Obesity, an ongoing significant public health problem, is a part of complex disease characterized as metabolic syndrome. Medaka and zebrafish are useful aquatic experimental animals widely used in the field of toxicology and environmental health sciences and as a human disease models. In medaka, simple feeding of a high fat diet (HFD) can induce body weight gain, excessive accumulation of visceral adipose tissue, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and steatohepatists, which mimics human metabolic syndrome. In the present study, to explore the possibility that the adult medaka fed with HFD (HFD-medaka) can be used as an animal model for human metabolic syndrome-associated glomerular disease, including obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG), we analyzed structural alterations and protein expression in the mesonephric kidney of HFD-medaka. We found that the histopathology was consistent with glomerulomegaly accompanied by the dilation of glomerular capillaries and proliferative expansion of the mesangium, a condition partially comparable to human ORG. Moreover, expressions of several kinds of kidney disease-related proteins (such as MYH9, SM22α) were significantly elevated. Thus, the HFD-medaka has a high potential as an animal model useful for exploring the mechanism underling human ORG.
high fat diet; glomerulus; medaka; obesity-related glomerulopathy
Osteocytes in vivo experience complex fluid shear flow patterns to activate mechanotransduction pathways. The actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons have been shown to play an important role in the osteocyte’s biochemical response to fluid shear loading. The dynamic nature of physiologically relevant fluid flow profiles (i.e., 1 Hz oscillatory flow) impedes the ability to image and study both actin and MT cytoskeletons simultaneously in the same cell with high spatiotemporal resolution. To overcome these limitations, a multi-channel quasi-3D microscopy technique was developed to track the actin and MT networks simultaneously under steady and oscillatory flow. Cells displayed high intercellular variability and intracellular cytoskeletal variability in strain profiles. Shear Exz was the predominant strain in both steady and oscillatory flows in the form of viscoelastic creep and elastic oscillations, respectively. Dramatic differences were seen in oscillatory flow, however. The actin strains displayed an oscillatory strain profile more often than the MT networks in all the strains tested and had a higher peak-to-trough strain magnitude. Taken together, the actin networks are the more responsive cytoskeletal networks in osteocytes under oscillatory flow and may play a bigger role in mechanotransduction pathway activation and regulation.
Osteocyte; Fluid Flow; Mechanotransduction; Cytoskeleton
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB) is inactivated in a majority of cancers. RB restricts cell proliferation by inhibiting the E2F family of transcription factors. The current model for RB/E2F function describes its role in regulating transcription at gene promoters. Whether the RB or E2F proteins might play a role in gene expression beyond transcription initiation is not well known. This review describes evidence that points to a novel role for the RB/E2F network in the regulation of RNA processing, and we propose a model as a framework for future research. The elucidation of a novel role of RB in RNA processing will have a profound impact on our understanding of the role of this tumor suppressor family in cell and developmental biology.
RB; Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor; E2F; RNA processing; Pre-mRNA splicing
RB serves as a scaffold to coordinate binding of numerous proteins, including E2F and histone deacetylases, through its C-terminal domain. The amino-terminal half of RB has few known binding partners and its function is not well understood. We used the amino-terminal domain of the Drosophila retinoblastoma tumor suppressor Rbf (RbfN) to identify novel binding partners by immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry. Our experiment reveals that the RNA-binding protein Squid (Sqd) is a putative interacting partner of RbfN. Western blot confirmed that Sqd interacts with the amino-terminal domain of Rbf. We observed that Sqd colocalizes with RbfN in Drosophila salivary gland cells. We also show that double RNAi knockdown of Rbf and Sqd in the eye results in an extensive loss of eye bristles, suggesting that Rbf and Sqd function in a common pathway. We conclude from our studies that Rbf physically and genetically interacts with Sqd. We propose that the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor may play a novel role in RNA processing through interaction with RNA binding proteins.
