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2.  Acute Alcohol Effects on Attentional Bias in Heavy and Moderate Drinkers 
Heavy drinkers show an increased attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli compared to moderate drinkers, and this bias is thought to promote motivation for alcohol consumption (Field & Cox, 2008). Studies have begun to examine acute alcohol effects on attentional bias, however little is known regarding how these effects might differ based on drinker type. Further, the degree to which attentional bias in response to alcohol is associated with excessive alcohol consumption remains unexplored. For the current study, 20 heavy drinkers and 20 moderate drinkers completed a visual probe task in response to placebo and two active doses of alcohol (0.45 g/kg and 0.65 g/kg). Participants’ eye-movements were monitored and attentional bias was calculated as the difference in time spent focused on alcohol compared to neutral images. Participants’ alcohol consumption was assessed by a timeline follow-back calendar and a laboratory ad lib consumption task. Results showed that heavy drinkers displayed significantly greater attentional bias than did moderate drinkers following placebo. However, heavy drinkers displayed a dose-dependent decrease in attentional bias following alcohol, whereas the drug had no effect in moderate drinkers. Individual differences in attentional bias under placebo were strongly associated with both self-reported and laboratory alcohol consumption, yet bias following alcohol administration did not predict either measure of consumption. These findings suggest that attentional bias is strongest before a drinking episode begins. As such, an attentional bias might be most influential in terms of initiation of alcohol consumption, and less of a factor in promoting continued consumption within the drinking episode.
doi:10.1037/a0028991
PMCID: PMC3460038  PMID: 22732051
attentional bias; alcohol; heavy drinkers
3.  Mixing an Energy Drink with an Alcoholic Beverage Increases Motivation for More Alcohol in College Students 
Background
There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone.
Methods
Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended one session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink (AmED), or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire-for-Drug questionnaire.
Results
The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of “desire” for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmED compared to alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions.
Conclusions
An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone.
doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01868.x
PMCID: PMC3459310  PMID: 22724427
Alcohol; Energy Drink; Priming; Motivation to Drink; College Students
4.  Acute Tolerance to Alcohol in At-risk Binge Drinkers 
Studies of the impairing effects of alcohol on behavior often show greater tolerance in heavy drinkers compared to light drinkers, suggesting a causal link between heavy consumption and tolerance. Tolerance also develops during the time-course of a single drinking episode, and this “acute tolerance” might play an important role in the escalation to heavy drinking. The present study examined the development of acute tolerance to the impairing effects of alcohol on motor coordination and inhibitory control in a group of at-risk, binge drinkers (N = 20) and a group of non-risk, moderate drinkers (N = 20). Participants performed the testing battery in response to placebo and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) twice at comparable blood alcohol concentrations (BACs): once on the ascending limb and once on the descending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Results showed marked acute tolerance to the impairing effects of alcohol on motor coordination in the at-risk drinkers. By contrast, no recovery of motor skill was observed in the non-risk drinkers. Regarding inhibitory control, both groups remained impaired on both the ascending and descending limbs, indicating no acute tolerance in either group. The findings suggest that at-risk, binge drinkers display a faster recovery in their ability to execute versus inhibit action under alcohol. Such an “activational bias” of behavior could account for their continued alcohol consumption and impulsive behaviors while intoxicated, especially as BAC begins to decline.
doi:10.1037/a0026110
PMCID: PMC3326440  PMID: 22023021
Alcohol; acute tolerance; binge; inhibitory control; motor coordination
5.  Lack of tolerance to the disinhibiting effects of alcohol in heavy drinkers 
Psychopharmacology  2012;224(4):511-518.
Rationale
Alcohol tolerance is observed as a diminished response to a given dose as a function of repeated administrations of the drug. Research has consistently shown that heavier drinkers display reduced reactions to alcohol (i.e., tolerance) compared with lighter drinkers. However, the majority of this work has focused primarily on measures of motor performance, whereas the development of tolerance to alcohol’s impairing effects on cognitive processes, such as inhibitory mechanisms of behavioral control, remains relatively unexplored.
Objective
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between drinking habits and the degree to which alcohol affects drinkers’ inhibitory control and motor coordination.
Methods
Fifty-two non-dependent drinkers reported their recent drinking patterns. Their inhibitory control and motor coordination were measured in response to placebo and 0.65 g/kg alcohol.
Results
Alcohol significantly impaired inhibitory control and motor coordination compared with placebo. Moreover, greater quantity and frequency of recent consumption predicted less alcohol impairment of motor coordination. However, there was no relationship between recent drinking habits and the degree of impairment of inhibitory control.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that tolerance to the disinhibiting effects of alcohol might not readily develop as a result of recent, heavy drinking.
doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2786-x
PMCID: PMC3593342  PMID: 22763668
Alcohol; Tolerance; Inhibitory control; Motor coordination
6.  Comparison of Alcohol Impairment of Behavioral and Attentional Inhibition 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2012;126(1-2):176-182.
