptor function. The TxA2R antagonist [3H]-SQ29548 showed an approximate 50% decrease in binding to platelets from P1 but absent binding to Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing variant D304N TxA2R. This is the second naturally occurring TxA2R variant to be associated with platelet dysfunction and the first in which loss of receptor function is associated with reduced ligand binding. D304 lies within a conserved NPXXY motif in transmembrane domain 7 of the TxA2R that is a key structural element in family A G protein-coupled receptors. Our demonstration that the D304N substitution causes clinically significant platelet dysfunction by reducing ligand binding establishes the importance of the NPXXY motif for TxA2R function in vivo.
The mechanisms by which transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) exerts a negative effect on cell-cycle entry in primary human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells were examined at the molecular and cellular levels. After treatment of primary human CD34+ progenitors with TGF-β there was a decrease in the levels of cyclin D2 protein and an increase in levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p15 as compared to the levels in untreated cells. The converse was true after addition of neutralizing anti–TGF-β antibody. Administration of TGF-β to CD34+ cells in the presence of cytokines prevented retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation, which occurred in the same cells treated with cytokines alone or cytokines and anti–TGF-β antibody. Neutralization of TGF-β during 24 to 48 hours of culture with cytokines significantly increased the number of colony-forming progenitors, but did not modulate the human stem cell pool, as measured in 6- to 12-month xenotransplantation assays. Equivalent numbers of human B, T, and myeloid cells were obtained after transplantation of cells treated with or without neutralization of TGF-β.
The C-type lectin receptor CLEC-2 activates platelets through Src and Syk tyrosine kinases leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream adapter proteins and effector enzymes, including PLCγ2. Signalling is initiated through phosphorylation of a single conserved tyrosine located in a YxxL sequence in the CLEC-2 cytosolic tail. The signalling pathway used by CLEC-2 shares many similarities with that used by receptors which have one or more copies of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), defined by the sequence YxxL/Ix6–12YxxL/I, in their cytosolic tails or associated receptor chains. Phosphorylation of the conserved ITAM tyrosines promotes Syk binding and activation through binding of the Syk tandem SH2 domains. In this report we present evidence using peptide pull down studies, surface plasmon resonance, quantitative western blotting, tryptophan fluorescence measurements and competition experiments that Syk activation by CLEC-2 is mediated by the cross-linking through the tandem SH2 domains with a stoichiometry of 2:1. In support of this model, cross-linking and electron microscopy demonstrate that CLEC-2 is present as a dimer in resting platelets and converted to larger complexes upon activation. This is a unique mode of activation of Syk by a single YxxL-containing receptor.
CLEC-2; ITAM; platelets; rhodocytin; Syk
Ribosomopathies are largely congenital diseases linked to defects in ribosomal proteins or biogenesis factors. Some of these disorders are characterized by hypoproliferative phenotypes such as bone marrow failure and anemia early in life, followed by elevated cancer risks later in life. This transition from hypo- to hyperproliferation presents an intriguing paradox in the field of hematology known as ‘Dameshek’s riddle.’ Recent cancer sequencing studies also revealed somatically acquired mutations and deletions in ribosomal proteins in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and solid tumors, further extending the list of ribosomopathies and strengthening the association between ribosomal defects and oncogenesis. In this perspective, we summarize and comment on recent findings in the field of ribosomopathies. We explain how ribosomopathies may provide clues to help explain Dameshek’s paradox and highlight some of the open questions and challenges in the field.
Band 3, the major anion transport protein of human erythrocytes forms the core of a multiprotein complex in the erythrocyte membrane. Here we studied the spatio-temporal mechanisms of band 3 multiprotein complex assembly during erythropoiesis. Significant pools of intracellular band 3 and RhAG were found in the basophilic erythroblast. These intracellular pools decreased in the polychromatic erythroblast whilst surface expression increased, and were lowest in the orthochromatic erythroblast and reticulocytes. Protease treatment of intact cells to remove extracellular epitopes recognized by antibodies to band 3 and RhAG was used to study surface delivery kinetics and intracellular complex composition from the proerythroblast stage to the enucleated reticulocyte. Newly synthesized band 3 and protein 4.2 interact initially in the early stages of the secretory pathway and are found associated at the plasma membrane from the basophilic stage of erythropoiesis. Although we could successfully co-immunoprecipitate Rh with RhAG from plasma membrane pools at a similar stage, no intracellular interaction between these proteins was detectable. Knockdown of RhAG during early erythropoiesis was accompanied by a concomitant drop in membrane expression of Rh polypeptides. These data are consistent with assembly of major components of the band 3 macrocomplex at an early stage during erythropoiesis.
