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1.  The p.A382T TARDBP gene mutation in Sardinian patients affected by Parkinson’s disease and other degenerative parkinsonisms 
Neurogenetics  2013;14(2):161-166.
Background
Based on our previous finding of the p.A382T founder mutation in ALS patients with concomitant parkinsonism in the Sardinian population, we hypothesized that the same variant may underlie PD and/or other forms of degenerative parkinsonism on this Mediterranean island.
Design
We screened a cohort of 611 patients with PD (544 cases) and other forms of degenerative parkinsonism (67 cases), and 604 unrelated controls for the c.1144G>A (p.A382T) missense mutation of the TARDBP gene.
Results
The p.A382T mutation was identified in 9 patients with parkinsonism. Of these, 5 (0.9% of PD patients) presented a typical PD (2 with familiar forms), while 4 patients (6.0% of all other forms of parkinsonism) presented a peculiar clinical presentation quite different from classical atypical parkinsonism with an overlap of extrapyramidal-pyramidal-cognitive clinical signs. The mutation was found in 8 Sardinian controls (1.3%) consistent with a founder mutation in the island population.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that the clinical presentation of the p.A382T TARDBP gene mutation may include forms of parkinsonism in which the extrapyramidal signs are the crucial core of the disease at onset. These forms can present PSP or CBD-like clinical signs, with bulbar and/or extrabulbar pyramidal signs and cognitive impairment. No evidence of association has been found between TARDBP gene mutation and typical PD.
doi:10.1007/s10048-013-0360-2
PMCID: PMC3661017  PMID: 23546887
TARDBP gene mutation; degenerative parkinsonism; TDP-43 Proteinopathies; Sardinia
2.  Large proportion of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases in Sardinia are due to a single founder mutation of the TARDBP gene 
Archives of neurology  2011;68(5):594-598.
Objective
To perform an extensive screening for mutations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)–related genes in a consecutive cohort of Sardinian patients, a genetic isolate phylogenically distinct from other European populations.
Design
Population-based, prospective cohort study.
Patients
A total of 135 Sardinian patients with ALS and 156 healthy control subjects of Sardinian origin who were age- and sex-matched to patients.
Intervention
Patients underwent mutational analysis for SOD1, FUS, and TARDBP.
Results
Mutational screening of the entire cohort found that 39 patients (28.7%) carried the c.1144G A (p.A382T) missense mutation of the TARDBP gene. Of these, 15 had familial ALS (belonging to 10 distinct pedigrees) and 24 had apparently sporadic ALS. None of the 156 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls carried the pathogenic variant. Genotype data obtained for 5 ALS cases carrying the p.A382T mutation found that they shared a 94–single-nucleotide polymorphism risk haplotype that spanned 663 Kb across the TARDBP locus on chromosome 1p36.22. Three patients with ALS who carry the p.A382T mutation developed extrapyramidal symptoms several years after their initial presentation with motor weakness.
Conclusions
The TARDBP p.A382T missense mutation accounts for approximately one-third of all ALS cases in this island population. These patients share a large risk haplotype across the TARDBP locus, indicating that they have a common ancestor.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.352
PMCID: PMC3513278  PMID: 21220647
3.  A patient carrying a homozygous p.A382T TARDBP missense mutation shows a syndrome including ALS, extrapyramidal symptoms and FTD 
Neurobiology of aging  2011;32(12):2327.e1-2327.e5.
We have recently published data showing that a founder mutation of the TARDBP gene (p.A382T) accounts for approximately one third of ALS cases on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia (Chiò et al, 2011). In that report, we identified 53 years-old man carrying a homozygous A382T missense mutation of the TARDBP gene with a complex neurological syndrome including ALS, parkinsonian features, motor and vocal tics, and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Due to the uniqueness of this case, here we provide a detailed clinical description, as well as neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data for that case and his extended family.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.06.009
PMCID: PMC3192246  PMID: 21803454
4.  Therapeutic interventions and adjustments in the management of Parkinson disease: role of combined carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone (Stalevo®) 
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by 3 cardinal motor symptoms: resting tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia. Since its introduction 40 years ago, levodopa has represented the gold standard for dopaminergic stimulation therapy in patients with PD. Levodopa is routinely combined with a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) to prevent the conversion of levodopa into dopamine in peripheral circulation. However, up to 80% of patients treated with continuous levodopa manifest the onset of disabling motor complications capable of producing an adverse effect on quality of life as the disease progresses. In recent years, a new, safe, and efficacious armamentarium of treatment options has been provided by the marketing of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor, entacapone, a peripheral blocker of dopa to 3-0-methyldopa metabolism, which increments levodopa brain availability. When administered with levodopa, entacapone conjugates the rapid onset of levodopa-induced effects with a protracted efficiency, thus providing additional benefits to classic levodopa treatment by increasing “on” time in fluctuating PD patients, and theoretically providing a more continuous and physiological-like stimulation of dopamine receptors implying a reduced risk of motor complications. In this context, the use of a single administration of combined carbidopa/ levodopa/entacapone (Stalevo®) in the treatment of PD affords clinical improvements similar to those obtained by 2 separate tablets (ie, levodopa/DDCI and entacapone), although the former produces a more positive effect on quality of life than the latter. Additionally, the STalevo Reduction In Dyskinesia Evaluation (STRIDE-PD) study was designed with the aim of demonstrating that the combination of levodopa, carbidopa, and entacapone, used as initial levodopa therapy, significantly delays the onset of dyskinesias compared with the conventional levodopa/carbidopa formulation. Unfortunately, STRIDEPD failed to prove the benefit of continuous dopaminergic stimulation with triple therapy in a clinical setting. Recently, the effect of combined COMT inhibitor with levodopa administration in reducing homocysteine synthesis has been described. To this regard, clear evidence has been presented indicating homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular diseases, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Several studies have discussed the potential of entacapone as adjunct to levodopa/ DDCI in reducing plasma homocysteine levels with contrasting results.
PMCID: PMC2938297  PMID: 20856911
Parkinson disease; carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone
5.  Parkin Exon Rearrangements and Sequence Variants in LRRK2 Mutations Carriers: Analysis on a Possible Modifier Effect on LRRK2 Penetrance 
Parkinson's Disease  2010;2010:537698.
Mutations in LRRK2 represent the most common causes of Parkinson's disease (PD) identified to date, but their penetrance is incomplete and probably due to the presence of other genetic or environmental factors required for development of the disease. We analyzed the presence of parkin sequence variants (mutations or polymorphisms) and exon rearrangements in LRRK2 mutations carriers (both PD patients and unaffected relatives) in order to detect a possible modifier effect on penetrance. Eight families with nine PD patients with heterozygous LRRK2 mutations (identified within 380 Sardinian PD patients screened for the presence of the five most common LRRK2 mutations) and sixteen additional relatives were genetically investigated for the presence of LRRK2 and parkin mutations. No evidence was found for the presence of pathological parkin mutations or exon rearrangements in patients or not affected family members. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified both in patients and unaffected relatives but did not significantly differ between the two groups. These data provide no support to the hypothesis whereby such parkin gene mutations may be commonly implicated in possible effect on penetrance in LRRK2 mutation carriers.
doi:10.4061/2010/537698
PMCID: PMC2957242  PMID: 20976090

Results 1-5 (5)