RB; Rbf; Rbf1; retinoblastoma; tumor suppressor; Sqd; hnRNP; RNA binding; RNA processing
The genomes of all living organisms are exposed to a wide spectrum of insults. To maintain genomic integrity, eukaryotes have evolved an elaborate surveillance mechanism - DNA damage checkpoint signaling - to detect damaged DNA and to arrest cell cycle progression, allowing time to process and repair DNA damage. TopBP1 plays multiple roles in the regulation of DNA damage checkpoint signaling. However, the molecular mechanism of how TopBP1 regulates ATR-mediated Chk1 phosphorylation is poorly understood. In this communication, we demonstrate (1) that the Chk1 activation domain of TopBP1 is critical in response to several different types of DNA damage; (2) that WD40-repeat protein WDR18 associates with the C-terminus of TopBP1 in vitro and in vivo; (3) that the association between WDR18 and TopBP1 is required for AT70-induced Chk1 phosphorylation; (4) and that WDR18 itself is required for AT70-triggered Chk1 phosphorylation. In addition, WDR18 associates with Chk1 in vitro. These data suggest that WDR18 facilitates ATR-dependent Chk1 phosphorylation via interacting with both C-terminus of TopBP1 and Chk1. Our findings indicate that WDR18 is a bona fide checkpoint protein and that WDR18 works together with TopBP1 to promote DNA damage checkpoint signaling.
ATR; Chk1; DNA damage checkpoint; TopBP1; WD40; WDR18
In human epithelial cancers, the microRNA (miRNA) mir-30d is amplified with high frequency and serves as a critical oncomir by regulating metastasis, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Autophagy, a degradation pathway for long-lived protein and organelles, regulates the survival and death of many cell types. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy plays an important function in epithelial tumor initiation and progression. Using a combined bioinformatics approach, gene set enrichment analysis and miRNA target prediction, we found that mir-30d might regulate multiple genes in the autophagy pathway including BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5, ATG2. Our further functional experiments demonstrated that the expression of these core proteins in the autophagy pathway was directly suppressed by mir-30d in cancer cells. Finally, we showed that mir-30d regulated the autophagy process by inhibiting autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the oncomir mir-30d impairs the autophagy process by targeting multiple genes in the autophagy pathway. This result will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of mir-30d in tumorigenesis and developing novel cancer therapy strategy.
mir-30d; autophagy; cancer; microRNA
We previously analyzed the differential localization patterns of five septins (AspAÊ), including a filamentous fungal-specific septin, AspE, in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we utilized the A. fumigatus strain expressing an AspE-EGFP fusion protein and show that this novel septin with a tubular localization pattern in hyphae is phosphorylated in vivo and interacts with the other septins, AspA, AspB, AspC and AspD. The other major proteins interacting with AspE included the cytoskeletal proteins, actin and tubulin, which may be involved in the organization and transport of the septins. This is the first report analyzing the phosphorylation of AspE and localizing the sites of phosphorylation, and opens opportunities for further analysis on the role of post-translational modifications in the assembly and organization of A. fumigatus septins. This study also describes the previously unknown interaction of AspE with the actin-microtubule network. Furthermore, the novel GFP-Trap® affinity purification method used here complements widely-used GFP localization studies in fungal systems.
Aspergillus; Septin; AspE; Phosphorylation; GFP-Trap® affinity purification; Mass spectrometry
Angiotensin (Ang) II and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are important mediators of pathologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Identifying downstream mediators of Ang II and PDGF signaling may provide insights for therapies to improve vascular proliferative diseases. We have previously demonstrated that breakpoint cluster region (Bcr) is an important mediator of Ang II/PDGF signaling in VSMC. We have recently reported that the DExD/H box protein UAP56 is an interacting partner of Bcr in regulating VSMC DNA synthesis. We hypothesized that UAP56 itself is an important regulator of VSMC proliferation. In this report we demonstrate that knockdown of UAP56 inhibits Ang II/PDGF induced VSMC DNA synthesis and proliferation, and inhibits E2F transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrate that UAP56 is present in the vessel wall of low-flow carotid arteries. These findings suggest that UAP56 is a regulator of VSMC proliferation and identify UAP56 as a target for preventing vascular proliferative disease.
proliferation; DNA synthesis; UAP56; helicase
Cardiac progenitors (CPC) mediate cardioprotection via paracrine effects. To date, most of studies focused on secreted paracrine proteins. Here we investigated the CPC-derived-exosomes on protecting myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury.
Methods and Results
CPC were isolated from mouse heart using two-step protocol. Exosomes were purified from conditional medium, and confirmed by electron micrograph and Western blot using CD63 as a marker. qRT-PCR shows that CPC- exosomes have high level expression of GATA4-responsive-miR-451. Exosomes were ex vivo labeled with PKH26, We observed exosomes can be uptaken by H9C2 cardiomyoblasts with high efficiency after 12 hours incubation. CPC-exosomes protect H9C2 from oxidative stress by inhibiting caspase 3/7 activation in vitro. In vivo delivery of CPC-exosomes in an acute mouse myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis by about 53% in comparison with PBS control(p<0.05).