The constitutively active mutant of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (CA-WASp) is the cause of X-linked neutropenia and is linked with genomic instability and myelodysplasia. CA-WASp generates abnormally high levels of cytoplasmic F-actin through dysregulated activation of the Arp2/3 complex leading to defects in cell division. As WASp has no reported role in cell division, we hypothesized that alteration of cell mechanics due to increased F-actin may indirectly disrupt dynamic events during mitosis. Inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex revealed that excess cytoplasmic F-actin caused increased cellular viscosity, slowed all phases of mitosis, and perturbed mitotic mechanics. Comparison of chromosome velocity to the cytoplasmic viscosity revealed that cells compensated for increased viscosity by up-regulating force applied to chromosomes and increased the density of microtubules at kinetochores. Mitotic abnormalities were due to overload of the aurora signalling pathway as subcritical inhibition of Aurora in CA-WASp cells caused increased cytokinesis failure, while overexpression reduced defects. These findings demonstrate that changes in cell mechanics can cause significant mitotic abnormalities leading to genomic instability, and highlights the importance of mechanical sensors such as Aurora B in maintaining the fidelity of haematopoietic cell division.
High levels of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) protect from many of the complications of sickle cell disease and lead to improved survival. Butyrate and other short chain fatty acids were previously shown to increase Hb F production in erythroid cells in vitro and in animal models in vivo. However, butyrates are also known to inhibit the proliferation of many cell types, including erythroid cells. Experience with the use of butyrate in animal models and in early clinical trials demonstrated that the Hb F response may be lost after prolonged administration of high doses of butyrate. We hypothesized that this loss of response may be a result of the antiproliferative effects of butyrate. We designed a regimen consisting of intermittent or pulse therapy in which butyrate was administered for 4 days followed by 10 to 24 days with no drug exposure. This pulse regimen induced fetal globin gene expression in 9 of 11 patients. The mean Hb F in this group increased from 7.2% to 21.0% (P < .002) after intermittent butyrate therapy for a mean duration of 29.9 weeks. This was associated with a parallel increase in the number of F cells and F reticulocytes. The total hemoglobin levels also increased from a mean of 7.8 g/dL to a mean of 8.8 g/dL (P < .006). The increased levels of Hb F were sustained in all responders, including 1 patient who has been on pulse butyrate therapy for more than 28 months. This regimen, which resulted in a marked and sustained increase in Hb F levels in more than two thirds of the adult sickle cell patients enrolled in this study, was well tolerated without adverse side effects. These encouraging results require confirmation along with an appropriate evaluation of clinical outcomes in a larger number of patients with sickle cell disease.
Orally bioactive compounds that induce γ globin gene expression at tolerable doses are needed for optimal treatment of the β-hemoglobinopathies. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) of 2 to 6 carbons in length induce γ globin expression in animal models, and butyrate, phenylbutyrate, and valproate induce γ globin in human patients. The usefulness of these compounds, however, is limited by requirements for large doses because of their rapid metabolism and their tendency to inhibit cell proliferation, which limits the pool of erythroid progenitors in which γ globin can be induced. Selected short-chain fatty acid derivatives (SCFADs) were recently found to induce γ globin and to stimulate the proliferation of hematopoietic cells in vitro. These SCFADs are now evaluated in vivo in nonanemic transgenic mice containing the human β globin gene locus and in anemic phlebotomized baboons. In mice treated with a SCFAD once daily for 5 days, γ globin mRNA increased 2-fold, reticulocytes increased 3- to 7-fold, and hematocrit levels increased by 27%. Administration of 3 SCFADs in anemic baboons increased F-reticulocytes 2- to 15-fold over baseline and increased total hemoglobin levels by 1 to 2 g/dL per week despite ongoing significant daily phlebotomy. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated 90% oral bioavailability of 2 SCFADs, and targeted plasma levels were maintained for several hours after single oral doses equivalent to 10% to 20% of doses required for butyrate. These findings identify SCFADs that stimulate γ globin gene expression and erythropoiesis in vivo, activities that are synergistically beneficial for treatment of the β hemoglobinopathies and useful for the oral treatment of other anemias.
