Chronic coronary heart disease (cCHD) is characterized by atherosclerosis, which progressively narrows the coronary artery lumen and impairs myocardial blood flow. Restoration of occluded coronary vessels with newly formed collaterals remains an ideal therapeutic approach due to the need for redirecting blood flow into the ischemic heart. In this study, we investigated the effect of an active fraction isolated from Geum joponicum (AFGJ) on angiogenesis in cCHD hearts. Our results demonstrated that AFGJ not only enhanced capillary tube formation of endothelial cells, but also promoted the growth of new coronary collaterals (at the diameter 0.021–0.21 mm) in the ischemic region of hearts in rat cCHD model. Our study also indicated that the growth of new collaterals in ischemic hearts resulted in improved functional recovery of the cCHD hearts as demonstrated by ECG and echocardiography analyses. These data suggest that AFGJ may provide a novel therapeutic method for effective treatment of cCHD.
Some aspects of the neighborhood built environment may influence residents’ physical activity, which in turn, affects their health. This study aimed to develop an urban built environment evaluation tool and conduct necessary reliability and validity tests.
A 41-item urban built environment scan tool was developed to objectively assess the neighborhood built environment features related to physical activity. Six neighborhoods in Hangzhou were selected from three types of administrative planning units. A pair of auditors independently assessed all of the 205 street segments at the same time. Half of the segments (n = 104) were audited twice by the same auditor after a two-week time interval. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing the audits of paired observers, while intra-rater reliability was evaluated by comparing an auditor’s repeated assessments of the same segments. The construct validity was tested using factor analysis.
The inter-rater reliability for most items was above 0.8. The intra-rater reliability for most items was above 0.4, and was lower than corresponding inter-rater reliability. Six factors were extracted by factor analysis and the factor loading matrix showed good construct validity.
The CUBEST is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to assess the physical activity-related built environment in Hangzhou, and potentially other cities in China.
Environmental scan; Physical activity; Reliability; Validity
Repeated administration of antipsychotic drugs induces a sensitization-like or tolerance-like effect in many behavioral tasks, including the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and the phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion, two rodent models with high predictive validity for antipsychotic activity. This study investigated the impacts of contextual and behavioral variables on the expression of clozapine tolerance using a recently validated across-model transfer paradigm (Zhang and Li, 2012). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly treated with clozapine (2.5–10.0 mg/kg, sc) in the CAR model or PCP (1.6 mg/kg, sc)-induced hyperlocomotion model for five consecutive days. They were then tested for the expression of clozapine tolerance in another model for another five days. Finally, all rats were switched back to the original model and tested again for the expression of clozapine tolerance. When tested in the PCP model, rats previously treated with clozapine in the CAR model did not show an immediate weaker inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion than those treated with clozapine for the first time, but showed a significantly weaker inhibition over time. In contrast, when tested in the CAR model, rats previously treated with clozapine in the PCP model showed an immediate weaker disruption of avoidance response than those treated with clozapine for the first time, but this weaker effect diminished over time. These results suggest that the expression of clozapine tolerance is strongly modulated by the test environment and/or selected behavioral response. Clozapine tolerance and its situational specificity may be related to the drug’s low extrapyramidal motor side effect, its superior therapeutic efficacy and/or emergence of clozapine withdrawal syndrome.
Clozapine; Conditioned avoidance response; Phencyclidine; Motor activity; Tolerance; Contextual control
Disruption of conditioned avoidance response (CAR) in rodents is one trademark feature of many antipsychotic drugs. In adult rats, repeated olanzapine (OLZ) treatment causes an enhanced disruption of avoidance response (sensitization), whereas repeated clozapine (CLZ) treatment causes a decreased disruption (tolerance). The present study addressed (1) whether OLZ sensitization and CLZ tolerance can be induced in adolescent rats, and (2) the extent to which OLZ sensitization and CLZ tolerance induced in adolescence persists into adulthood. Male adolescent Sprague–Dawley rats (approximate postnatal days (∼P) 43–47) were first treated with OLZ (1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously (sc)) or CLZ (10 or 20 mg/kg, sc) daily for 5 consecutive days in the CAR model. They were then tested for the expression of OLZ sensitization or CLZ tolerance either in adolescence (∼P 50) or after they matured into adults (∼P 76 and 92) in a challenge test during which all rats were injected with either a lower dose of OLZ (0.5 mg/kg) or CLZ (5.0 mg/kg). When tested in adolescence, rats previously treated with OLZ showed a stronger inhibition of CAR than those previously treated with vehicle (ie, sensitization). In contrast, rats previously treated with CLZ showed a weaker inhibition of CAR than those previously treated with vehicle (ie, tolerance). When tested in adulthood, the OLZ sensitization was still detectable at both time points (∼P 76 and 92), whereas the CLZ tolerance was only detectable on ∼P 76, and only manifested in the intertrial crossing. Performance in the prepulse inhibition and fear-induced 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in adulthood were not altered by adolescence drug treatment. Collectively, these findings suggest that atypical antipsychotic treatment during adolescence can induce a long-term specific alteration in antipsychotic effect that persists into adulthood despite the brain maturation. As antipsychotic drugs are being increasingly used in children and adolescents in the past two decades, findings from this study are important for understanding the impacts of adolescent antipsychotic treatment on the brain and behavioral developments. This work also has implications for clinical practice involving adolescence antipsychotic treatments in terms of drug choice, drug dose, and schedule.
