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1.  Personality and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: New data and meta-analysis 
We examine whether broad factors and specific facets of personality are associated with increased risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in a long-run longitudinal study and a meta-analysis of published studies.
Participants (N=1671) were followed for up to 22 years from a baseline personality assessment. The meta-analysis pooled results from up to 5 prospective studies (N=5054).
Individuals with scores in the top quartile of neuroticism (HR=3.1; 95%CI=1.6–6.0) or the lowest quartile of conscientiousness (HR=3.3; 95%CI=1.4–7.4) had a three-fold increased risk of incident AD. Among the components of these traits, self-discipline and depression had the strongest associations with incident AD. The meta-analysis confirmed the associations of neuroticism (p=2*10−9) and conscientiousness (p=2*10−6), along with weaker effects for openness and agreeableness (p<0.05).
The current study and meta-analysis indicate that personality traits are associated with increased risk of AD, with effect sizes similar to those of well-established clinical and lifestyle risk factors.
PMCID: PMC3783589  PMID: 23706517
Alzheimer; dementia; observational prospective study; meta-analysis; neuroticism; anxiety; depression; conscientiousness; order; self-discipline; APOE
2.  Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ and Tau Level Fluctuation in an Older Clinical Cohort 
Archives of Neurology  2012;69(2):246-250.
To determine whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer disease fluctuate significantly over time in a cohort of older, mildly symptomatic individuals.
Biomarker validation in a clinical cohort.
University hospital inpatient unit.
Ten patients admitted for CSF drainage for diagnostic purposes.
Main Outcome Measures
The CSF levels of Aβ1–40, Aβ1–42, tau, and phosphorylated tau on threonine 181 (p-tau181) were measured every 6 hours for 24 or 36 hours.
The mean coefficient of variation values for each biomarker assessed in our 10 patients were 5.5% (95% CI, 3.8%–10.0%) for Aβ1–42, 12.2% (9.0%–24.2%) for Aβ1–40, 8.2% (5.7%–15.1%) for total tau, and 11.9% (8.5%–23.0%) for p-tau181. These values are only slightly higher than the variability in the assay. In addition, no significant circadian fluctuation in any Alzheimer disease biomarker was observed given the limitations of our sampling frequency.
In a cohort of elderly patients, little fluctuation in the levels of important Alzheimer disease biomarkers in lumbar CSF is seen as a function of time.
PMCID: PMC3310240  PMID: 22332192
3.  Age, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Ageing 
Brain  2010;133(8):2225-2231.
Recent studies suggest that dementia in the most elderly (90 years of age and above) is only modestly related to Alzheimer’s disease pathology. This raises the possibility that other, as yet unknown, disease processes may underlie dementia in this rapidly growing demographic group, and that efforts designed to combat Alzheimer’s disease may not be appropriate for treating dementia in very elderly subjects. To study this question more closely, we examined the relationship between neocortical Alzheimer-type brain pathology and dementia in consecutive autopsies from 209 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of the effect of ageing on cognition. Almost half of the cohort was older than 90 years of age at death. We found that several measures of neocortical Alzheimer’s pathology, including the Consortium to Establish a Registry of Alzheimer’s Disease neuritic plaque score and the Braak neurofibrillary tangle score, remained significant predictors of dementia, independent of age. In participants older than 90 years of age, intracranial atherosclerosis emerged as an important predictor of dementia in subjects with low Alzheimer’s pathology scores, but did not mitigate the importance or population attributable risk of high Alzheimer’s pathology scores on the odds of dementia. There was evidence that the threshold score for neurofibrillary pathology to cause dementia increased in the oldest subjects, but this was offset by an overall increase in neurofibrillary pathology in this age group. We conclude that neocortical Alzheimer’s disease pathology remains significantly correlated with dementia, independent of age. In the most elderly, atherosclerosis also emerged as a cause of dementia in subjects with low Alzheimer’s pathology scores. We found no evidence for a significant number of elderly subjects having dementia without an apparent cause.
PMCID: PMC3139933  PMID: 20647264
Alzheimer’s disease; pathology; ageing; natural history; neurodegenerative mechanisms
4.  Medial Premotor Cortex Shows a Reduction in Inhibitory Markers and Mediates Recovery in a Mouse Model of Focal Stroke 
Background and Purpose
Motor recovery after ischemic stroke in primary motor cortex is thought to occur in part through training-enhanced reorganization in undamaged premotor areas, enabled by reductions in cortical inhibition. Here we used a mouse model of focal cortical stroke and a double-lesion approach to test the idea that a medial premotor area (medial agranular cortex [AGm]) reorganizes to mediate recovery of prehension, and that this reorganization is associated with a reduction in inhibitory interneuron markers.
