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author:("Harper, carya")
1.  Regionally Selective Atrophy after Traumatic Axonal Injury 
Archives of neurology  2010;67(11):1336-1344.
Objectives
To determine the spatial distribution of cortical and subcortical volume loss in patients with diffuse traumatic axonal injury and to assess the relationship between regional atrophy and functional outcome.
Design
Prospective imaging study. Longitudinal changes in global and regional brain volumes were assessed using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based morphometric analysis.
Setting
Inpatient traumatic brain injury unit
Patients or Other Participants
Twenty-five patients with diffuse traumatic axonal injury and 22 age- and sex-matched controls.
Main Outcome Measure
Changes in global and regional brain volumes between initial and follow-up MRI were used to assess the spatial distribution of post-traumatic volume loss. The Glasgow Outcome Scale – Extended was the primary measure of functional outcome.
Results
Patients underwent substantial global atrophy with mean brain parenchymal volume loss of 4.5% (95% Confidence Interval: 2.7 – 6.3%). Decreases in volume (at a false discovery rate of 0.05) were seen in several brain regions including the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, corpus callosum, putamen, precuneus, postcentral gyrus, paracentral lobule, and parietal and frontal cortices, while other regions such as the caudate and inferior temporal cortex were relatively resistant to atrophy. Loss of whole brain parenchymal volume was predictive of long-term disability, as was atrophy of particular brain regions including the inferior parietal cortex, pars orbitalis, pericalcarine cortex, and supramarginal gyrus.
Conclusion
Traumatic axonal injury leads to substantial post-traumatic atrophy that is regionally selective rather than diffuse, and volume loss in certain regions may have prognostic value for functional recovery.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.149
PMCID: PMC3465162  PMID: 20625067
3.  Assessing Spatial Relationships between Axonal Integrity, Regional Brain Volumes, and Neuropsychological Outcomes after Traumatic Axonal Injury 
Journal of Neurotrauma  2010;27(12):2121-2130.
Abstract
Diffuse traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) characterized predominantly by white matter damage. While TAI is associated with cerebral atrophy, the relationship between gray matter volumes and TAI of afferent or efferent axonal pathways remains unknown. Moreover, it is unclear if deficits in cognition are associated with post-traumatic brain volumes in particular regions. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between markers of TAI and volumes of cortical and subcortical structures, while also assessing the relationship between cognitive outcomes and regional brain volumes. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed in 24 patients with TAI within 1 week of injury and were repeated 8 months later. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was used to reconstruct prominent white matter tracts and calculate their fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values. Regional brain volumes were computed using semi-automated morphometric analysis. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to assess associations between brain volumes, white matter integrity (i.e., FA and MD), and neuropsychological outcomes. Post-traumatic volumes of many gray matter structures were associated with chronic damage to related white matter tracts, and less strongly associated with measures of white matter integrity in the acute scans. For example, left and right hippocampal volumes correlated with FA in the fornix body (r = 0.600, p = 0.001; r = 0.714, p < 0.001, respectively). In addition, regional brain volumes were associated with deficits in corresponding neuropsychological domains. Our results suggest that TAI may be a primary mechanism of post-traumatic atrophy, and provide support for regional morphometry as a biomarker for cognitive outcome after injury.
doi:10.1089/neu.2010.1429
PMCID: PMC2996819  PMID: 20874032
atrophy; diffuse axonal injury; diffusion tensor imaging; traumatic brain injury; volumetric magnetic resonance imaging
4.  Diffusion Tensor Imaging Biomarkers for Traumatic Axonal Injury: Analysis of Three Analytic Methods 
Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a common mechanism of traumatic brain injury not readily identified using conventional neuroimaging modalities. Novel imaging modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can detect microstructural compromise in white matter (WM) in various clinical populations including TAI. DTI-derived data can be analyzed using global methods (i.e., WM histogram or voxel based approaches) or a regional approach (i.e., tractography). While each of these methods produce qualitatively comparable results, it is not clear which is most useful in clinical research and ultimately in clinical practice. This study compared three methods of analyzing DTI-derived data with regard to detection of WM injury and their association with clinical outcomes. Thirty patients with TAI and 19 demographically similar normal controls were scanned using a 3T magnet. Patients were scanned approximately eight months post-injury, and underwent an outcomes assessment at that time. Histogram analysis of FA and MD showed global WM integrity differences between patients and controls. Voxel-based and tractography analyses showed significant decreases in FA within centroaxial structures involved in TAI. All three techniques were associated with functional and cognitive outcomes. DTI measures of microstructural integrity appear robust, as the three analysis techniques studied showed adequate utility for detecting WM injury.
doi:10.1017/S1355617710001189
PMCID: PMC3097093  PMID: 21070694
DTI; DAI; Traumatic Brain Injury; memory; Tractography; cognitive outcomes
5.  Cerebral Atrophy after Traumatic White Matter Injury: Correlation with Acute Neuroimaging and Outcome 
Journal of Neurotrauma  2008;25(12):1433-1440.