adolescence antipsychotic treatment; conditioned avoidance response; prepulse inhibition; 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalization; sensitization; tolerance; 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalization; Adolescence drug treatment; Animal models; Conditioned avoidance response; Plasticity; Prepulse inhibition; Psychopharmacology; Schizophrenia / Antipsychotics; Sensitization
The purpose of this study was to synthesize and evaluate hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives as an efficient nonviral gene-delivery vector.
A series of hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives conjugated with 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine (DMAPA-Glyp) and 1-(2-aminoethyl) piperazine (AEPZ-Glyp) residues were synthesized and characterized by Fourier-transform infrared and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Their buffer capacity was assessed by acid–base titration in aqueous NaCl solution. Plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (pDNA) condensation ability and protection against DNase I degradation of the glycogen derivatives were assessed using agarose gel electrophoresis. The zeta potentials and particle sizes of the glycogen derivative/pDNA complexes were measured, and the images of the complexes were observed using atomic force microscopy. Blood compatibility and cytotoxicity were evaluated by hemolysis assay and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, respectively. pDNA transfection efficiency mediated by the cationic glycogen derivatives was evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy in the 293T (human embryonic kidney) and the CNE2 (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cell lines. In vivo delivery of pDNA in model animals (Sprague Dawley rats) was evaluated to identify the safety and transfection efficiency.
The hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives conjugated with DMAPA and AEPZ residues were synthesized. They exhibited better blood compatibility and lower cytotoxicity when compared to branched polyethyleneimine (bPEI). They were able to bind and condense pDNA to form the complexes of 100–250 nm in size. The transfection efficiency of the DMAPA-Glyp/pDNA complexes was higher than those of the AEPZ-Glyp/pDNA complexes in both the 293T and CNE2 cells, and almost equal to those of bPEI. Furthermore, pDNA could be more safely delivered to the blood vessels in brain tissue of Sprague Dawley rats by the DMAPA-Glyp derivatives, and then expressed as green fluorescence protein, compared with the control group.
The hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives, especially the DMAPA-Glyp derivatives, showed high gene-transfection efficiency, good blood compatibility, and low cyto toxicity when transfected in vitro and in vivo, which are novel potential nonviral gene vectors.
glycogen; blood compatibility; cytotoxicity; gene delivery
Background and Objective
Evidence has shown that matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP3) is important for cancer progression. Recent studies about the association between the -1171(5A>6A) polymorphism in MMP3 promoter region and cancer risk have yielded conflicting results.
We performed a meta-analysis of 41 studies including 11112 cases and 11091 controls to determine whether the -1171(5A>6A) polymorphism of MMP3 was associated with cancer risk. We assessed the strength of association and performed sub-group analyses by cancer types, ethnicity, smoking status, genotyping method, source of controls and sample size. The pooled results revealed that no significant association of the -1171(5A>6A) polymorphism with overall cancer risk in any of four models. Further sub-group analysis revealed that individuals with the 6A allele had lower risk of gastrointestinal cancer in two models: heterozygote comparison (6A/5A vs. 5A/5A: OR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.60—0.91; I2 = 1.9%), and dominant model (6A/6A+6A/5A vs. 5A/5A: OR = 0.77, 95%CI: 0.64—0.94; I2 = 29.0%). Additionally, the associations were significant in Asian populations for three models: homozygote comparison (6A/6A vs. 5A/5A, OR = 0.68, 95%CI: 0.52—0.90; I2 = 26.7%), heterozygote comparison (6A/5A vs. 5A/5A: OR = 0.75, 95%CI: 0.58—0.98; I2 = 0.0%), and dominant model (6A/6A+6A/5A vs. 5A/5A: OR = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.54—0.88; I2 = 0.5%). It was noteworthy that we had a contrary finding in non-smokers: the variant 6A/6A homozygote might statistically increase cancer risk compared with 6A/5A+5A/5A genotype (OR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.25—2.96; I2 = 72.7%).