C57Bl/6 mice were trained to perform a skilled prehension task to an asymptotic level of performance after which they underwent photocoagulation-induced stroke in the caudal forelimb area. The mice were then retrained and inhibitory interneuron immunofluorescence was assessed in prechosen, anatomically defined neocortical areas. Mice then underwent a second photocoagulation-induced stroke in AGm.
Focal caudal forelimb area stroke led to a decrement in skilled prehension. Training-associated recovery of prehension was associated with a reduction in parvalbumin, calretinin, and calbindin expression in AGm. Subsequent infarction of AGm led to reinstatement of the original deficit.
We conclude that with training, AGm can reorganize after a focal motor stroke and serve as a new control area for prehension. Reduced inhibition may represent a marker for reorganization or it is necessary for reorganization to occur. Our mouse model, with all of the attendant genetic benefits, may allow us to determine at the cellular and molecular levels how behavioral training and endogenous plasticity interact to mediate recovery.
PMCID: PMC4086919  PMID: 23321442
inhibition; parvalbumin; poststroke reorganization; premotor; recovery
5.  Changes in Brain Function Occur Years before the Onset of Cognitive Impairment 
The Journal of Neuroscience  2013;33(46):18008-18014.
To develop targeted intervention strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we first need to identify early markers of brain changes that occur before the onset of cognitive impairment. Here, we examine changes in resting-state brain function in humans from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. We compared longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), assessed by 15O-water PET, over a mean 7 year period between participants who eventually developed cognitive impairment (n = 22) and those who remained cognitively normal (n = 99). Annual PET assessments began an average of 11 years before the onset of cognitive impairment in the subsequently impaired group, so all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval. A voxel-based mixed model analysis was used to compare groups with and without subsequent impairment. Participants with subsequent impairment showed significantly greater longitudinal rCBF increases in orbitofrontal, medial frontal, and anterior cingulate regions, and greater longitudinal decreases in parietal, temporal, and thalamic regions compared with those who maintained cognitive health. These changes were linear in nature and were not influenced by longitudinal changes in regional tissue volume. Although all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval, most of the accelerated rCBF changes seen in the subsequently impaired group occurred within regions thought to be critical for the maintenance of cognitive function. These changes also occurred within regions that show early accumulation of pathology in Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that there may be a connection between early pathologic change and early changes in brain function.
PMCID: PMC3828456  PMID: 24227712
6.  Personality and resilience to Alzheimer's disease neuropathology: A prospective autopsy study 
Neurobiology of aging  2012;34(4):1045-1050.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology is found at autopsy in about 30% of cognitively normal older individuals. We examine whether personality traits are associated with such resilience to clinical dementia in individuals with AD neuropathology. Broad factors and specific facets of personality were assessed up to 28 years (M=11, SD=7) before onset of dementia and up to 30 years (M=15, SD=7) before death in a cohort (N=111) evaluated for AD neuropathology at autopsy. Individuals with higher baseline scores on vulnerability to stress, anxiety, and depression (neuroticism: OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.2-3.5), or lower scores on order and competence (conscientiousness: OR=0.4, 95%CI=0.2-0.9) were less likely to remain asymptomatic in the presence of AD neuropathology. Neuroticism (r=0.26), low agreeableness (r=-0.34), and some facets were also significantly associated with advanced stages of neurofibrillary tangles, but the associations between personality traits and risk of clinical dementia were mostly unchanged by controlling for Braak and CERAD scores. In sum, a resilient personality profile is associated with lower risk or delay of clinical dementia even in persons with AD neuropathology.
