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1.  Effects of Grammaticality and Morphological Complexity on the P600 Event-Related Potential Component 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(10):e0140850.
We investigated interactions between morphological complexity and grammaticality on electrophysiological markers of grammatical processing during reading. Our goal was to determine whether morphological complexity and stimulus grammaticality have independent or additive effects on the P600 event-related potential component. Participants read sentences that were either well-formed or grammatically ill-formed, in which the critical word was either morphologically simple or complex. Results revealed no effects of complexity for well-formed stimuli, but the P600 amplitude was significantly larger for morphologically complex ungrammatical stimuli than for morphologically simple ungrammatical stimuli. These findings suggest that some previous work may have inadequately characterized factors related to reanalysis during morphosyntactic processing. Our results show that morphological complexity by itself does not elicit P600 effects. However, in ungrammatical circumstances, overt morphology provides a more robust and reliable cue to morphosyntactic relationships than null affixation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140850
PMCID: PMC4619296  PMID: 26488893
2.  Language and Birdsong: Introduction to the Special Issue 
Brain and language  2010;115(1):1-2.
doi:10.1016/j.bandl.2009.12.002
PMCID: PMC4446121  PMID: 20064656
birdsong; animal communication; homology; FOXP2
3.  Unintentional covert motor activations predict behavioral effects: Multilevel modeling of trial-level electrophysiological motor activations 
Psychophysiology  2011;48(2):208-217.
The present experiment measured an EEG indicator of motor cortex activation, the lateralized readiness potential (LRP), while participants performed a speeded category classification task. The LRP data showed that visually masked words triggered covert motor activations. This prime-induced motor activation preceded motor activation by subsequent (to-be-classified) visible target words. Multilevel statistical analyses of trial-level effects, applied here for the first time with electrophysiological data, revealed that accuracy and latency of classifying target words was affected by both (a) covert motor activation caused by visually masked primes and (b) spontaneous fluctuations in covert motor activation. Spontaneous covert motor fluctuations were unobserved with standard subject-level (multi-trial) analyses of grand-averaged LRPs, highlighting the utility of multilevel modeling of trial-level effects.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2010.01055.x
PMCID: PMC4422770  PMID: 20579311
4.  The effect of phonological realization of inflectional morphology on verbal agreement in French 
Acta psychologica  2008;128(3):528-536.
The present study examined the impact of the phonological realization of morphosyntactic agreement within the inflectional phrase (IP) in written French, as revealed by ERPs. In two independent experiments, we varied the presence vs. absence of phonological cues to morphological variation. Of interest was whether a graded ERP response to these different conditions could be found in native speakers (Experiment 1), and whether non-native learners would benefit from the presence of phonological cues (Experiment 2). The results for native French speakers showed that compared to grammatically correct instances, phonologically realized inflectional errors produced a significant P600 response, which was statistically larger than that produced by errors that were silent. German L1 French L2 learners showed similar benefits of the phonological realization of morphemes. Phonologically realized errors produced a robust P600 response whereas silent errors produced no robust effects. Implications of these results are discussed in reference to previous studies of L2 acquisition of morphosyntax.
doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2007.12.007
PMCID: PMC4370771  PMID: 18255043
5.  Neural Responses to Partner Rejection Cues 
Psychological science  2009;20(7):813-821.
Little is known about neural responses in the early automatic-stage processing of rejection cues from a partner. Event-related potentials (ERPs) offer a window to study processes that may be difficult to detect via behavioral methods. We focused on the N400 ERP component, which reflects the amount of semantic processing prompted by a target. When participants were primed by attachment-related contexts (“If I need help from my partner, my partner will be …”), rejection-related words (e.g., dismissing) elicited greater N400 amplitudes than acceptance-related words (e.g., supporting). Analyses of results for nonattachment primes suggest that these findings were not simply caused by target valence; the brain responds differentially to cues of partner rejection versus acceptance in under 300 ms. Moreover, these early-stage neurophysiological responses were heightened or dampened as a function of individuals’ adult attachment; women characterized by high anxiety and low avoidance showed the greatest N400 responses to cues of partner rejection (vs. acceptance).
doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02373.x
PMCID: PMC2731680  PMID: 19493321
6.  ERPs reveal comparable syntactic sentence processing in native and non-native readers of English 
Acta psychologica  2007;128(3):514-527.
L2 syntactic processing has been primarily investigated in the context of syntactic anomaly detection, but only sparsely with syntactic ambiguity. In the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) syntactic anomaly detection and syntactic ambiguity resolution is linked to the P600. The current ERP experiment examined L2 syntactic processing in highly proficient L1 Spanish-L2 English readers who had acquired English informally around the age of 5 years. Temporary syntactic ambiguity (induced by verb subcategorization information) was tested as a language-specific phenomenon of L2, while syntactic anomaly resulted from phrase structure constraints that are similar in L1 and L2. Participants judged whether a sentence was syntactically acceptable or not. Native readers of English showed a P600 in the temporary syntactically ambiguous and syntactically anomalous sentences. A comparable picture emerged in the non-native readers of English. Both critical syntactic conditions elicited a P600, however, the distribution and latency of the P600 varied in the syntactic anomaly condition. The results clearly show that early acquisition of L2 syntactic knowledge leads to comparable online sensitivity towards temporal syntactic ambiguity and syntactic anomaly in early and highly proficient non-native readers of English and native readers of English.
doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2007.10.003
PMCID: PMC2711869  PMID: 18061129
ERPs; P600; L2 syntactic processing; Syntactic ambiguity; Syntactic anomaly
7.  Second-language learning and changes in the brain 
Journal of neurolinguistics  2008;21(6):509-521.
Presumably, second-language (L2) learning is mediated by changes in the brain. Little is known about what changes in the brain, how the brain changes, or when these changes occur during learning. Here, we illustrate by way of example how modern brain-based methods can be used to discern some of the changes that occur during L2 learning. Preliminary results from three studies indicate that classroom-based L2 instruction can result in changes in the brain’s electrical activity, in the location of this activity within the brain, and in the structure of the learners’ brains. These changes can occur during the earliest stages of L2 acquisition.
doi:10.1016/j.jneuroling.2008.01.001
PMCID: PMC2600795  PMID: 19079740
Second language; plasticity; ERPs; N400; P600; VBM; language processing

Results 1-7 (7)