Angiotensin III (Ang III) has similar effects on blood pressure and aldosterone secretion as Ang II, but cardioprotective effects are also proposed. In this study, we investigated whether Ang III protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. After sacrificing Sprague-Dawley rats, the hearts were perfused with Krebs–Henseleit buffer for a 20 min preischemic period with and without Ang III followed by 20-min global ischemia and 50-min reperfusion. Pretreatment with Ang III (1 μmol/L) improved an increased postischemic left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and a decreased postischemic left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) induced by reperfusion compared to untreated hearts. Ang III markedly decreased infarct size and lactate dehydrogenase levels in effluent during reperfusion. Ang III increased coronary flow and the concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide in coronary effluent during reperfusion. Pretreatment with Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) antagonist or ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) blocker for 15 min before ischemia attenuated the improvement of LVEDP, LVDP, and ±dP/dt induced by Ang III. Ang III treatment increased Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and heme oxygenase-1 protein levels, which was attenuated by pretreatment with AT2R antagonist or KATP blocker. Ang III treatment also decreased Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 protein levels, and increased Bcl-2 protein level, which were attenuated by pretreatment with AT2R antagonist or KATP blocker. These results suggest that the cardioprotective effects of Ang III against I/R injury may be partly related to activating antioxidant and antiapoptotic enzymes via AT2R and KATP channels.
Angiotensin III; apoptosis; atrial natriuretic peptide; Bax; Bcl-2; caspase-3; caspase-9; catalase; heart; heme oxygenase-1; ischemia; KATP channel; superoxide dismutase
Psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and alcohol dependence are associated with serotonin metabolism. We assessed the methylation level of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter region in control and alcohol dependent patients.
Twenty seven male patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder IV (DSM-IV) criteria for alcohol dependence were compared with fifteen controls. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of bisulfate-modified DNA were designed to amplify a part of the CpG island in the 5HTT gene. Pyrosequencing was performed and the methylation level at seven CpG island sites was measured.
We found no differences in the methylation patterns of the serotonin transporter linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) between
alcohol-dependent and control subjects.
Our negative finding may be because 5-HTT epigenetic variation may not affect the expression for 5-HTT or there may be other methylation site critical for its expression. To find out more conclusive result, repeating the study in more methylation sites with a larger number of samples in a well-controlled setting is needed.
Serotonin transporter region (5-HTTLPR); Methylation; Alcohol dependence
SIRT1 modulates the acetylation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response. This study sought to assess the role of SIRT1 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a myeloid cell-specific SIRT1 knockout (mSIRT1 KO) mouse.
mSIRT1 KO mice were generated using the loxP/Cre recombinase system. K/BxN serum transfer arthritis was induced in mSIRT1 KO mice and age-matched littermate loxP control mice. Arthritis severity was assessed by clinical and pathological scoring. The levels of inflammatory cytokines in the serum and joints were measured by ELISA. Migration, M1 polarization, cytokine production, osteoclastogenesis, and p65 acetylation were assessed in bone marrow-derived monocytes/macrophages (BMMs).
mSIRT1 KO mice showed more severe inflammatory arthritis and aggravated pathological findings than control mice. These effects were paralleled by increases in IL-1, TNF-α, TRAP-positive osteoclasts, and F4/80+ macrophages in the ankles of mSIRT1 KO mice. In addition, BMMs from mSIRT1 KO mice displayed hyperacetylated p65 and increased NF-κB binding activity when compared to control mice, which resulted in increased M1 polarization, migration, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and osteoclastogenesis.
Our study provides in vivo evidence that myeloid cell-specific deletion of SIRT1 exacerbates inflammatory arthritis via the hyperactivation of NF-κB signaling, which suggests that SIRT1 activation may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis.