PMCID: PMC3541457  PMID: 23040035
Alzheimer's disease; dementia; asymptomatic; personality; neuroticism; depression; conscientiousness; prospective cohort study; autopsy; neurofibrillary tangles; Aβ neuritic plaques; neuropathology
7.  Activity Dependent Localization of Synaptic NMDA Receptors in Spinal Neurons 
In cultured spinal neurons, NMDA receptors are absent from excitatory synapses under basal conditions, but can be made to appear at excitatory synapses following blockade of excitatory synaptic activity. The activity dependent synaptic localization of NMDA receptors is critically dependent on both the gradual, global accumulation of the NR2A and NR2B subunits and on a rapid, surface redistribution phase that is primed by the accumulation of NR2A and NR2B and inhibited by synaptic activity. Global changes in NR2A and NR2B accumulation and heterogeneous increases in synaptic NMDA receptor localization can also result from inhibitors of proteasomal processing, from manipulations of proteasomal subunit composition and from media conditioned by neurons undergoing synaptic scaling. While proteasomal processing is a mechanism shared with AMPA receptor scaling in cultured spinal neurons, diffusible factors, heterogeneity, and a rapid surface redistribution phase appear to be unique to activity dependent synaptic NMDA receptor localization.
PMCID: PMC2735016  PMID: 17306986
NMDA; Scaling; Plasticity; Activity; Synapse; Glutamate
8.  Carotid Atherosclerosis and Prospective Risk of Dementia 
Background and Purpose
Though vascular risk factors have been implicated in the development of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), few studies have examined the association between subclinical atherosclerosis and prospective risk of dementia.
Participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n=364, aged 60–95, median age=73, 60% male, 82% white) underwent initial carotid atherosclerosis assessment and were subsequently assessed for dementia and AD annually for up to 14 years (median=7.0). Cox proportional hazards models predicting (a) all-cause dementia and (b) AD were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, blood pressure, cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and smoking.
Sixty participants developed dementia, with 53 diagnosed as Alzheimer’s disease. Raw rates of future dementia and AD among individuals initially (a) in the upper quintile of carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) or (b) with bilateral carotid plaque were generally double the rates of individuals with IMT in the lower quintiles or no plaque at baseline. Adjusted proportional hazards models revealed a >2.5-fold increased risk of dementia and AD among individuals in the upper quintile of carotid IMT, and a nearly 2.0-fold increased risk of dementia among individuals with bilateral plaque.
Multiple measures of carotid atherosclerosis are associated with prospective risk of dementia. Individuals in the upper quintile of carotid IMT or bilateral carotid plaque were at greatest risk. These findings underscore the possibility that early intervention to reduce atherosclerosis may help delay or prevent onset of dementia and AD.
PMCID: PMC3508298  PMID: 23103489
atherosclerosis; intimal medial thickness; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease
9.  Correspondence between in vivo 11C-PiB PET amyloid imaging and post-mortem, region-matched assessment of plaques 
Acta neuropathologica  2012;124(6):823-831.
The definitive Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis requires post-mortem confirmation of neuropathological hallmarks – amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The advent of radiotracers for amyloid imaging presents an opportunity to investigate amyloid deposition in vivo. The 11C-Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) PET ligand remains the most widely studied to date; however, regional variations in 11C-PiB binding and the extent of agreement with neuropathological assessment have not been thoroughly investigated. We examined the correspondence among quantitative immunohistological assessments of Aβ and NFTs, regional 11C-PiB load, and brain atrophy (MRI) in six older Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants who came to autopsy (imaging-autopsy interval range 0.2–2.4 years). The total number of Aβ plaques (6E10) and NFTs (PHF1) in paraffin sections from hippocampus, orbito-frontal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus and cerebellum were quantified using a technique guided by unbiased stereological principles. We report a general agreement between the regional measures of amyloid obtained via stereological assessment and imaging, with significant relationships evident for the anterior (r=0.87; p=0.02) and posterior (r=0.93; p=0.007) cingulate gyri, and the precuneus (r=0.98; p=0.001). Moreover, higher Aβ count in the hippocampus was associated with lower hippocampal volume (r= −0.86; p=0.03). No associations were observed between 11C-PiB load and NFT count for any of the regions examined (p>0.2 in all regions) or between regional NFT count and corresponding brain volumes. The strong associations of PiB retention with region-matched, quantitative analyses of Aβ in post-mortem tissue offer support for the validity of 11C-PiB-PET imaging as a method for evaluation of plaque burden in vivo.
PMCID: PMC3566238  PMID: 22864813
plaques; tangles; stereology; PiB; Alzheimer; neuroimaging
10.  Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Genechip and Conventional Drug Susceptibility Test for Detecting Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in China 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69267.