This meta-analysis suggests that the -1171(5A>6A) polymorphism in MMP3 promoter region is not associated with overall cancer risk, but it may contribute to decreased cancer risk in Asian population when compared with Caucasian population and significantly reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancer.
Protein Kinases are key regulators of cell function and play essential roles in the occurrence and development of many human diseases. Many kinase inhibitors have been used for molecular targeted treatment of those diseases such as cancer and inflammation. However, those highly hydrophobic kinase inhibitors shared the common features of poor bioavailability and limited in vivo half-life, which strongly impeded their practical applications. Our previous study demonstrated that microbial synthesized biodegradable polyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), a member of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) family, could serve as a promising delivery nanocarrier for those hydrophobic kinase inhibitors. Recently, a novel natural synthesized hybrid copolymer, PEG200 end-capped PHBHHx (PHBHHxPEG) was produced by Aeromonas hydrophila fermentation. In this study, the novel PHBHHxPEG NPs were prepared and investigated to serve as intracellular delivery nanocarriers for sustained release of hydrophobic kinase inhibitors.
PHBHHxPEG nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by an emulsification–solvent evaporation method were spherical with a diameter around 200 nm. The entrapment efficiency on rapamycin in PHBHHxPEG NPs was 91.9% and the sustained release of rapamycin from PHBHHxPEG NPs could be achieved for almost 10 days. The cellular uptake of PHBHHxPEG NPs was significant higher than that of PHBHHx NPs. The anti-proliferation effect and mTOR inhibition ability of rapamycin-loaded PHBHHxPEG NPs was stronger than that of drug-loaded PHBHHx NPs and free rapamycin.
PHBHHxPEG NPs could achieve the efficient entrapment and sustained release of rapamycin. The novel biodegradable PHBHHxPEG appeared a promising nanocarrier for sustained delivery of hydrophobic kinase inhibitors with improved cellular uptake and kinase inhibition efficiency.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate; PEG; Rapamycin; Nanoparticle; Drug delivery
To explore whether hypoxia and interleukin 8 (IL-8) regulate the viability and apoptosis of cervical carcinomas cells and the possible mechanism. We evaluated the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), IL-8 and its receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) in cervical cancer and cervicitis tissues by immunohistochemistry. Then the effects of hypoxia and IL-8 on the viability and apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cells were detected by the SRB and apoptosis assays. Here we observed that the expression of HIF-1α, IL-8 and CXCR1 in cervical cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in cervicitis tissues. Hypoxic condition stimulated the secretion of IL-8 and the expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 on HeLa and SiHa cells. Recombinant human IL-8 enhanced the viability and reduced the apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cells. HeLa and SiHa cells cultured in 1% oxygen showed the increased viability and apoptosis, and the former effect could be partly reversed by anti-human IL-8 neutralizing antibody. This data suggested that IL-8 secreted by cervical carcinomas cells induced by hypoxia can stimulate the viability of cervical carcinomas cells in an autocrine dependent manner, and contribute to the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.
Hypoxia; IL-8; cervical carcer cells; viabilty; apoptosis
There is still some controversy regarding the optimal biomechanical concept for spinopelvic stabilization following total sacrectomy for malignancy. Strains at specific anatomical sites at pelvis/sacrum and implants interfaces have been poorly investigated. Herein, we compared and analyzed the strains applied at key points at the bone-implant interface in four different spinopelvic constructs following total sacrectomy; consequently, we defined a balanced architecture for spinopelvic fusion in that situation.
Six human cadaveric specimens, from second lumbar vertebra to proximal femur, were used to compare the partial strains at specific sites in a total sacrectomy model. Test constructs included: (1) intact pelvis (control), (2) sacral-rod reconstruction (SRR), (3) bilateral fibular flap reconstruction (BFFR), (4) four-rods reconstruction (FRR), and (5) improved compound reconstruction (ICR). Strains were measured by bonded strain gauges onto the surface of three specific sites (pubic rami, arcuate lines, and posterior spinal rods) under a 500 N axial load.