Simian varicella virus (SVV) infection of rhesus macaques (RMs) recapitulates the hallmarks of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of humans, including the establishment of latency within the sensory ganglia. Various factors, including age and immune fitness, influence the outcome of primary VZV infection, as well as reactivation resulting in herpes zoster (HZ). To increase our understanding of the role of lymphocyte subsets in the establishment of viral latency, we analyzed the latent SVV transcriptome in juvenile RMs depleted of CD4 T, CD8 T, or CD20 B lymphocytes during acute infection. We have previously shown that SVV latency in sensory ganglia of nondepleted juvenile RMs is associated with a limited transcriptional profile. In contrast, CD4 depletion during primary infection resulted in the failure to establish a characteristic latent viral transcription profile in sensory ganglia, where we detected 68 out of 69 SVV-encoded open reading frames (ORFs). CD-depleted RMs displayed a latent transcriptional profile that included additional viral transcripts within the core region of the genome not detected in control RMs. The latent transcriptome of CD20-depleted RMs was comparable to the latent transcription in the sensory ganglia of control RMs. Lastly, we investigated the impact of age on the establishment of SVV latency. SVV gene expression was more active in ganglia from two aged RMs than in ganglia from juvenile RMs, with 25 of 69 SVV transcripts detected. Therefore, immune fitness at the time of infection modulates the establishment and/or maintenance of SVV latency.
In 2010, we proposed the first Korean Guidelines for the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE). It was applicable to Korean patients, by modifying the contents of the second edition of the Japanese guidelines for the prevention of VTE and the 8th edition of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. From 2007 to 2011, we conducted a nationwide study regarding the incidence of VTE after major surgery using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database. In addition, we have considered the 9th edition of the ACCP Evidenced-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines, published in 2012. It emphasized the importance of clinically relevant events as opposed to asymptomatic outcomes with preferences for both thrombotic and bleeding outcomes. Thus, in the development of the new Korean guidelines, three major points were addressed: 1) the new guidelines stratify patients into 4 risk groups (very low, low, moderate, and high) according to the actual incidence of symptomatic VTE from the HIRA databases; 2) the recommended optimal VTE prophylaxis for each group was modified according to condition-specific thrombotic and bleeding risks; 3) guidelines are intended for general information only, are not medical advice, and do not replace professional medical care and/or physician advice.
Guideline; Prevention; Venous Thromboembolism; Bleeding
This study was conducted to investigate disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) utilization in Korean elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We used data from January 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006 from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims database. The study subjects were defined as patients aged 65 yr or older with at least two claims with a diagnosis of RA. DMARD use was compared by the patients' age-group, gender, medical service, and geographic divisions. The patterns of DMARD use in mono- and combination therapy were calculated. RA medication use was calculated by the number of defined daily doses (DDD)/1,000 patients/day. A total of 166,388 patients were identified during the study period. DMARD use in RA patients was 12.0%. The proportion of DMARD use was higher in the younger elderly, females, and patients treated in big cities. Hydroxychloroquine was the most commonly used DMARD in monotherapy, and most of the combination therapies prescribed it with methotrexate. DMARD use in elderly RA patients was noticeably low, although drug prescriptions showed an increasing trend during the study period, clinicians may need to pay more attention to elderly RA patients.
Utilization; Antirheumatic Agents; Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Database
The human cytosolic thioredoxin (Trx) contains a redox-active dithiol moiety in its conserved active-site sequence. Activation by a wide variety of stimuli leads to secretion of this cytoplasmic protein. Function of Trx1 has been implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of serum Trx1 level in patients with breast carcinoma.
To clarify whether serum levels of Trx1 could be a serum marker for breast carcinoma, we measured the serum levels of Trx1 in patients with various carcinomas (breast, lung, colorectal, and kidney cancers) using an ELISA, and investigated its associations with the tumour grading from I to III. At the cut-off point 33.1725 ng/ml on the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) Trx1 could well discriminate breast carcinoma from normal controls with a sensitivity of 89.8%, specificity 78.0%, and area under the ROC (AUC) 0.901 ± 0.0252. The serum level was well correlated with the progress of the breast carcinoma. We also investigated the diagnostic capacity of CEA and CA15-3 for the early detection of metastatic breast cancer comparing that of Trx1. In contrast to the serum CEA and CA15-3 tumour markers, the serum Trx1 levels of the early cancer (grade I) patients were significantly higher than those of normal control subjects, showing a high diagnostic sensitivity and selectivity (89.4% sensitivity, and 72.0% specificity). The serum levels of Trx1 in various patients with lung, colorectal, and kidney carcinomas indicate that the level of Trx1 is significantly higher than those of other cancer patients. Combinational analysis of CEA or CA15-3 with Trx1 for the detection of breast cancer suggest that the diagnostic capacity of CEA or CA15-3 alone for the early detection of breast cancer, especially regarding sensitivity, is significantly improved by its combination with Trx1.