Genechip (CapitalBio, Beijing, China) is a system for diagnosing resistance to rifampin and isoniazid, which shows high efficiency in detecting drug-resistant tuberculosis. Here, we firstly evaluated the costs of Genechip for detecting the drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, compared to conventional drug susceptibility test (DST) in laboratories in China.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Data on the costs of the two tests were collected at four hospitals. Costs were calculated using the essential factor cost calculation method. The costs of diagnosing a single case of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using Genechip and DST were US$22.38 and $53.03, respectively. Taking into account the effect on costs from failure of a certain number of tests to accurately diagnose MDR-TB, the costs of Genechip and DST increased by 17.65% and 5.22%, respectively. The cost of both tests decreased with the increasing prevalence of MDR-TB disease, and the cost of Genechip at a sensitivity of more than 50% was lower than that of DST. When price of Genechip was varied to 50%, 80%, 150%, and 200% of the original price, the cost of Genechip at sensitivities of more than 30%, 40%, 60%, and 70%, respectively, was also lower than that of DST.
This study showed that Genechip was a more cost-effective method of diagnosing MDR-TB compared to conventional DST.
PMCID: PMC3720587  PMID: 23935970
11.  Con: Alzheimer's disease and circadian dysfunction: chicken or egg? 
The development of late-onset Alzheimer's disease is believed to be influenced by genetic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors. Recently, converging research in animal and human studies has found that beta-amyloid (Aβ) levels in cerebrospinal fluid are modulated by sleep-wake cycles. This raises the possibility that chronic sleep loss causes brain amyloid accumulation over time and leads to the development of Alzheimer's disease. The observation that circadian rhythm modulates Aβ levels has not yet been replicated by other groups, and subject selection and methodologies are potential explanations for this. While acute suppression of sleep may raise Aβ levels, it is not known whether chronic sleep loss has the same effect. It is conceivable that altered circadian rhythms are a manifestation of a disrupted sleep network because of preclinical disease, as has been observed in other neurodegenerative disorders. The findings that circadian variation in Aβ levels in cerebrospinal fluid is a direct result of sleep-wake cycles and that altering normal rhythms increases the risk for brain amyloid accumulation need to be replicated in larger cohorts. Prospective studies are needed to decipher whether circadian rhythm dysfunction is a cause, or a result of, amyloid accumulation.
PMCID: PMC3506940  PMID: 22883923
12.  Longitudinal brain activity changes in asymptomatic Alzheimer disease 
Brain and Behavior  2012;2(3):221-230.
Asymptomatic Alzheimer disease (ASYMAD) is characterized by normal cognition despite substantial AD pathology. To identify factors contributing to cognitive resilience, we compared early changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in individuals subsequently diagnosed as ASYMAD with changes in cognitively impaired (CI) and normal older participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants underwent annual positron emission tomography (PET) rCBF measurements beginning 10.0 (SD 3.6) years before death and while cognitively intact. Based on clinical and autopsy information, subjects were grouped as cognitively normal (CN = 7), ASYMAD (n= 6), and CI (=6). Autopsy material was analyzed using CERAD and Braak scores and quantitative stereologic measures of tau and amyloid. ASYMAD and CI groups had similar CERAD and Braak scores, similar amounts of β-amyloid and tau in middle frontal (MFG), middle temporal (MTG), and inferior parietal (IP) regions, and more β-amyloid than CN in precuneus, MFG, and IP areas. Voxel-based PET analysis identified similarities and differences in longitudinal rCBF change among groups across a 7.2-year interval. Both ASYMAD and CI groups showed similar longitudinal rCBF declines in precuneus, lingual, and MTG regions relative to CN. The CI also showed greater rCBF decreases in anterior and posterior cingulate, cuneus, and brainstem regions relative to ASYMAD and CN, whereas ASYMAD showed greater relative rCBF increases over time in medial temporal and thalamic regions relative to CI and CN. Our findings provide evidence of early functional alterations that may contribute to cognitive resilience in those who accumulate AD pathology but maintain normal cognition.
PMCID: PMC3381626  PMID: 22741095
Amyloid; dementia; fMRI; neuropathology; PET; resting state; tau
13.  Hearing Loss and Incident Dementia 
Archives of Neurology  2011;68(2):214-220.
Earlier studies have suggested that hearing loss, which is prevalent in more than 30% of adults >60 years, may be a risk factor for dementia, but this hypothesis has never been investigated prospectively.