ICR caused lower strains at specific sites and, moreover, on stress distribution and symmetry, compared to the other three constructs. Strains at pubic rami and arcuate lines following BFFR were lower than those following SRR, but higher at the posterior spinal rod construct. The different modes of strain distribution reflected different patient’s parameter-related conditions. FRR model showed the highest strains at all sites because of the lack of an anterior bracing frame.
The findings of this investigation suggest that both anterior bracing frame and the four-rods load dispersion provide significant load sharing. Additionally, these two constructs decrease the peak strains at bone-implant interface, thus determining the theoretical surgical technique to achieve optimal stress dispersion and balance for spinopelvic reconstruction in early postoperative period following total sacrectomy.
Compound Danshen Tablet (CDT), a Traditional Chinese Medicine, has recently been reported to improve spatial cognition in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. However, in vivo neuroprotective mechanism of the CDT in models of spatial memory impairment is not yet evaluated. The present study is aimed to elucidate the cellular mechanism of CDT on Aβ25-35-induced cognitive impairment in mice.
Mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: the control group (sham operated), the Aβ25-35 treated group, the positive drug group, and large and small dosage of the CDT groups, respectively. CDT was administered at a dose of 0.81 g/kg and 0.405 g/kg for 3 weeks. The mice in the positive drug group were treated with 0.4 mg/kg of Huperzine A, whereas the mice of the control and Aβ25-35 treated groups were administrated orally with equivalent saline. After 7 days of preventive treatment, mice were subjected to lateral ventricle injection of Aβ25-35 to establish the mice model of Alzheimer’s disease. Spatial memory impairment was evaluated by Morris water maze test. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) contents in hippocampus and cortex were quantified by ELISA. The levels of cytokines, receptor of activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA.
The results showed that Aβ25-35 caused spatial memory impairment as demonstrated by performance in the Morris water maze test. CDT was able to confer a significant improvement in spatial memory, and protect mice from Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, CDT also inhibited the increase of TNF-α and IL-6 level, and increased the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), receptor of activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in brain as compared to model mice.
These findings strongly implicate that CDT may be a useful treatment against learning and memory deficits in mice by rescuing imbalance between cytokines and neurotrophins.
Compound danshen tablet; Spatial memory impairment; ChAT; RACK1; BDNF
This study aims to introduce the diagnosis and surgical treatment of the rare disease multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A).
Thirteen cases of MEN 2A were diagnosed as medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and pheochromocytoma by biochemical tests and imaging examination. They were treated by bilateral adrenal tumor excision or laparoscopic surgery.
Nine patients were treated by bilateral adrenal tumor excision and the remaining four were treated by laparoscopic surgery for pheochromocytoma. Ten patients were treated by total thyroidectomy and bilateral lymph nodes dissection and the remaining three were treated by unilateral thyroidectomy for MTC. Up to now, three patients have died of MTC distant metastasis.
We confirmed that MEN 2A can be diagnosed by biochemical tests and imaging examination when genetic testing is not available. Surgical excision is the predominant way to treat MEN 2A; pheochromocytoma should be excised at first when pheochromocytoma and MTC occur simultaneously.
Diagnosis; Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A; Surgical excision; Treatment
We present an all-fiber-optic scanning multiphoton endomicroscope with 1.55 μm excitation without the need for prechirping femtosecond pulses before the endomicroscope. The system consists of a 1.55 μm femtosecond fiber laser, a customized double-clad fiber for light delivery and fluorescence collection, and a piezoelectric scan head. We demonstrate two-photon imaging of cultured cells and mouse tissue, both labeled with indocyanine green. Free-space multiphoton imaging with near-IR emission has previously shown benefits in reduced background fluorescence and lower attenuation for the fluorescence emission. For fiber-optic multiphoton imaging there is the additional advantage of using the soliton effect at the telecommunication wavelengths (1.3–1.6 μm) in fibers, permitting dispersion-compensation-free, small-footprint systems. We expect these advantages will help transition multiphoton endomicroscopy to the clinic.