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a pathologically heterogeneous disease, including injury to both neuronal cell bodies and axonal processes. Global atrophy of both gray and white matter is common after TBI. This study was designed to determine the relationship between neuroimaging markers of acute diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and cerebral atrophy months later. We performed high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla (T) in 20 patients who suffered non-penetrating TBI, during the acute (within 1 month after the injury) and chronic stage (at least 6 months after the injury). Volume of abnormal fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) signal seen in white matter in both acute and follow-up scans was quantified. White and gray matter volumes were also quantified. Functional outcome was measured using the Functional Status Examination (FSE) at the time of the chronic scan. Change in brain volumes, including whole brain volume (WBV), white matter volume (WMV), and gray matter volume (GMV), correlates significantly with acute DAI volume (r = −0.69, −0.59, −0.58, respectively; p < 0.01 for all). Volume of acute FLAIR hyperintensities correlates with volume of decreased FLAIR signal in the follow-up scans (r = −0.86, p < 0.001). FSE performance correlates with acute hyperintensity volume and chronic cerebral atrophy (r = 0.53, p = 0.02; r = −0.45, p = 0.03, respectively). Acute axonal lesions measured by FLAIR imaging are strongly predictive of post-traumatic cerebral atrophy. Our findings suggest that axonal pathology measured as white matter lesions following TBI can be identified using MRI, and may be a useful measure for DAI-directed therapies.
doi:10.1089/neu.2008.0683
PMCID: PMC2858299  PMID: 19072588
MR imaging; post-traumatic atrophy; TBI
6.  Development and Evaluation of a Study Design Typology for Human Research 
A systematic classification of study designs would be useful for researchers, systematic reviewers, readers, and research administrators, among others. As part of the Human Studies Database Project, we developed the Study Design Typology to standardize the classification of study designs in human research. We then performed a multiple observer masked evaluation of active research protocols in four institutions according to a standardized protocol. Thirty-five protocols were classified by three reviewers each into one of nine high-level study designs for interventional and observational research (e.g., N-of-1, Parallel Group, Case Crossover). Rater classification agreement was moderately high for the 35 protocols (Fleiss’ kappa = 0.442) and higher still for the 23 quantitative studies (Fleiss’ kappa = 0.463). We conclude that our typology shows initial promise for reliably distinguishing study design types for quantitative human research.
PMCID: PMC2815479  PMID: 20351827
7.  Impact of Age on Long-term Recovery From Traumatic Brain Injury 
Objective
To determine whether older persons are at increased risk for progressive functional decline after traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Design
Longitudinal cohort study.
Setting
Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) rehabilitation centers.
Participants
Subjects enrolled in the TBIMS national dataset.
Interventions
Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures
Disability Rating Scale (DRS), FIM instrument cognitive items, and the Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended.
Results
Participants were separated into 3 age tertiles: youngest (16–26y), intermediate (27–39y), and oldest (≥40y). DRS scores were comparable across age groups at admission to a rehabilitation center. The oldest group was slightly more disabled at discharge from rehabilitation despite having less severe acute injury severity than the younger groups. While DRS scores for the 2 younger groups improved significantly from year 1 to year 5, the greatest magnitude of improvement in disability was seen among the youngest group. Additionally, after dividing patients into groups according to whether their DRS scores improved (13%), declined (10%), or remained stable (77%) over time, the likelihood of decline was found to be greater for the 2 older groups than for the youngest group. A multiple regression model demonstrated that age has a significant negative influence on DRS score 5 years post-TBI after accounting for the effects of covariates.
Conclusions
This study supported our primary hypothesis that older patients show greater decline over the first 5 years after TBI than younger patients. Additionally, the greatest amount of improvement in disability was observed among the youngest group of survivors. These results suggest TBI survivors, especially older patients, may be candidates for neuroprotective therapies after TBI.
doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2007.12.030
PMCID: PMC2600417  PMID: 18452739
Brain injuries; Disabled persons; Rehabilitation

Results 1-7 (7)