To determine if hearing loss is associated with incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Design, Setting, and Participants
Prospective study of 639 participants (age 36 – 90 y) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging who had audiometric testing and who were dementia-free in 1990-1994. Hearing loss was defined by a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz in the better-hearing ear (normal <25 dB [n = 455], mild loss 25-40 dB [n = 125], moderate loss 41-70 dB [n = 53], severe loss >70 dB [n = 6]). Diagnosis of incident dementia was made by consensus diagnostic conference. Cox proportional hazard models were used to model time to incident dementia according to severity of hearing loss and were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, diabetes, smoking, and hypertension.
Main Outcome Measure
Incidence of all-cause dementia and AD until May 31, 2008.
During a median follow-up of 11.9 years, 58 cases of incident all-cause dementia were diagnosed of which 37 cases were AD. The risk of incident all-cause dementia increased log-linearly with the severity of baseline hearing loss (1.27 per 10 db loss, 95% CI: 1.06 – 1.50). Compared to normal hearing, the hazard ratio for incident all-cause dementia was 1.89 for mild hearing loss (95% CI: 1.00 – 3.58), 3.00 for moderate hearing loss (95% CI: 1.43 – 6.30), and 4.94 for severe hearing loss (95% CI: 1.09 – 22.4). The risk of incident AD also increased with baseline hearing loss but with a wider confidence interval (1.20 per 10 dB of hearing loss, 95% CI: 0.94 – 1.53).
Hearing loss is independently associated with incident all-cause dementia. Whether hearing loss is a marker for early stage dementia or is actually a modifiable risk factor for dementia deserves further study.
PMCID: PMC3277836  PMID: 21320988
14.  Cerebrospinal Fluid Profiles Predict Prospective Course and Outcome Among Persons with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment 
Archives of neurology  2011;68(1):113-119.
To examine the effect of specific “CSF profiles” on the rate of cognitive decline, disease progression, and risk of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Total tau (t-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau181), and β-amyloid 1-42 peptide (Aβ42) were immunoassayed in CSF samples obtained from MCI patients enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Patients were then stratified by “CSF profiles”: (1) normal t-tau and Aβ42 levels (i.e., normal–t-tauAβ42), (2) normal t-tau but abnormal Aβ42 (i.e., abnormal–Aβ42), (3) abnormal t-tau but normal Aβ42 (i.e., abnormal–t-tau), and (4) abnormal t-tau and Aβ42 (i.e., abnormal–t-tauAβ42).
Fifty-eight sites in the US and Canada.
One hundred ninety-five MCI patients.
Main Outcome Measures
A composite cognitive measure, the CDR-Sum of Boxes, and conversion to AD.
MCI patients with a CSF profile of abnormal–Aβ42 or abnormal–t-tauAβ42 experienced a faster rate of decline on the composite cognitive measure and the CDR-Sum of Boxes compared to those with normal–t-tauAβ42. They also had a greater risk of converting to AD relative to the normal–t-tauAβ42 group. In contrast, those with a CSF profile of abnormal–t-tau did not differ from the normal–t-tauAβ42 group on any outcome. These findings were generally replicated when the sample was reclassified by patterns of p-tau181 and Aβ42 abnormalities.
β-amyloid abnormalities, but not tau alterations, are associated with cognitive deterioration, disease progression, and increased risk of conversion to AD dementia in patients with MCI. Patients with abnormal levels of Aβ42 may be prime targets for drug treatment and clinical trials in MCI.
PMCID: PMC3058271  PMID: 21220682
CSF; MCI; cognitive decline; disease progression; conversion to AD
15.  Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing and Alzheimer’s Disease 
Annual review of neuroscience  2011;34:185-204.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia worldwide, is characterized by the accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) within the brain along with hyperphosphorylated and cleaved forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Genetic, biochemical, and behavioral research suggest that physiologic generation of the neurotoxic Aβ peptide from sequential amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolysis is the crucial step in the development of AD. APP is a single-pass transmembrane protein expressed at high levels in the brain and metabolized in a rapid and highly complex fashion by a series of sequential proteases, including the intramembranous γ-secretase complex, which also process other key regulatory molecules. Why Aβ accumulates in the brains of elderly individuals is unclear but could relate to changes in APP metabolism or Aβ elimination. Lessons learned from biochemical and genetic studies of APP processing will be crucial to the development of therapeutic targets to treat AD.
PMCID: PMC3174086  PMID: 21456963
Neurodegeneration; dementia; BACE1; α-secretase; γ-secretase; aging
16.  In Vivo Fibrillar β-Amyloid Detected Using [11C]PiB Positron Emission Tomography and Neuropathologic Assessment in Older Adults 
Archives of neurology  2011;68(2):232-240.