We report an all-fiber-optic scanning, multimodal endomicroscope capable of simultaneous optical coherence to-mography (OCT) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging. Both imaging modalities share the same miniature fiber-optic scanning endomicroscope, which consists of a double-clad fiber with a core operating in single mode at both the OCT (1310 nm) and two-photon excitation (1550 nm) wavelengths, a piezoelectric two-dimensional fiber-optic beam scanner, and a miniature aspherical compound lens suitable for simultaneous acquisition of en face OCT and TPF images. A fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer was employed in the integrated platform to combine the low coherence OCT light source and the femtosecond two-photon excitation laser into the same optical path. Preliminary imaging results of cell cultures and mouse tissue ex vivo demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous real-time OCT and TPF imaging in a scanning endomicroscopy setting for the first time.
Hypothesis that loss of integrity of the membranes in the craniocervical junction might be the cause of neck pain in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) has been proposed. In recent years, with development of more detailed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, morphologic changes of the ligaments and membranes in the craniocervical junction, especially alar and transverse ligaments have been discussed. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of MRI signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments and WADs.
A systematic search of EMBASE, PUBMED, and Cochrane Library and references from eligible articles were conducted. Comparative studies reporting on evaluating the relationship between MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments and WADs were regarded eligible. A pooled estimate of effect size was produced.
Alar ligaments: Six studies (total n = 622) were included. MRI signal changes of alar ligaments did not appear to be related with WADs (P = 0.20, OR = 1.54, 95 % CI = 0.80–2.94). Heterogeneity was present (I2 = 46 %, P = 0.10), which was eliminated upon sensitivity analysis bringing the OR to 1.27 (95 % CI = 0.87–1.86, I2 = 0 %). Transverse ligaments: Four studies (total n = 489) were included. MRI signal changes of transverse ligament did not appear to be related with WADs (P = 0.51, OR = 1.44, 95 % CI = 0.49–4.21). Heterogeneity was present (I2 = 77 %, P = 0.005), which was eliminated upon sensitivity analysis bringing the OR to 0.79 (95 % CI = 0.49–1.28, I2 = 0 %).
MRI signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments are not supposed to be caused by whiplash injury, and MRI examination of alar and transverse ligaments should not be used as the routine workup of patients with WADs.
Magnetic resonance imaging; Alar ligaments; Transverse ligament; Craniocervical junction; Whiplash-associated disorders
Antipsychotic drugs suppress animals’ ability to avoid an aversive stimulus in the conditioned avoidance response model (CAR). This behavioral effect is thought to reflect antipsychotic activity and is suggested to be mediated by a drug’s action in attenuating the motivational salience of a conditioned stimulus (CS). In the present study, we tested whether atypical antipsychotic drugs clozapine and olanzapine act through this behavioral mechanism by manipulating the number of avoidance test trials. We reasoned that more CS trials in the present of clozapine or olanzapine would afford the drug more opportunities to decrease the motivational salience of the CS, thus avoidance decline would be greater with the increase of CS trials in each test session. In two separate experiments, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested under clozapine (5.0 mg/kg, sc), olanzapine (0.5 mg/kg, sc) or vehicle (sterile water) for 6 consecutive days in three CS trial conditions (i.e. 3, 10, and 40 CS trials per session). Two days later, all rats were tested under the same 40-trial session after receiving clozapine (5.0 mg/kg, sc) or olanzapine (0.5 mg/kg, sc). Results show that repeated clozapine and olanzapine treatment persistently decreased avoidance response, and this effect was potentiated by the increase of number of CS trials in the test sessions, as the clozapine-treated or olanzapine-treated rats tested under the 40-trial or 10-trial condition had significantly lower avoidance and faster decline across-sessions than those tested under the 3-trial condition. This potentiated effect was not only seen in the total avoidance percentage, but also observed in the within-session decline pattern in the last three drug test sessions and in the final 40-trial test session. These findings suggest that the clinical efficacy of a drug can be enhanced by increasing the exposure of symptoms in the presence of the drug.
Clozapine; Olanzapine; Conditioned avoidance response; Motivational salience; Within-session decline
In 1979, approximately 2,000 people in central Taiwan were accidentally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans due to ingestion of contaminated cooking oil. This event was called Yucheng, “oil-syndrome” in Chinese. We followed the exposed persons and compared their cause-specific mortality with that of neighborhood referents 30 years after the accident.
We obtained age- and gender-matched referents from the 1979 neighborhoods of the exposed people. Cause-specific mortality was compared between exposed subjects (N=1803) and their neighborhood referents (N=5170) using standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Total person-years for the Yucheng subjects and neighborhood referents were 48,751 and 141,774, respectively.