Taken together, we conclude that serum Trx1 is useful for the early diagnosis of breast cancer or the early prediction prognosis of breast cancer, and therefore has a valuable use as a diagnostic marker and companion marker to CEA and CA15-3 for breast cancer.
Breast cancer; Diagnosis; Thioredoxin 1; Companion marker; Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA); Cancer antigen 15–3 (CA15-3); Reactive oxygen species
To assess the effectiveness of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) educational program in increasing HBV knowledge.
Using a cluster randomized control trial to recruit participants from the community-based organization in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area; a total of 877 Asian American participants completed a self-administered pretest. HBV knowledge was the outcome measure. The intervention group received a 30-minute educational program. After the educational program, the intervention group completed post-education survey. Six months after the education, all participants were followed by phone.
The intervention group showed significantly higher knowledge scores than the control group at the 6-months follow-up (between-group difference was 1.44 for knowledge of transmission modes and 0.59 for sequelae, p < 0.01). For the intervention group, the increase in knowledge of HBV transmission modes in post-education was much higher than that at the 6-month follow-up (4.18 vs. 2.07), p < 0.01) compared to baseline. Age was also an important factor on the educational effect: Those older than 60 years reported the lowest scores in all three points.
Findings suggest that this culturally integrated liver cancer educational program increased HBV knowledge. Differential strategies are needed to target age groups, separately educating those younger and those older.
Knowledge of HBV infection; Asian Americans; Health disparity
The purpose of this study is to conduct an analysis of actual communicative behaviors, including nonverbal ones, between physicians and patients in rehabilitation.
Sixteen videotaped physician–patient interactions in a rehabilitation center in Korea were transcribed. And three coders placed utterances in transcripts into categories while watching the videotapes.
Consistent with results of previous studies, patient active communicative behaviors varied considerably depending on individual patients. The findings revealed that, on average, patients' active communicative behaviors were less than 9% of patients' total utterances. In particular, almost half of the patients (N = 7) did not even ask one single question. The results also showed that physicians' empathic communicative acts averaged less than 3% of physicians' total utterances. In addition, among physicians' nonverbal behaviors, eye-contact showed significant correlation with physician empathic listening and supportive talks.
The findings of this study indicated a considerable lack of empathic communicative behaviors of physicians in Korea. This might have led to infrequent use of active communicative behaviors by patients. In addition, the importance of physician's partnership for enhancement of active communicative behaviors of patients was demonstrated. To better serve patients, physicians who wish to improve their communication should first identify components of their empathic communicative behaviors that need improvement and then attempt to refine their skills.
Medical education; Physician communication; Conversational analysis; Nonverbal communication; Empathy; Rehabilitation; Disability; Korea; Confucianism
UGT1A1, UGT2B7, and UGT2B15 are well-known pharmacogenes that belong to the uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase gene family. For personalized drug treatment, it is important to study differences in the frequency of core markers across various ethnic groups. Accordingly, we screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these three genes and analyzed differences in their frequency among five ethnic groups, as well as attempted to predict the function of novel SNPs.
Materials and Methods
We directly sequenced 288 subjects consisting of 96 Korean, 48 Japanese, 48 Han Chinese, 48 African American, and 48 European American subjects. Subsequently, we analyzed genetic variability, linkage disequilibrium (LD) structures and ethnic differences for each gene. We also conducted in silico analysis to predict the function of novel SNPs.
A total of 87 SNPs were detected, with seven pharmacogenetic core SNPs and 31 novel SNPs. We observed that the frequencies of UGT1A1 *6 (rs4148323), UGT1A1 *60 (rs4124874), UGT1A1 *93 (rs10929302), UGT2B7 *2 (rs7439366), a part of UGT2B7 *3 (rs12233719), and UGT2B15 *2 (rs1902023) were different between Asian and other ethnic groups. Additional in silico analysis results showed that two novel promoter SNPs of UGT1A1 -690G>A and -689A>C were found to potentially change transcription factor binding sites. Moreover, 673G>A (UGT2B7), 2552T>C, and 23269C>T (both SNPs from UGT2B15) changed amino acid properties, which could cause structural deformation.
Findings from the present study would be valuable for further studies on pharmacogenetic studies of personalized medicine and drug response.