In demented older adults, in vivo amyloid imaging shows agreement with diagnostic neuropathologic assessment of β-amyloid (Aβ). However, the extent of agreement in nondemented older adults remains unclear.
To compare Aβ quantified using in vivo carbon 11–labeled Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography and postmortem neuropathologic assessment of Aβ in older adults.
Case series.
Community-dwelling older adults who came to autopsy.
Five nondemented and 1 demented participant from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.
Main Outcome Measure
Agreement between the mean cortical distribution volume ratio and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for AD (CERAD) neuritic plaque (NP) score used for pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.
Of the 6 participants, 4 had moderate NPs, 2 had sparse or no detectable NPs, and 3 had microscopic findings of cerebral amyloid angiopathy at autopsy. On in vivo imaging, the mean cortical distribution volume ratio ranged from 0.96 to 1.59. Although there was agreement between in vivo amyloid imaging and CERAD NP scores in participants with either high or negligible Aβ levels in vivo, only limited agreement was observed among those with intermediate levels of Aβ. The best overall agreement was achieved at a distribution volume ratio of 1.2.
In older adults, variable agreement between in vivo imaging and CERAD NP score was observed. The limited agreement may, in part, reflect differences in typical measurements of Aβ using imaging compared with the CERAD neuropathologic protocol. Direct quantification of regional Aβ in relation to in vivo imaging is necessary to further enhance our understanding of the imaging–pathologic assessment correlation.
PMCID: PMC3082956  PMID: 21320990
17.  Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) 
The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease.
PMCID: PMC2978421  PMID: 19661626
α-synuclein; Alzheimer’s disease; asymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid-β; dementia; Parkinson’s disease; stereology; successful aging; tau
18.  Effect of Infarcts on Dementia in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging 
Annals of neurology  2008;64(2):168-176.
To define the magnitude and mechanism of the effect of brain infarcts on the odds of dementia in a prospective study.
We examined the effects of brain infarcts and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology on the risk for dementia in 179 subjects from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging Autopsy Program. All subjects had longitudinal clinical and cognitive evaluations, and underwent postmortem examination of the brain.
Brain infarcts were common in our cohort, and both symptomatic and asymptomatic infarcts conferred a significant increase in the odds of dementia. Risk factors for stroke in the absence of an infarct did not increase the odds of dementia, which was quantitatively related to the number but not the size of hemispheral infarcts; deep subcortical infarcts conferred no increased risk for dementia. The contribution of microscopic infarcts to dementia was significant and equivalent to that of macroscopic infarcts. In subjects with intermediate AD pathology scores, a single macroscopic hemispheral infarct was sufficient to cause dementia. A logistic regression model of the effect of infarcts and AD pathology on dementia indicated that AD pathology alone accounts for 50% of the dementia seen in this cohort, and that hemispheral infarcts alone or in conjunction with AD pathology account for 35%.
Cerebrovascular disease is a significant and potentially preventable cause of dementia in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Burden and location of infarcts are significantly associated with cognitive decline.
PMCID: PMC2694129  PMID: 18496870
19.  Effectiveness of Once-Weekly Rifapentine and Moxifloxacin Regimens against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mice 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2001;45(12):3482-3486.
Mice infected with 1.6 × 107 CFU of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were treated 14 days later for 6 months with a regimen of once-weekly 10 mg of rifapentine and 75 mg of isoniazid per kg of body weight supplemented with either 150 mg of streptomycin per kg or 100 mg of moxifloxacin per kg during either both the 2-week daily initial and once-weekly continuation phases or only in the daily 2-week initial phase. On completion of treatment, all lung cultures were negative, except for three mice, each with a single colony: two whose rifapentine-isoniazid regimen was supplemented with streptomycin during the whole course of therapy and one whose rifapentine-isoniazid regimen had no initial daily phase, but was supplemented with streptomycin and moxifloxacin during the whole course of therapy. After 3 months of follow-up, positive lung cultures were obtained from 61 and 56% of mice supplemented with streptomycin during either the full course of therapy or only the daily 2-week initial phase, respectively, and 15 and 50% of mice supplemented with moxifloxacin during either the full course of therapy or only the daily 2-week initial phase, respectively. These results suggest that moxifloxacin has sterilizing activity against M. tuberculosis.
PMCID: PMC90857  PMID: 11709328

Results 1-19 (19)