Our results suggest, for the first time, the CPC-exosomes can be used as a therapeutic vehicle for cardioprotection, and highlights a new perspective for using non-cell exosomes for cardiac disease.
cardiac progenitors; MicroRNA; Exosomes; ischemia/reperfusion; apoptosis
We have demonstrated that D5 and D2 dopamine receptors exist as heteromers in cells, and determined these receptor interact through amino acids in the cytoplasmic regions of each receptor. Specifically involved in heteromer formation we identified in the carboxyl tail of the D5 receptor three adjacent glutamic acid residues, and in intracellular loop 3 of the D2 receptor two adjacent arginine residues. Any pairing of these three D5 receptor glutamic acids were sufficient for heteromer formation. These identified residues in D5 and D2 receptors are oppositely charged and likely interact by electrostatic interactions.
G protein coupled receptors; D5 and D2 dopamine receptor; nuclear localization; protein structure; heteromer; interacting amino acids
Glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain, participates in a multitude of physiologic and pathologic processes, including learning and memory. Glutathione, a tripeptide composed of the amino acids glutamate, cysteine, and glycine, serves important cofactor roles in antioxidant defense and drug detoxification, but glutathione deficits occur in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. Glutathione synthesis and metabolism are governed by a cycle of enzymes, the γ-glutamyl cycle, which can achieve intracellular glutathione concentrations of 1-10 millimolar. Because of the considerable quantity of brain glutathione and its rapid turnover, we hypothesized that glutathione may serve as a reservoir of neural glutamate. We quantified glutamate in HT22 hippocampal neurons, PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons after treatment with molecular inhibitors targeting three different enzymes of the glutathione metabolic cycle. Inhibiting 5-oxoprolinase and γ-glutamyl transferase, enzymes that liberate glutamate from glutathione, leads to decreases in glutamate. In contrast, inhibition of γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase, which uses glutamate to synthesize glutathione, results in substantial glutamate accumulation. Increased glutamate levels following inhibition of glutathione synthesis temporally precede later effects upon oxidative stress.
Glutathione; Glutamate; Neurons; Antioxidants; Glutamyl cycle; Neurotransmitter
Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) appear to be critical regulators of a multitude of processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and inflammation. We have recently demonstrated that a DUB of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolyase L1 (UCH-L1) inhibits vascular lesion formation via suppressing inflammatory responses in vasculature. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Herein, we report that a posttranscriptional up-regulation of UCH-L1 provides a negative feedback to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In rat adult VSMCs, adenoviral over-expression of UCH-L1 inhibited TNFα-induced activation of ERK and DNA synthesis. In contrast, over-expression of UCH-L1 did not affect platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation and activation of growth stimulating cascades including ERK. TNFα hardly altered UCH-L1 mRNA expression and stability; however, up-regulated UCH-L1 protein expression via increasing UCH-L1 translation. These results uncover a novel mechanism by which UCH-L1 suppresses vascular inflammation.
UCH-L1; Vascular smooth muscle cells; TNFα; Inflammation; Proliferation; Posttranscriptional regulation
CYLD, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), is a critical regulator of diverse cellular processes, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to inflammatory responses, via regulating multiple key signaling cascades such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. CYLD has been shown to inhibit vascular lesion formation presumably through suppressing NF-κB activity in vascular cells. However, herein we report a novel role of CYLD in mediating pro-inflammatory responses in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via a mechanism independent of NF-κB activity. Adenoviral knockdown of Cyld inhibited basal and the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (Icam-1) and interleukin-6 (Il-6) in rat adult aortic VSMCs (RASMCs). The CYLD deficiency led to increases in the basal NF-κB transcriptional activity in RASMCs; however, did not affect the TNFα-induced NF-κB activity. Intriguingly, the TNFα-induced IκB phosphorylation was enhanced in the CYLD deficient RASMCs. While knocking down of Cyld decreased slightly the basal expression levels of IκBα and IκBβ proteins, it did not alter the kinetics of TNFα-induced IκB protein degradation in RASMCs. These results indicate that CYLD suppresses the basal NF-κB activity and TNFα-induced IκB kinase activation without affecting TNFα-induced NF-κB activity in VSMCs. In addition, knocking down of Cyld suppressed TNFα-induced activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including extracellular signal-activated kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 in RASMCs. TNFα-induced RASMC migration and monocyte adhesion to RASMCs were inhibited by the Cyld knockdown. Finally, immunochemical staining revealed a dramatic augment of CYLD expression in the injured coronary artery with neointimal hyperplasia. Taken together, our results uncover an unexpected role of CYLD in promoting inflammatory responses in VSMCs via a mechanism involving MAPK activation but independent of NF-κB activity, contributing to the pathogenesis of vascular disease.
