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1.  A Controlled Study of Medial Arterial Calcification of Legs 
Archives of Neurology  2011;68(10):1290-1294.
Background
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and medial arterial calcification (MAC), possibly related to prevalence and severity of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN).
Objective
To assess the prevalence, risk covariates, and implication of MAC in a controlled study of healthy subjects and patients with DM.
Design
Masked evaluation of radiographs.
Setting
Olmsted County, Minnesota.
Patients
Ambulatory volunteers with DM from the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study cohort (n=260) and matched healthy subjects from the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study–Healthy Subject cohort (n=221).
Methods
Patients and controls underwent standard radiographs of distal legs and feet from January 1, 1995, through December 31, 2002. The radiographs were independently read by masked, experienced radiologists for vessel calcification. Medial arterial calcification prevalence, risk covariates, correlation with peripheral arterial disease, and implication for distal, length-dependent sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) were studied.
Results
Of 481 study participants, MAC was found in 66 (13.7%): 55 of 260 (21.2%) in patients with DM and 11 of 221 (5.0%) in healthy subjects (P<.001). Inter-rater agreement of MAC was 94.1% (κ coefficient of 0.7). Medial arterial calcification was significantly associated with DSPN (P<.001). In stepwise logistic regression analysis, the significant risk covariates for MAC were advancing age, male sex, DM, and stage of microvessel disease (retinopathy).
Conclusions
Medial arterial calcification of legs was approximately 4 times as prevalent in population-representative ambulatory persons with DM as in healthy subjects. Advancing age, male sex, DM, and retinopathy were the significant risk covariates for MAC of legs. Medial arterial calcification of legs, although significantly associated with DSPN, was not a useful surrogate marker of DSPN. Also, MAC was not shown to be a risk covariate for late worsening of DSPN, although other lines of evidence suggest that peripheral arterial disease may worsen DSPN.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.211
PMCID: PMC3271858  PMID: 21987542
2.  Initial experience with soft-copy display of computed radiography images on three picture archive and communication systems 
Journal of Digital Imaging  1997;10(Suppl 1):47-50.
We recently installed picture archive and communication systems (PACS) from three different vendors on our campus for evaluation. A major part of this evaluation involved assessing the capabilities of these systems for displaying computed radiography (CR) images for primary interpretation. The three PACS provided different functionality for CR image display in terms of availability of the proprietary Fuji CR image processing algorithms, availability of user-specified contrast look-up tables, and application of the processing at the time of CR image capture or image display. We found that the Fuji processing algorithms were important for printing film, but were not necessary for acceptable soft-copy display. Non-linear contrast processing produced superior results compared to simple linear processing (via standard window width and level controls). Display processing was best applied immediately prior to the display operation, as opposed to at the image capture time. This allows the display to be adjusted to demonstrate the full 10-bit range of the CR image, and also allows raw CR data (i.e. not optimized for any particular display device) to be stored in the long-term archive.
doi:10.1007/BF03168656
PMCID: PMC3452810  PMID: 9268838
picture archive and communication systems (PACS); computed radiography; soft-copy image display; filmless radiology

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