SNP; uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase; UGT1A1; UGT2B7; UGT2B15; personalized medicine
Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency.
Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 µL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37℃ for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status.
The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; P<0.0001).
The hydrogel scaffold culture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens.
Hydrogel scaffold; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Mycobacterial culture
Hepatitis E has traditionally been considered an endemic disease of developing countries. It generally spreads through contaminated water. However, seroprevalence studies have shown that hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are not uncommon in industrialized countries. In addition, the number of autochthonous hepatitis E cases in these countries is increasing. Most HEV infections in developed countries can be traced to the ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked pork meat or sausages. Several animal species, including pigs, are known reservoirs of HEV that transmit the virus to humans. HEVs are now recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent. In this review, we describe the general characteristics of HEVs isolated from humans and animals, the risk factors for human HEV infection, and the current status of human vaccine development.
Hepatitis E virus; Zoonoses; Animals; Humans; Vaccines
To evaluate the risk of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR) after exposure to multi-indication antiepileptic drugs for in Korean elderly patients.
We used a nationwide database from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims constructed for the monitoring of drug utilization among the entire Korean elderly population from January 2005 to June 2006. We identified cases of SCARs among inpatients aged ≥65 years and those newly diagnosed with erythema multiforme according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision code (L51). Each case was matched to four controls for gender, age, and the first hospitalization date as the index date. The use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproate during a 60-day period before the index date was compared. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of SCARs for antiepileptic drug.
We identified 286 cases of SCAR and 1,144 matched controls. Among the 25 patients who were prescribed antiepileptic drugs within 60 days of the index date. There were 11 cases (3.8%) of severe ocular manifestations, and most elderly patients were first-time or short-term users of antiepileptic drugs. Among the 10 cases of carbamazepine use, only 2 cases were prescribed carbamazepine for seizure. All antiepileptic drugs were associated with an increased SCAR risk (adjusted OR = 3.42, 95% CI: 1.75–6.63). The SCAR risk was highest in patients treated with carbamazepine (adjusted OR = 10.39, 95% CI: 2.64–40.86, for multi-indication; adjusted OR = 6.84, 95% CI: 1.55–30.10, for neuropathic pain).
Carbamazepine use was associated with a nearly 10-fold increase in severe cutaneous drug reactions in Korean elderly patients. This association was consistently high with SCAR patients who received carbamazepine for neuropathic pain.
Children exposed to methamphetamine during brain development as a result of maternal drug use have long-term hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairments, but the mechanisms underlying these impairments are not understood. The acetylcholine system plays an important role in cognitive function and potential methamphetamine-induced acetylcholine alterations may be related to methamphetamine-induced cognitive impairments. In this study, we investigated the potential long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure during hippocampal development on the acetylcholine system in adolescence mice on postnatal day 30 and in adult mice on postnatal day 90. Methamphetamine exposure increased the density of acetylcholine neurons in regions of the basal forebrain and the area occupied by acetylcholine axons in the hippocampus in adolescent female mice. In contrast, methamphetamine exposure did not affect the density of GABA cells or total neurons in the basal forebrain. Methamphetamine exposure also increased the number of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus of adolescent male and female mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that methamphetamine exposure during hippocampal development affects the acetylcholine system in adolescent mice and that these changes are more profound in females than males.
acetylcholine; adolescence; basal forebrain; development; hippocampus; methamphetamine
Biomarkers associated with response to therapy in tuberculosis could have broad clinical utility. We postulated that the frequency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) specific CD8+ T cells, by virtue of detecting intracellular infection, could be a surrogate marker of response to therapy and would decrease during effective antituberculosis treatment.
Objectives: We sought to determine the relationship of Mtb specific CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells with duration of antituberculosis treatment.
Materials and Methods
We performed a prospective cohort study, enrolling between June 2008 and August 2010, of HIV-uninfected Ugandan adults (n = 50) with acid-fast bacillus smear-positive, culture confirmed pulmonary TB at the onset of antituberculosis treatment and the Mtb specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 were measured by IFN-γ ELISPOT at enrollment, week 8 and 24.