CYLD; Vascular smooth muscle cells; TNFα; Inflammation; MAPK; NF-κB
Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) is a member of the membrane repair system in skeletal muscle. However, the role(s) of MG53 in the unique functions of skeletal muscle have not been addressed, although it is known that MG53 is expressed only in skeletal and cardiac muscle. In the present study, MG53-binding proteins were examined along with proteins that mediate skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation using the binding assays of various MG53 domains and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. MG53 binds to sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 1a (SERCA1a) via its tripartite motif (TRIM) and PRY domains. The binding was confirmed in rabbit skeletal muscle and mouse primary skeletal myotubes by co-immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry. MG53 knockdown in mouse primary skeletal myotubes increased Ca2+-uptake through SERCA1a (more than 35%) at micromolar Ca2+ but not at nanomolar Ca2+, suggesting that MG53 attenuates SERCA1a activity possibly during skeletal muscle contraction or relaxation but not during the resting state of skeletal muscle. Therefore MG53 could be a new candidate for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with Brody syndrome, which is not related to the mutations in the gene coding for SERCA1a, but still accompanies exercise-induced muscle stiffness and delayed muscle relaxation due to a reduction in SERCA1a activity.
Mitsugumin 53 (MG53); SR Ca2+-ATPase 1a (SERCA1a); Tripartite Motif (TRIM); PRY domain; Phospholamban; Sarcolipin
To fully understand the modes of action of multi-protein complexes, it is essential to determine their overall global architecture and the specific relationships between domains and subunits. The transcription factor AbrB is a functional homotetramer consisting of two domains per monomer. Obtaining the high-resolution structure of tetrameric AbrB has been extremely challenging due to the independent character of these domains. To facilitate the structure determination process, we solved the NMR structures of both domains independently and utilized gas-phase cleavable chemical crosslinking and LC/MSn analysis to correctly position the domains within the full tetrameric AbrB protein structure.
NMR; solution structure; chemical crosslinking; domain orientation; AbrB; gas-phase cleavable
Abnormal trophoblast lineage proliferation and differentiation in early pregnancy have been associated with the pathogenesis of placenta diseases of pregnancy. However, there is still a gap in understanding the molecular mechanisms of early placental development due to the limited primary trophoblast cultures and fidelity of immortalized trophoblast lines. Trophoblasts stem (TS) cells, an in vitro model of trophectoderm that can differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts, can be an attractive tool for early pregnancy research. TS cells are well established in mouse but not in humans due to insufficient knowledge of which trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors are involved in human trophectoderm (TE) proliferation and differentiation. Here, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell technique to investigate the human trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors. We established human induced trophoblast progenitor (iTP) cells by direct reprogramming the fibroblasts with a pool of mouse trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors consisting of CDX2, EOMES, and ELF5. The human iTP cells exhibit epithelial morphology and can be maintained in vitro for more than 2 months. Gene expression profile of these cells was tightly clustered with human trophectoderms but not with human neuron progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, or endoderm cells. These cells are capable of differentiating into cells with an invasive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts. They also form multi-nucleated cells which secrete human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol, suggesting syncytiotrophoblasts. Our results provide the evidence that transcription factors CDX2 and EOMES may play critical roles in human iTP cell generation.
CDX2; EOMES; transcription factors; human induced trophoblast progenitor cells
Calcium-binding photoproteins have been discovered in a variety of luminous marine organisms . Recent interest in photoproteins from the phylum Ctenophora has stemmed from cloning and expression of several photoproteins from this group [2-5]. Additional characterization has revealed unique biochemical properties found only in ctenophore photoproteins, such as inactivation by light. Here we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of the photoprotein responsible for luminescence in the deep-sea ctenophore Bathocyroe fosteri. This animal was of particular interest due to the unique broad color spectrum observed in live specimens . Full-length sequences were identified by BLAST searches of known photoprotein sequences against Bathocyroe transcripts obtained from 454 sequencing. Recombinantly expressed Bathocyroe photoprotein (BfosPP) displayed an optimal coelenterazine-loading pH of 8.5, and produced calcium-triggered luminescence with peak wavelengths closely matching the 493nm peak observed in the spectrum of live Bathocyroe fosteri specimens. Luminescence from recombinant BfosPP was inactivated most efficiently by UV and blue light. Primary structure alignment of BfosPP with other characterized photoproteins showed very strong sequence similarity to other ctenophore photoproteins and conservation of EF-hand motifs. Both alignment and structural prediction data provide more insight into the formation of the coelenterazine-binding domain and the probable mechanism of photoinactivation.