Current chemotherapeutic and butyrate therapeutics that induce fetal hemoglobin expression generally also suppress erythropoiesis, limiting the production of cells containing fetal hemoglobin (F cells). Recently, selected short-chain fatty acid derivatives (SCFADs) were identified that induce endogenous γ-globin expression in K562 cells and human burst-forming units–erythroid and that increase proliferation of human erythroid progenitors and a multilineage interleukin-3–depen-dent hematopoietic cell line. In this report, γ-globin inducibility by these SCFADs was further demonstrated in mice transgenic for the locus control region and the entire β-globin gene locus in a yeast artificial chromosome and in 2 globin promoter-reporter assays. Conditioned media experiments strongly suggest that their proliferative activity is a direct effect of the test compounds. Investigation of potential mechanisms of action of these SCFADs demonstrates that these compounds induce prolonged expression of the growth-promoting genes c-myb and c-myc. Both butyrate and specific growth-stimulatory SCFADs induced prolonged signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-5 phosphorylation and activation, and c-cis expression, persisting for more than 120 minutes, whereas with IL-3 alone phosphorylation disappeared within minutes. In contrast to butyrate treatment, the growth-stimulating SCFADs did not result in bulk histone H4 hyperacetylation or induction of p21 Waf/Cip, which mediates the suppression of cellular growth by butyrate. These findings suggest that the absence of bulk histone hyperacetylation and p21 induction, but prolonged induction of cis, myb, myc, and STAT-5 activation, contribute to the cellular proliferation induced by selected SCFADs.
The P2RY8-CRLF2 fusion defines a particular relapse-prone subset of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (AIEOP-BFM) 2000 protocols. To investigate whether and to what extent different clone sizes influence disease and relapse development, we quantified the genomic P2RY8-CRLF2 fusion product and correlated it with the corresponding CRLF2 expression levels in patients enrolled in the BFM-ALL 2000 protocol in Austria. Of 268 cases without recurrent chromosomal translocations and high hyperdiploidy, representing approximately 50% of all cases, 67 (25%) were P2RY8-CRLF2 positive. The respective clone sizes were ≥ 20% in 27% and < 20% in 73% of them. The cumulative incidence of relapse of the entire fusion-positive group was clone size independent and significantly higher than that of the fusion-negative group (35% ± 8% vs 13% ± 3%, P = .008) and primarily confined to the non–high-risk group. Of 22 P2RY8-CRLF2–positive diagnosis/relapse pairs, only 4/8 had the fusion-positive dominant clone conserved at relapse, whereas none of the original 14 fusion-positive small clones reappeared as the dominant relapse clone. We conclude that the majority of P2RY8-CRLF2–positive clones are small at diagnosis and virtually never generate a dominant relapse clone. Our findings therefore suggest that P2RY8-CRLF2–positive clones do not have the necessary proliferative or selective advantage to evolve into a disease-relevant relapse clone.
The TEL/AML1 fusion gene results from the most frequent t(12;21)(p13;q22) translocation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Its contribution to transformation is largely unknown, in particular with respect to survival and apoptosis. We therefore silenced TEL/AML1 expression in leukemic REH cells by RNA inhibition, which eventually led to programmed cell death. Microarray and 2D gel electrophoresis data demonstrated a differential regulation of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), among them HSP90, as well as of its client, survivin. Consistent with these findings, ectopic expression of TEL/AML1 in Ba/F3 cells increased protein levels of HSP90 and survivin and conferred resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Our data suggest that TEL/AML1 not only contributes to leukemogenesis by affecting an antiapoptotic network but also seems to be indispensable for maintaining the malignant phenotype. The functional relationship between TEL/AML1, HSP90, and survivin provides the rational for targeted therapy, be it the fusion gene or the latter 2 proteins.
PML-RARA and AML1-ETO are important oncogenic fusion proteins that play a central role in transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Whether these fusion proteins render the tumor cells with immune evasion properties is unknown. Here we show that both oncogenic proteins specifically downregulate the expression of CD48, a ligand of the natural killer (NK) cell activating receptor 2B4, thereby leading to decreased killing by NK cells. We demonstrate that this process is histone deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent, that it is mediated through the downregulation of CD48 messenger RNA, and that treatment with HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) restores the expression of CD48. Furthermore, by using chromatin immuoprecepitation (ChIP) experiments, we show that AML1-ETO directly interacts with CD48. Finally, we show that AML patients who are carrying these specific translocations have low expression of CD48.