There was a significant difference in the Mtb specific CD8+ T response, but not the CD4+ T cell response, over 24 weeks of antituberculosis treatment (p<0.0001), with an early difference observed at 8 weeks of therapy (p = 0.023). At 24 weeks, the estimated Mtb specific CD8+ T cell response decreased by 58%. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the Mtb specific CD4+ T cell during the treatment. The Mtb specific CD4+ T cell response, but not the CD8+ response, was negatively impacted by the body mass index.
Our data provide evidence that the Mtb specific CD8+ T cell response declines with antituberculosis treatment and could be a surrogate marker of response to therapy. Additional research is needed to determine if the Mtb specific CD8+ T cell response can detect early treatment failure, relapse, or to predict disease progression.
We aimed to determine the characteristic adverse events (AEs) of iodinated contrast media (IOCM) and to compare the safety profiles of different IOCM. This study used the database of AEs reports submitted by healthcare professionals from 15 Regional Pharmacovigilance Centers between June 24, 2009 and December 31, 2010 in Korea. All reports of IOCM, including iopromide, iohexol, iopamidol, iomeprol, ioversol, iobitridol and iodixanol, were analyzed. Safety profiles were compared between different IOCM at the system organ level using the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Among a total of 48,261 reports, 6,524 (13.5%) reports were related to the use of IOCM. Iopromide (45.5%), iohexol (16.9%), iopamidol (14.3%) and iomeprol (10.3%) were identified as frequently reported media. 'Platelet, bleeding & clotting disorders' (PRR, 29.6; 95%CI, 1.9-472.6) and 'urinary system disorders' (PRR, 22.3; 95% CI, 17.1-29.1) were more frequently reported for iodixanol than the other IOCM. In conclusion, the frequency of AEs by organ class was significantly different between individual media. These differences among different IOCM should be considered when selecting a medium among various IOCM and when monitoring patients during and after its use to ensure optimum usage and patient safety.
Contrast Media; Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems; Patient Safety
We verified the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Instrument-Adolescent Form (KMMQL-AF) among Korean childhood cancer survivors. A total of 107 childhood cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment and 98 childhood cancer survivors who completed cancer treatment were recruited. To assess the internal structure of the KMMQL-AF, we performed multi-trait scaling analyses and exploratory factor analysis. Additionally, we compared each domains of the KMMQL-AF with those of the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). Internal consistency of the KMMQL-AF was sufficient (Cronbach's alpha: 0.78-0.92). In multi-trait scaling analyses, the KMMQL-AF showed sufficient construct validity. The "physical functioning" domain showed moderate correlation with Karnofsky scores and the "psychological functioning" domain showed moderate-to-high correlation with the RCMAS. The KMMQL-AF discriminated between subgroups of different adolescent cancer survivors depending on treatment completion. The KMMQL-AF is a sufficiently reliable and valid instrument for measuring quality of life among Korean childhood cancer survivors.
Quality of Life; Questionnaires; Validation Studies; Child Psychology; Neoplasms; Survivors
We recently reported a Philyra pisum lectin (PPL) that exerts mitogenic effects on human lymphocytes, and its molecular characterization. The present study provides a more detailed characterization of PPL based on the results from a monosaccharide analysis indicating that PPL is a glycoprotein, and circular dichroism spectra revealing its estimated α-helix, β-sheet, β-turn, and random coil contents to be 14.0%, 39.6%, 15.8%, and 30.6%, respectively. These contents are quite similar to those of deglycosylated PPL, indicating that glycans do not affect its intact structure. The binding properties to different pathogen-associated molecular patterns were investigated with hemagglutination inhibition assays using lipoteichoic acid from Gram-positive bacteria, lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria, and both mannan and β-1,3-glucan from fungi. PPL binds to lipoteichoic acids and mannan, but not to lipopolysaccharides or β-1,3-glucan. PPL exerted no significant antiproliferative effects against human breast or bladder cancer cells. These results indicate that PPL is a glycoprotein with a lipoteichoic acid or mannan-binding specificity and which contains low and high proportions of α-helix and β-structures, respectively. These properties are inherent to the innate immune system of P. pisum and indicate that PPL could be involved in signal transmission into Gram-positive bacteria or fungi.
Antiproliferative activity; Deglycosylation; Lectin; Pathogen-associated molecular patterns; Secondary structure
Visceral adiposity is related to insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle plays a central role in insulin-mediated glucose disposal; however, little is known about the association between muscle mass and metabolic syndrome (MS). This study is to clarify the clinical role of skeletal muscle mass in development of MS.