calcium-activated photoproteins; ctenophore; bioluminescence
Phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important regulator of its enzymatic activity. We generated knockin mice expressing phosphomimetic (SD) and unphosphorylatable (SA) eNOS mutations at S1176 to study the role of eNOS phosphorylation. The single amino acid SA mutation is associated with hypertension and decreased vascular reactivity, while the SD mutation results in increased basal and stimulated endothelial NO production. In addition to these vascular effects, modulation of the S1176 phosphorylation site resulted in unanticipated effects on metabolism. The eNOS SA mutation results in insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, adiposity, and increased weight gain on high fat. In contrast, the eNOS SD mutation is associated with decreased insulin levels and resistance to high fat-induced weight gain. These results demonstrate the importance of eNOS in regulation of insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and bodyweight regulation, and suggest eNOS phosphorylation as a novel target for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.
nitric oxide; endothelium; insulin resistance; diabetes; metabolism; obesity
Although the interaction of macrophages with oxidized low density liopoprotein (oxLDL) is critical to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, relatively little is known about their metabolic response to oxLDL. Our development of the multianalyte microphysiometer (MAMP) allows for simultaneous measurement of extracellular metabolic substrates and products in real-time. Here, we use the MAMP to study changes in the metabolic rates of RAW-264.7 cells undergoing respiratory burst in response to oxLDL. These studies indicate that short duration exposure of macrophages to oxLDL results in time-dependent increases in glucose and oxygen consumption and in lactate production and extracellular acidification rate. Since apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoA-I mimetics prevent experimental atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that the metabolic response of the macrophage during respiratory burst can be modulated by apoA-I mimetics. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of the apoA-I peptide mimetic, L-4F, alone and complexed with 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) on the macrophage metabolic response to oxLDL. L-4F and the DMPC/L-4F complexes attenuated the macrophage respiratory burst in response to oxLDL. The MAMP provides a novel approach for studying macrophage ligand-receptor interactions and cellular metabolism and our results provide new insights into the metabolic effects of oxLDL and mechanism of action of apoA-I mimetics.
The left-handed Z-DNA form of the short unmodified alternating guanine-cytosine oligonucleotides, 5′-(dGdC)24 and 5′-(dGdC)18, was selectively detected under physiological ionic strength and pH conditions using the anionic nickel(II) porphyrin, NiTPPS. No spectroscopic signal was observed for NiTPPS with any right-handed oligonucleotides under identical conditions. The 48-mer 5′-(dGdC)24 Z-form was detected at concentrations as low as 100 nM. The binding of NiTPPS to the B- and Z-oligonucleotides was studied quantitatively by UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopies. NiTPPS was found to be a universal DNA binder, with binding affinity and geometry depending on the ionic composition of the solution, rather than on the DNA helical twist. This is the first example of a successful spectroscopic detection of the Z-DNA of short unmodified oligonucleotides under physiological pH and ionic strength conditions.
DNA recognition; left-handed Z-DNA; circular dichroism; anionic nickel porphyrin; chiroptical sensing
Silencing of PIKfyve, the sole enzyme for PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosynthesis that controls proper endosome dynamics, inhibits retroviral replication. A novel PIKfyve-specific inhibitor YM201636 disrupts retroviral budding at 800 nM, suggesting its potential use as an antiretroviral therapeutic. Because PIKfyve is also required for optimal insulin activation of GLUT4 surface translocation and glucose influx, we tested the outcome of YM201636 application on insulin responsiveness in 3T3L1 adipocytes. YM201636 almost completely inhibited basal and insulin-activated 2-deoxyglucose uptake at doses as low as 160 nM, with IC50 = 54 ± 4 nM for the net insulin response. Insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation was partially inhibited at substantially higher doses, comparable to those required for inhibition of insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt/PKB. In addition to PIKfyve, YM201636 also completely inhibited insulin-dependent activation of class IA PI 3-kinase. We suggest that apart from PIKfyve, there are at least two additional targets for YM201636 in the context of insulin signaling to GLUT4 and glucose uptake: the insulin-activated class IA PI 3-kinase and a here-unidentified high-affinity target responsible for the greater inhibition of glucose entry vs. GLUT4 translocation. The profound inhibition of the net insulin effect on glucose influx at YM201636 doses markedly lower than those required for efficient retroviral budding disruption warns of severe perturbations in glucose homeostasis associated with potential YM201636 use in antiretroviral therapy.