Patients with idiopathic, cyclic, and congenital neutropenia have recurrent severe bacterial infections. One hundred twenty-three patients with recurrent infections and severe chronic neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count < 0.5 × 109/L) due to these diseases were enrolled in this multi-center phase III trial. They were randomized to either immediately beginning recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim) (3.45 to 11.50 μg/kg/d, subcutaneously) or entering a 4-month observation period followed by filgrastim administration. Blood neutrophil counts, bone marrow (BM) cell histology, and incidence and duration of infection-related events were monitored. Of the 123 patients enrolled, 120 received filgrastim. On therapy, 108 patients had a median absolute neutrophil count of ≥ 1.5 × 109/L. Examination of BM aspirates showed increased proportions of maturing neutrophils. Infection-related events were significantly decreased (P < .05) with approximately 50% reduction in the incidence and duration of infection-related events and almost 70% reduction in duration of antibiotic use. Asymptomatic splenic enlargement occurred frequently: adverse events frequently reported were bone pain, headache, and rash, which were generally mild and easily manageable. These data indicate that treatment of patients with severe chronic neutropenia with filgrastim results in a stimulation of BM production and maturation of neutrophils, an increase in circulating neutrophils, and a reduction in infection-related events.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells (multiple myeloma cells, MMC), primarily in the bone marrow (BM). Osteolytic bone lesions are detected in 80% of patients, due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption and reduced osteoblastic bone formation. MMC are found closely associated to sites of increased bone resorption. Osteoclasts strongly support MMC survival and vice versa in vitro. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in osteoclast/MMC interaction, we have identified 552 genes overexpressed in osteoclasts compared to other BM cell subpopulations. Osteoclasts express specifically genes coding for four CCR2-targeting chemokines, and genes coding for MMC growth factors (IGF-1, APRIL). An anti-CCR2 MoAb blocked osteoclast chemoattractant activity for MMC and CCR2-chemokines are also MMC growth factors, promoting MAPK activation in MMC. An anti-IGF-1 receptor MoAb completely blocked the osteoclast-induced survival of MMC suppressing both osteoclast and MMC survival. Specific APRIL or IL-6 inhibitors partially blocked osteoclast-induced MMC survival. These in-vitro data may explain why newly-diagnosed patients whose MMC express high levels of CCR2 present numerous bone lesions.
Taken together, this study displays additional mechanisms involved in osteoclast/MMC interaction and suggests using CCR2 and/or IGF-1 targeting strategies to block this interaction and prevent drug resistance.
Aged; Bone Resorption; metabolism; pathology; Cell Communication; genetics; physiology; Cell Movement; genetics; Cells, Cultured; Chemotactic Factors; genetics; metabolism; Disease Progression; Gene Expression Profiling; Humans; Microarray Analysis; Middle Aged; Multiple Myeloma; genetics; metabolism; pathology; Neoplasm Metastasis; Osteoclasts; metabolism; physiology; Receptors, CCR2; genetics; metabolism; physiology; Multiple Myeloma; osteoclast gene
Aged; Anemia, Sickle Cell; blood; drug therapy; Antisickling Agents; therapeutic use; Erythrocyte Deformability; Female; Humans; Hydroxyurea; therapeutic use; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Multivariate Analysis; Osteonecrosis; blood; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Young Adult
Today it is generally accepted that B cells require cognate interactions with CD4+ T cells to develop high-affinity antibodies against proteins. CD4+ T cells recognize peptides (epitopes) presented by MHC class II molecules that are expressed on antigen-presenting cells. Structural features of both the MHC class II molecule and the peptide determine the specificity of CD4+ T cells that can bind to the MHC class II-peptide complex. We used a new humanized hemophilic mouse model to identify FVIII peptides presented by HLA-DRB1*1501. This model carries a knock-out of all murine MHC class II molecules and expresses a chimeric murine-human MHC class II complex that contains the peptide-binding sites of the human HLA-DRB1*1501. When mice were treated with human FVIII, the proportion of mice that developed antibodies depended on the application route of FVIII and the activation state of the innate immune system. We identified 8 FVIII peptide regions that contained CD4+ T-cell epitopes presented by HLA-DRB1*1501 to CD4+ T cells during immune responses against FVIII. CD4+ T-cell responses after intravenous and subcutaneous application of FVIII involved the same immunodominant FVIII epitopes. Interestingly, most of the 8 peptide regions contained promiscuous epitopes that bound to several different HLA-DR proteins in in vitro binding assays.
Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines with pronounced proinflammatory properties. Here we provide evidence that IFNs play a key role also in decline of inflammation by inducing expression of tristetraprolin (TTP). TTP is an RNA-binding protein that destabilizes several AU-rich element-containing mRNAs including TNFα. By promoting mRNA decay TTP significantly contributes to cytokine homeostasis. Now we report that IFNs strongly stimulate expression of TTP if a co-stimulatory stress signal is provided. IFN-induced expression of TTP depends on the IFN-activated transcription factor STAT1, and the co-stimulatory stress signal requires p38 MAPK. Within the TTP promoter we have identified a functional gamma interferon-activated sequence that recruits STAT1. Consistently, STAT1 is required for full expression of TTP in response to LPS that stimulates both p38 MAPK and, indirectly, interferon signaling. We demonstrate that in macrophages IFN-induced TTP protein limits LPS-stimulated expression of several proinflammatory genes such as TNFα, IL-6, Ccl2 and Ccl3. Thus, our findings establish a link between interferon responses and TTP-mediated mRNA decay during inflammation, and propose a novel immunomodulatory role of IFNs.
Immunobiology; innate immunity; monocyte and macrophage biology
HIV up-regulates cell-surface expression of specific ligands for the activating NKG2D receptor, including ULBP-1, -2, and -3, but not MICA or MICB, in infected cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, the viral factor(s) involved in NKG2D ligand expression still remains undefined. HIV-1 Vpr activates the DNA damage/ stress-sensing ATR kinase and promotes G2 cell-cycle arrest, conditions known to up-regulate NKG2D ligands. We report here that HIV-1 selectively induces cell-surface expression of ULBP-2 in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes by a process that is Vpr dependent. Importantly, Vpr enhanced the susceptibility of HIV-1–infected cells to NK cell–mediated killing. Strikingly, Vpr alone was sufficient to up-regulate expression of all NKG2D ligands and thus promoted efficient NKG2D-dependent NK cell–mediated killing. Delivery of virion-associated Vpr via defective HIV-1 particles induced analogous biologic effects in noninfected target cells, suggesting that Vpr may act similarly beyond infected cells. All these activities relied on Vpr ability to activate the ATR-mediated DNA damage/stress checkpoint. Overall, these results indicate that Vpr is a key determinant responsible for HIV-1–induced up-regulation of NKG2D ligands and further suggest an immunomodulatory role for Vpr that may not only contribute to HIV-1–induced CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion but may also take part in HIV-1–induced NK-cell dysfunction.
PMID: 20008788 CAMSID: cams4124
Type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a severe hemorrhagic defect in humans. We now identify the homozygous mutation in the Chapel Hill strain of canine type 3 VWD that results in premature termination of von Willebrand factor (VWF) protein synthesis. We cultured endothelium from VWD and normal dogs to study intracellular VWF trafficking and Weibel-Palade body formation. Weibel-Palade bodies could not be identified in the canine VWD aortic endothelial cells (VWD-AECs) by P-selectin, VWFpp, or VWF immunostaining and confocal microscopy. We demonstrate the reestablishment of Weibel-Palade bodies that recruit endogenous P-selectin by expressing wild-type VWF in VWD-AECs. Expression of mutant VWF proteins confirmed that VWF multimerization is not necessary for Weibel-Palade body creation. Although the VWF propeptide is required for the formation of Weibel-Palade bodies, it cannot independently induce the formation of the granule. These VWF-null endothelial cells provide a unique opportunity to examine the biogenesis of Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelium from a canine model of type 3 VWD.