The SMR for all causes (SMR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.3), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.0–1.6), and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (SMR=6.4, 95% CI: 2.8–12.7) were elevated in Yucheng subjects. Among Yucheng males, the SMRs for diseases of the digestive system (SMR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–2.8), malignant neoplasm of stomach (SMR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.5–7.0), and malignant neoplasm of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue (SMR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.1–6.6) were increased. The SMR for total neoplasms was increased (SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 0.9–1.7).
We conclude that exposure to PCBs/PCDFs at levels that produced symptoms in many affects mortality patterns 3 decades after exposure.
Yucheng; dioxin; polychlorinated biphenyls; polychlorinated dibenzofurans; standardized mortality ratio
We report the synthesis of Fe(TalkylP)(OClO3)] (alkyl = ethyl and propyl) and [Fe(TPrP)(THF)2]ClO4, which are characterized by UV-vis, EPR, X-ray crystallography, and solid-state magnetic susceptibilities. The macrocycles of all three complexes are ruffled, all of the structural features for [Fe(TEtP(OClO3)] and [Fe(TPrP)(OClO3)] are characteristic of the nearly pure S = 3/2 state, while the structural parameters for [Fe(TPrP)(THF)2]ClO4 feature a pure intermediate-spin (S = 3/2) state, which are all consistent with EPR and magnetic data. It is clear from these studies that the ruffled conformation plays a significant role in affecting the extent of S = 3/2 character.
APOBEC3G (A3G) is a single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminase that functions in innate immunity against retroviruses and retrotransposons. Although A3G can potently restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1 replication by catalyzing excessive levels of G-to-A hypermutation, sublethal levels of A3G-catalyzed mutation may contribute to the high level of HIV-1 fitness and its incurable prognosis. To chemically modulate A3G catalytic activity with the goal of reducing the HIV-1 genomic mutation rate, we synthesized and biochemically evaluated a class of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol small molecule inhibitors that were identified by high-throughput screening. This class of compounds exhibits low micromolar (3.9 – 8.2 µm) inhibitory potency and remarkable specificity for A3G versus related deaminase APOBEC3A. Chemical modifications to inhibitors, A3G mutational screening, and thiol reactivity studies implicate C321, a residue proximal to the active site, as the critical A3G target for this class of molecules.
Drug Discovery; APOBEC3G; Heterocycles; Hypomutation; Antiviral Agents
Numerous recent studies suggest that abnormal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a common defect in diabetic animal models and patients. Abnormal calcium handling is an important mechanism in the defective pancreatic β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. T-type Ca2+ channel antagonists lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism remains unknown.
We examined the effect of the Ca2+ channel antagonist mibefradil on blood glucose in male db/db mice and phenotypically normal heterozygous mice by intraperitoneal injection.
Mibefradil (15 mg/kg, i.p., b.i.d.) caused a profound reduction of fasting blood glucose from 430.92±20.46 mg/dl to 285.20±5.74 mg/dl in three days. The hypoglycemic effect of mibefradil was reproduced by NNC 55-0396, a compound structurally similar to mibefradil but more selective for T-type Ca2+ channels, but not by the specific L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nicardipine. Mibefradil did not show such hypoglycemic effects in heterozygous animals. In addition, triglycerides, basal insulin and food intake were significantly decreased by mibefradil treatment in the db/db mice but not in the controls. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining showed a significantly increased expression of T-type Ca2+ channel α-subunits Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 in liver and brain tissues from db/db mice compared to those from heterozygous animals.
Collectively, these results suggest that T-type Ca2+ channels are potential therapeutic targets for antidiabetic drugs.