A total of 1,042 subjects were enrolled. Subjects with prior MS and chronic diseases were excluded. After 24 months, development of MS was assessed using NCEP-ATP III criteria. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM; kg), body fat mass (BFM; kg), and visceral fat area (VFA; cm2) were obtained from bioelectrical analysis. Then, the following values were calculated as follows: percent of SMM (SMM%; %): SMM (kg)/weight (kg), skeletal muscle index (SMI; kg/m2): SMM (kg)/height (m2), skeletal muscle to body fat ratio (MFR): SMM (kg)/BFM (kg), and skeletal muscle to visceral fat ratio (SVR; kg/cm2): SMM (kg)/VFA (cm2).
Among 838 subjects, 88 (10.5%) were newly diagnosed with MS. Development of MS increased according to increasing quintiles of BMI, SMM, VFA, and SMI, but was negatively associated with SMM%, MFR, and SVR. VFA was positively associated with high waist circumference (WC), high blood pressure (BP), dysglycemia, and high triglyceride (TG). In contrast, MFR was negatively associated with high WC, high BP, dysglycemia, and high TG. SVR was negatively associated with all components of MS.
Relative SMM ratio to body composition, rather than absolute mass, may play a critical role in development of MS and could be used as a strong predictor.
Body composition; Metabolic syndrome; Muscle, skeletal
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the lumbar flexion angle and
electromyography (EMG) measurements of trunk muscle activity in individuals with and
without limited hip flexion range of motion (ROM) during visual display terminal (VDT)
work with cross-legged sitting. [Subjects] The 15 participants included a control group
with sufficient hip flexion ROM (n = 7) and an experimental group with limited hip flexion
ROM (n = 8). [Methods] All subjects performed VDT work with cross-legged sitting. The
lumbar flexion angle was measured using a three-dimensional motion capture system, and the
trunk muscle activity was recorded using a surface EMG system during VDT work with
cross-legged sitting. The differences in trunk flexion angle and trunk muscle activity
between the two groups were analyzed using independent t-tests. [Results] The lumbar
flexion angle was significantly greater in the experimental group than the control group,
although trunk muscle activity did not differ between the two groups. [Conclusion] These
findings suggest that limited hip flexion leads to greater lumbar flexion during
Cross-legged sitting; Electromyography; Lumbar flexion
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin and has been suggested to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) expression. Although the role of HO1 in tumorigenesis remains controversial, recent evidence suggests NGF and HO1 as tumor-progressing factors. However, the correlative role of NGF and HO1 and their prognostic impact in breast carcinoma is unknown.
We investigated the expression and prognostic significance of the expression of NGF and HO1 in 145 cases of breast carcinoma.
Immunohistochemical expression of NGF and HO1 was observed in 31% and 49% of breast carcinoma, respectively. The expression of NGF and HO1 significantly associated with each other, and both have a significant association with histologic grade, HER2 expression, and latent distant metastasis. The expression of NGF and HO1 predicted shorter overall survival of breast carcinoma by univariate and multivariate analysis. NGF expression was an independent prognostic indicator for relapse-free survival by multivariate analysis. The combined expression pattern of NGF and HO1 was also an independent prognostic indicator of overall survival and relapse-free survival. The patients with tumors expressing NGF had the shortest survival and the patients with tumor, which did not express NGF or HO1 showed the longest survival time.
This study has demonstrated that individual expression of NGF or HO1, and the combined NGF/HO1 expression pattern could be prognostic indicators for breast carcinoma patients.
Nerve growth factor; Heme oxygenase-1; Carcinoma; Breast
Cytokines activate several inflammatory signals that mediate β-cell destruction. We recently determined that SPA0355 is a strong anti-inflammatory compound, thus reporting its efficacy in protecting β cells from various insults. The effects of SPA0355 on β-cell survival were studied in RINm5F cells and primary islets. The protective effects of this compound on the development of type 1 diabetes were evaluated in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. SPA0355 completely prevented cytokine-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and cytotoxicity in RINm5F cells and isolated islets. The molecular mechanism of SPA0355 inhibition of iNOS expression involves the inhibition of nuclear factor κB and Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways. The protective effects of SPA0355 against cytokine toxicity were further demonstrated by normal insulin secretion and absence of apoptosis of cytokine-treated islets. In experiments with NOD mice, the occurrence of diabetes was efficiently reduced when the mice were treated with SPA0355. Therefore, SPA0355 might be a valuable treatment option that delays the destruction of pancreatic β cells in type 1 diabetes.
