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1.  Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis–Frontotemporal Lobar Dementia in 3 Families With p.Ala382Thr TARDBP Mutations 
Archives of neurology  2010;67(8):1002-1009.
Background
TAR DNA-binding protein 43, encoded by the TARDBP gene, has been identified as the major pathological protein of frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) with or without amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and sporadic ALS. Subsequently, mutations in the TARDBP gene have been detected in 2% to 3% of patients with ALS (both familial and sporadic ALS). However, to our knowledge, there is only 1 description of 2 patients with FTLD and TARDBP gene mutations who later developed motor neuron disease.
Objective
To describe cognitive abnormalities in 3 Italian families with familial ALS and TARDBP gene mutations.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Genetic, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging analyses in 36 patients with familial non–superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1) ALS and 280 healthy controls.
Main Outcome Measure
We identified 3 index cases of familial ALS carrying the p.Ala382Thr missense mutation of the TARDBP gene and with clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological features of FTLD.
Results
The p.Ala382Thr missense mutation of the TARDBP gene was absent in the 280 controls. It was present in all affected members of the 3 families for whom DNA was available. All affected members of the 3 families developed FTLD after the onset of ALS, confirmed by neuropsychological testing and hypometabolism in frontal associative areas assessed with fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography and computed tomography.
Conclusions
Three apparently unrelated families with familial ALS carrying the p.Ala382Thr TARDBP missense mutation developed FTLD. In these families, FTLD co-segregates with ALS. Patients with ALS carrying TARDBP mutations may develop FTLD.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.173
PMCID: PMC3535689  PMID: 20697052
2.  Large proportion of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases in Sardinia are due to a single founder mutation of the TARDBP gene 
Archives of neurology  2011;68(5):594-598.
Objective
To perform an extensive screening for mutations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)–related genes in a consecutive cohort of Sardinian patients, a genetic isolate phylogenically distinct from other European populations.
Design
Population-based, prospective cohort study.
Patients
A total of 135 Sardinian patients with ALS and 156 healthy control subjects of Sardinian origin who were age- and sex-matched to patients.
Intervention
Patients underwent mutational analysis for SOD1, FUS, and TARDBP.
Results
Mutational screening of the entire cohort found that 39 patients (28.7%) carried the c.1144G A (p.A382T) missense mutation of the TARDBP gene. Of these, 15 had familial ALS (belonging to 10 distinct pedigrees) and 24 had apparently sporadic ALS. None of the 156 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls carried the pathogenic variant. Genotype data obtained for 5 ALS cases carrying the p.A382T mutation found that they shared a 94–single-nucleotide polymorphism risk haplotype that spanned 663 Kb across the TARDBP locus on chromosome 1p36.22. Three patients with ALS who carry the p.A382T mutation developed extrapyramidal symptoms several years after their initial presentation with motor weakness.
Conclusions
The TARDBP p.A382T missense mutation accounts for approximately one-third of all ALS cases in this island population. These patients share a large risk haplotype across the TARDBP locus, indicating that they have a common ancestor.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.352
PMCID: PMC3513278  PMID: 21220647
3.  A two-stage genome-wide association study of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 
Human Molecular Genetics  2009;18(8):1524-1532.
The cause of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is largely unknown, but genetic factors are thought to play a significant role in determining susceptibility to motor neuron degeneration. To identify genetic variants altering risk of ALS, we undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS): we followed our initial GWAS of 545 066 SNPs in 553 individuals with ALS and 2338 controls by testing the 7600 most associated SNPs from the first stage in three independent cohorts consisting of 2160 cases and 3008 controls. None of the SNPs selected for replication exceeded the Bonferroni threshold for significance. The two most significantly associated SNPs, rs2708909 and rs2708851 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17 and 1.18, and P-values = 6.98 × 10−7 and 1.16 × 10−6], were located on chromosome 7p13.3 within a 175 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing the SUNC1, HUS1 and C7orf57 genes. These associations did not achieve genome-wide significance in the original cohort and failed to replicate in an additional independent cohort of 989 US cases and 327 controls (OR = 1.18 and 1.19, P-values = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively). Thus, we chose to cautiously interpret our data as hypothesis-generating requiring additional confirmation, especially as all previously reported loci for ALS have failed to replicate successfully. Indeed, the three loci (FGGY, ITPR2 and DPP6) identified in previous GWAS of sporadic ALS were not significantly associated with disease in our study. Our findings suggest that ALS is more genetically and clinically heterogeneous than previously recognized. Genotype data from our study have been made available online to facilitate such future endeavors.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp059
PMCID: PMC2664150  PMID: 19193627
4.  Tooth loss and obstructive sleep apnoea 
Respiratory Research  2006;7(1):8.
Background
Complete tooth loss (edentulism) produces anatomical changes that may impair upper airway size and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether edentulism favours the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).
Methods
Polysomnography was performed in 48 edentulous subjects on two consecutive nights, one slept with and the other without dentures. Upper airway size was assessed by cephalometry and by recording forced mid-inspiratory airflow rate (FIF50). Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and oral NO (oNO), were measured as markers of airway and oropharyngeal inflammation.
Results
The apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) without dentures was significantly higher than with dentures (17·4 ± 3·6 versus 11·0 ± 2·3. p = 0·002), and was inversely related to FIF50 (p = 0·017) and directly related to eNO (p = 0·042). Sleeping with dentures, 23 subjects (48%) had an AHI over 5, consistent with OSA, but sleeping without dentures the number of subjects with abnormal AHI rose to 34 (71%). At cephalometry, removing dentures produced a significant decrease in retropharyngeal space (from 1·522 ± 0·33 cm to 1·27 ± 0·42 cm, p = 0·006). Both morning eNO and oNO were higher after the night slept without dentures (eNO 46·1 ± 8·2 ppb versus 33·7 ± 6·3 ppb, p = 0·035, oNO 84·6 ± 13·7 ppb versus 59·2 ± 17·4 ppb, p = 0·001).
Conclusion
These findings suggest that complete tooth loss favours upper airway obstruction during sleep. This untoward effect seems to be due to decrease in retropharyngeal space and is associated with increased oral and exhaled NO concentration.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-7-8
PMCID: PMC1368974  PMID: 16417639

Results 1-4 (4)