Insulin resistance; YM201636; PIKfyve; Antiretroviral therapy; Glucose transport; GLUT4; PI 3-kinase; Insulin action
Hyperlipidemia blunts anabolic effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) on cortical bone, and the responsiveness to PTH are restored in part by oral administration of the antioxidant ApoA-I mimetic peptide, D-4F. To evaluate the mechanism of this rescue, mice overexpressing the high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (Ldlr-/-PON1tg) were generated, and daily PTH injections were administered to Ldlr-/-PON1tg and to littermate Ldlr-/- mice. Expression of bone regulatory genes was determined by realtime RT-qPCR, and cortical bone parameters of the femoral bones by micro-computed tomographic analyses. PTH-treated Ldlr-/-PON1tg mice had significantly greater expression of PTH receptor (PTH1R), activating transcription factor (ATF4), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in femoral cortical bone, as well as significantly greater bone mineral content, thickness, and area in femoral diaphyses compared with untreated Ldlr-/-PON1tg mice. In contrast, in control mice (Ldlr-/-) without PON1 overexpression, PTH treatment did not induce these markers. Calvarial bone of PTH-treated Ldlr-/-PON1tg mice also had significantly greater expression of osteoblastic differentiation marker genes as well as BMP-2-target and Wnt-target genes. Untreated Ldlr-/-PON1tg mice had significantly greater expression of PTHR1 than untreated Ldlr-/- mice, whereas sclerostin expression was reduced. In femoral cortical bones expression levels of transcription factors, FoxO1 and ATF4, were also elevated in Ldlr-/-PON1tg mice, suggesting enhancement of cellular protection against oxidants. These findings suggest that PON1 restores responsiveness to PTH through effects on oxidant stress, PTH receptor expression, and/or Wnt signaling.
hyperlipidemia; oxidant stress; intermittent; parathyroid hormone; paraoxonase-1
The germinal center (GC) is the dymanic microenvironment where Ag-activated B cells rapidly expand and differentiate, generating plasma cells (PC) that produce high affinity antibodies. B cells within the GC have great heterogeneity, containing B cells at different stages of activation and differentiation. However, there are few surface markers that allow subsets of GC-B cells to be distinguished. In the present study, we show that GC-B cells in human tonsils contain two distinct populations regarding CD9 expression; CD9− and CD9+ cells. CD9+ GC-B cells are functionally more differentiated towards PC based upon the following evidence; (1) CD9+ cells express higher levels of PC transcription factor, Blimp-1 while lower levels of B cell transcription factors, Bcl-6 and Pax-5, compared to CD9− cells, (2) CD9+ cells differentiate into plasmablasts faster than CD9− cells in the presence of cytokines that generate PC, and (3) CD9 expression was induced in CD9− GC-B cells under PC generating condition and gradually increased in the course of PC differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that CD9 is a novel marker for a human GC-B cell subset that is committed to PC lineage.
CD9; Germinal Center; B cells; Plasma cells; differentiation
Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [3H]glucose and 2-deoxy[14C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats.
Glucose output (hepatic); hepatic glucose uptake; hyperinsulinemic clamp; insulin resistance; muscle glucose uptake; propofol; sedation
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene YPK9 encodes a putative integral membrane protein which is 58% similar and 38% identical in amino acid sequence to the human lysosomal P5B ATPase ATP13A2. Mutations in ATP13A2 have been found in patients with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, a form of juvenile Parkinsonism. We report that Ypk9p localizes to the yeast vacuole and that deletion of YPK9 confers sensitivity for growth for cadmium, manganese, nickel or selenium. These results suggest that Ypk9p may play a role in sequestration of divalent heavy metal ions. Further studies on the function of Ypk9p/ATP13A2 may help to define the molecular basis of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome and provide a potential link to environmental factors such as heavy metals contributing to some forms of Parkinsonism.