Diabetes Mellitus; Hypoglycemic Effect; Insulin; Food Intake; T-type Ca2+ Channel Antagonist
The aim of this study is to explore the localization of human mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord matrix (hMSCs-UC) and the role of these cells in the repair of foot ulcerate tissue in diabetic foot ulcers in rats. A diabetic rat model was established by administering Streptozotocin. Diabetic foot ulceration was defined as non-healing or delayed-healing of empyrosis on the dorsal hind foot after 14 weeks. hMSCs-UC were delivered through the left femoral artery. We evaluated the localization of hMSCs-UC and their role in tissue repair in diabetic foot ulcers by histological analysis, PCR, and immunohistochemical staining. A model for diabetes was established in 54 out of 60 rats (90% success rate) and 27 of these rats were treated with hMSCs-UC. The area of ulceration was significantly and progressively reduced at 7 and 14 days following treatment with hMSCs-UC. This gross observation was strongly supported by the histological changes, including newly developed blood vessels and proliferation of inflammatory cells at 3 days post-treatment, significant increase in granulation tissue at 7 days post-treatment and squamous epithelium or stratified squamous epithelium at 14 days post-treatment. Importantly, human leukocyte antigen type-I (HLA-1) was confirmed in ulcerated tissue by RT-PCR. The expression of cytokeratin 19 was significantly increased in diabetic model rats, with no detectable change in cytokeratin 10. Additionally, both collagens I and III increased in model rats treated with hMSCs-UC, but the ratio of collagen I/III was less significant in treated rats compared with control rats. These results suggest that hMSCs-UC specifically localize to the target ulcerated tissue and may promote the epithelialization of ulcerated tissue by stimulating the release of cytokeratin 19 from keratinocytes and extracellular matrix formation.
human mesenchymal stem cell from umbilical cord matrix; human leukocyte antigen; diabetic foot; tissue repair
The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of 252 accessions from 21 Prunus sibirica L. populations were investigated using 10 ISSR, SSR, and SRAP markers. The results suggest that the entire population has a relatively high level of genetic diversity, with populations HR and MY showing very high diversity. A low level of inter-population genetic differentiation and a high level of intra-population genetic differentiation was found, which is supported by a moderate level of gene flow, and largely attributable to the cross-pollination and self-incompatibility reproductive system. A STRUCTURE (model-based program) analysis revealed that the 21 populations can be divided into two main groups, mainly based on geographic differences and genetic exchanges. The entire wild Siberia apricot population in China could be divided into two subgroups, including 107 accessions in subgroup (SG) 1 and 147 accessions in SG 2. A Mantel test revealed a significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distance matrices, and there was a very significant positive correlation among three marker datasets. Overall, we recommend a combination of conservation measures, with ex situ and in situ conservation that includes the construction of a core germplasm repository and the implement of in situ conservation for populations HR, MY, and ZY.
genetic diversity; population structure; Prunus sibirica; Siberian apricot
Background: Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) acts as a promoter of tumor metastasis; however, the predictive value of MACC1 for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation (LT) remains unclear.
Methods: We examined the expression of MACC1 and its target genes MET and FAK by quantitative PCR in 160 patients with HCC that was undergone LT.
Results: The patients with MACC1high or FAKhigh in HCCs showed a significantly shorter overall survival and higher cumulative recurrence rates after liver transplantation (LT), compared with MACC1low or FAKlow group. Multivariate analysis indicated that MACC1 alone or combination of MACC1/FAK was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and cumulative recurrence.
Conclusions: MACC1 or combination of MACC1/FAK could serve as a novel biomarker in predicting the prognosis of HCC after LT.
hepatocellular carcinoma; metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1; metastasis; prognosis; liver transplantation
Increasing evidence suggests that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in tumorigenesis. The interaction between Angiotensin II (AngII) and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) may have a pivotal role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and therefore, AT1R blocker and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of hepatic cancer. Although the involvement of AT1R has been well explored, the role of the angiotensin II Type 2 receptor (AT2R) in HCC progression remains poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the effects of AT2R overexpression on HCC cells in vitro and in mouse models of human HCC. An AT2R recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad-G-AT2R-EGFP) was transduced into HCC cell lines and orthotopic tumor grafts. The results indicate that the high dose of Ad-G-AT2R-EGFP–induced overexpression of AT2R in transduced HCC cell lines produced apoptosis. AT2R overexpression in SMMC7721 cells inhibited cell proliferation with a significant reduction of S-phase cells and an enrichment of G1-phase cells through changing expression of CDK4 and cyclinD1. The data also indicate that overexpression of AT2R led to apoptosis via cell death signaling pathway that is dependent on activation of p38 MAPK, pJNK, caspase-8 and caspase-3 and inactivation of pp42/44 MAPK (Erk1/2). Finally, we demonstrated that moderately increasing AT2R expression could increase the growth of HCC tumors and the proliferation of HCC cells in vivo. Our findings suggest that AT2R overexpression regulates proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and the precise mechanisms of this phenomenon are yet to be fully determined.