β-cell; cytokine; NF-κB; SPA0355; STAT; type 1 diabetes
This study estimated the association of cardiovascular health behaviors with the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in middle-aged men in Korea.
In total, 12 538 men aged 40 to 59 years were enrolled in 1993 and followed up through 2011. Cardiovascular health metrics defined the following lifestyle behaviors proposed by the American Heart Association: smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet habit score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. The cardiovascular health metrics score was calculated as a single categorical variable, by assigning 1 point to each ideal healthy behavior. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of cardiovascular health behavior. Population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated from the significant cardiovascular health metrics.
There were 1054 total and 171 CVD deaths over 230 690 person-years of follow-up. The prevalence of meeting all 7 cardiovascular health metrics was 0.67%. Current smoking, elevated blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose were significantly associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. The adjusted PARs for the 3 significant metrics combined were 35.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.7 to 47.4) and 52.8% (95% CI, 22.0 to 74.0) for all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios of the groups with a 6-7 vs. 0-2 cardiovascular health metrics score were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.59) for all-cause mortality and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.29) for CVD mortality.
Among cardiovascular health behaviors, not smoking, normal blood pressure, and recommended fasting blood glucose levels were associated with reduced risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. Meeting a greater number of cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.
Cardiovascular diseases; Cohort studies; Cox proportional hazards models; Life style; Mortality
There is growing evidence that inflammatory processes of activated microglia could play an important role in the progression of nerve cell damage in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease which harbor features of chronic microglial activation, though the precise mechanism is unknown. In this study, we presented in vivo and ex vivo experimental evidences indicating that activated microglia could exacerbate the survival of axotomized dopaminergic neurons and that appropriate inactivation of microglia could be neuroprotective.
The transection of medial forebrain bundle (MFB) of a rat induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in a time-dependent manner and accompanied with microglial activation. Along with microglial activation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was upregulated and TH/OX6/hydroethidine triple-immunofluorescence showed that the microglia mainly produced ROS. When the activated microglial cells that were isolated from the substantia nigra of the MFB axotomized animal, were transplanted into the substantia nigra of which MFB had been transected at 7 days ago, the survival rate of axotomized dopaminergic neurons was significantly reduced as compared with sham control. Meanwhile, when the microglial activation was attenuated by administration of tuftsin fragment 1-3 (microglia inhibitory factor) into the lateral ventricle using mini-osmotic pump, the survival rate of axotomized dopaminergic neurons was increased.
The present study suggests that activated microglia could actively produce and secrete unfavorable toxic substances, such as ROS, which could accelerate dopaminergic neuronal cell loss. So, well-controlled blockade of microglial activation might be neuroprotective in some neuropathological conditions.
Medial forebrain bundle (MFB); Axotomy; Activated microglia; Reactive oxygen species; Tuftsin fragment 1-3
Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been widely used in passive studies with HIV neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to test for protection against infection. However, because SHIV-infected adult macaques often rapidly control plasma viremia and any resulting pathogenesis is minor, the model has been unsuitable for studying the impact of antibodies on pathogenesis in infected animals. We found that SHIVSF162P3 infection in 1-month-old rhesus macaques not only results in high persistent plasma viremia but also leads to very rapid disease progression within 12 to 16 weeks. In this model, passive transfer of high doses of neutralizing IgG (SHIVIG) prevents infection. Here, we show that at lower doses, SHIVIG reduces both plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated viremia and mitigates pathogenesis in infected animals. Moreover, production of endogenous NAbs correlated with lower set-point viremia and 100% survival of infected animals. New SHIV models are needed to investigate whether passively transferred antibodies or antibodies elicited by vaccination that fall short of providing sterilizing immunity impact disease progression or influence immune responses. The 1-month-old rhesus macaque SHIV model of infection provides a new tool to investigate the effects of antibodies on viral replication and clearance, mechanisms of B cell maintenance, and the induction of adaptive immunity in disease progression.