TRF1 is part of the shelterin complex, which binds telomeres and it is essential for their protection. Ablation of TRF1 induces sister telomere fusions and aberrant numbers of telomeric signals associated with telomere fragility. Dyskeratosis congenita is characterized by a mucocutaneous triad, bone marrow failure (BMF), and presence of short telomeres because of mutations in telomerase. A subset of patients, however, show mutations in the shelterin component TIN2, a TRF1-interacting protein, presenting a more severe phenotype and presence of very short telomeres despite normal telomerase activity. Allelic variations in TRF1 have been found associated with BMF. To address a possible role for TRF1 dysfunction in BMF, here we generated a mouse model with conditional TRF1 deletion in the hematopoietic system. Chronic TRF1 deletion results in increased DNA damage and cellular senescence, but not increased apoptosis, in BM progenitor cells, leading to severe aplasia. Importantly, increased compensatory proliferation of BM stem cells is associated with rapid telomere shortening and further increase in senescent cells in vivo, providing a mechanism for the very short telomeres of human patients with mutations in the shelterin TIN2. Together, these results represent proof of principle that mutations in TRF1 lead to the main clinical features of BMF.
Multiple Myeloma (Mm) is a clonal B-cell neoplasm that affects terminally differentiated B cells (ie, plasma cells) and may proceed through different phases: an inactive phase in which tumor cells are nonproliferating mature plasma cells, an active phase with a small percentage (<1%) of proliferating plasmablastic cells, and a fulminant phase with the frequent occurrence of extramedullary proliferation and an increase in plasmablastic cells. During the past years, considerable progress has been made in identifying some of the critical components of neoplastic transformation in MM. This review intends to propose a model of a stepwise malignant transformation during MM pathogenesis. Both diagnostic and therapeutic implications of this model will be discussed.
Interaction of the activating ligand H60 with NKG2D receptor constitutes a major stimulatory pathway for natural killer (NK) cells. The influence of inhibitory Ly49 receptors on NKG2D-mediated activation is not clearly understood. Here we show that the magnitude of NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity is directly proportional to both the levels of H60 and the nature of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules expressed on the target cells. The expression levels of H60 on the target cells determined the extent to which the inhibition by Ly49C/I receptors can be overridden. In contrast, even a higher expression of H60 molecule on the target cells failed to overcome the inhibition mediated by Ly49A/G receptors. Also, the level of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) generated by NK cells through anti-NKG2D monoclonal antibody (mAb)–mediated activation is significantly reduced by the presence of immobilized anti-Ly49A/G mAbs. Thus, NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion results from the fine balance between activating and inhibitory receptors, thereby defining the NK cell–mediated immune responses.
Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) regulate chromatin structure as the catalytic core of the Sin3A, NuRD and CoREST co-repressor complexes. To better understand the key pathways regulated by HDAC1/2 in the adaptive immune system and inform their exploitation as drug targets, we have generated mice with a T cell specific deletion. Loss of either HDAC1 or HDAC2 alone has little effect, while dual inactivation results in a 5-fold reduction in thymocyte cellularity, accompanied by developmental arrest at the double-negative to double-positive transition. Transcriptome analysis revealed 892 mis-regulated genes in Hdac1/2 knock-out thymocytes, including down-regulation of LAT, Themis and Itk, key components of the T cell receptor (TCR) signalling pathway. Down-regulation of these genes suggests a model in which HDAC1/2 deficiency results in defective propagation of TCR signalling, thus blocking development. Furthermore, mice with a single Hdac2 allele, develop a lethal pathology by 3-months of age, a result of neoplastic transformation of immature T cells in the thymus. Tumor cells become aneuploid, express increased levels of c-Myc and show elevated levels of the DNA damage marker, γH2AX. These data demonstrate a crucial role for HDAC1/2 in T cell development and the maintenance of genomic stability.
Deacetylase; chromatin; T cell; development and cancer
Leukocyte migration to sites of inflammation is regulated by several endothelial adhesion molecules. Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1) is unique among the homing-associated molecules as it is both an enzyme that oxidizes primary amines and an adhesin. Although granulocytes can bind to endothelium via a VAP-1 dependent manner, the counter-receptor(s) on this leukocyte population is not known. Here we used a phage display approach and identified Siglec-9 as a candidate ligand on granulocytes. The binding between Siglec-9 and VAP-1 was confirmed by in vitro and ex vivo adhesion assays. The interaction sites between VAP-1 and Siglec-9 were identified by molecular modeling and confirmed by further binding assays with mutated proteins. Although the binding takes place in the enzymatic groove of VAP-1, it is only partially dependent on the enzymatic activity of VAP-1. In positron emission tomography the 68Gallium- labeled peptide of Siglec-9 specifically detected VAP-1 in vasculature at sites of inflammation and cancer. Thus, the peptide binding to the enzymatic groove of VAP-1 can be used for imaging such conditions as inflammation and cancer.