Background
Despite the wealth of studies demonstrating the impairing effects of alcohol on behavioral inhibition, less is known regarding effects of the drug on attentional inhibition (i.e., the ability to ignore distracting stimuli in the environment in order to focus attention on relevant information). The current study examined alcohol impairment of both behavioral and attentional inhibition, as well as potential associations between the two mechanisms of inhibitory control.
Methods
Men (n = 27) and women (n = 21) performed a measure of behavioral inhibition (cued go/no-go task) and a measure of attentional inhibition (delayed ocular return task) following three doses of alcohol: 0.65 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo).
Results
Alcohol impaired both behavioral and attentional inhibition relative to placebo; however, correlational analyses revealed no associations between measures of behavioral and attentional inhibition following any dose. Additionally, men committed more inhibitory failures on the behavioral inhibition task, whereas women committed more inhibitory failures on the attentional inhibition task.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that behavioral and attentional inhibition are equally sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol, yet represent distinct components of inhibitory control. Additionally, the observed gender differences in control of behavior and attention could have important implications regarding negative consequences associated with alcohol-induced disinhibition in men and women.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.05.010
PMCID: PMC3440541  PMID: 22673197
alcohol; behavioral inhibition; attentional inhibition; gender
7.  Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on information processing, motor coordination and subjective reports of intoxication 
The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has become a popular and controversial practice among young people. Increased rates of impaired driving and injuries have been associated with AmED consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine if the consumption of AmED alters cognitive processing and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Eighteen participants (9 men and 9 women) attended 4 test sessions where they received one of 4 doses in random order (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED, or a placebo beverage). Performance on a psychological refractory period (PRP) task was used to measure dual-task information processing and performance on the Purdue pegboard task was used to measure simple and complex motor coordination following dose administration. In addition, various subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, impairment, and level of intoxication were recorded. The results indicated that alcohol slowed dual-task information processing and impaired simple and complex motor coordination. The co-administration of the energy drink with alcohol did not alter the alcohol-induced impairment on these objective measures. For subjective effects, alcohol increases various ratings indicative of feelings of intoxication. More importantly, co-administration of the energy drink with alcohol reduced perceptions of mental fatigue and enhanced feelings of stimulation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, AmED may contribute to a high-risk scenario for a drinker. The mix of behavioral impairment with reduced fatigue and enhanced stimulation may lead AmED consumers to erroneously perceive themselves better able to function than is actually the case.
doi:10.1037/a0026136
PMCID: PMC3288788  PMID: 22023670
alcohol; energy drink; dual-task interference; mental fatigue; stimulation
8.  Drinking to Distraction: Does Alcohol Increase Attentional Bias in Adults with ADHD? 
Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias towards alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group.
doi:10.1037/a0026379
PMCID: PMC3338153  PMID: 22121850
Attentional bias; ADHD; Alcohol; Ad libitum consumption; At-risk drinkers
9.  Linking Impulsivity and Inhibitory Control Using Manual and Oculomotor Response Inhibition Tasks 
Acta psychologica  2011;138(3):419-428.
Separate cognitive processes govern the inhibitory control of manual and oculomotor movements. Despite this fundamental distinction, little is known about how these inhibitory control processes relate to more complex domains of behavioral functioning. This study sought to determine how these inhibitory control mechanisms relate to broadly defined domains of impulsive behavior. Thirty adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 28 comparison adults performed behavioral measures of inhibitory control and completed impulsivity inventories. Results suggest that oculomotor inhibitory control, but not manual inhibitory control, is related to specific domains of self-reported impulsivity. This finding was limited to the ADHD group; no significant relations between inhibitory control and impulsivity were found in comparison adults. These results highlight the heterogeneity of inhibitory control processes and their differential relations to different facets of impulsivity.
doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2011.09.002
PMCID: PMC3205291  PMID: 21982865
impulsivity; inhibitory control; manual; oculomotor; ADHD
10.  Defining “Binge” Drinking as Five Drinks per Occasion or Drinking to a 0.08% BAC: Which is More Sensitive to Risk? 
Heavy episodic or “binge” drinking is commonly defined as drinking 4–5 drinks per occasion (5/4 definition) or drinking that results in a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08%. The present study compared the validity of each binge definition as an indicator of at-risk, problem drinking. 251 college students were classified as non-binge drinkers or as binge drinkers based on the 5/4 definition or the 0.08% BAC definition. The two definitions of binge drinking were examined in terms of their sensitivity and specificity as indicators of alcohol-related problems as determined by scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Over half the sample (56%) were at-risk drinkers according to the AUDIT. The 0.08% definition detected only one-half of these individuals. Gender differences were also evident. Female binge drinkers actually achieved significantly higher estimated BACs per episode than their male binge drinking counterparts. The findings suggest that drinking to a sub-threshold BAC (i.e., < 0.08%) is not sufficient to avoid alcohol-related problems, and that total quantity (i.e., total standard drinks) per occasion might contribute to risk independent of the BAC achieved during drinking episodes. The findings also highlight the importance of considering frequency of consumption in determining risky drinking versus relying solely on quantity measures.
doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2011.00156.x
PMCID: PMC3156624  PMID: 21838847
11.  ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2011;117(1):31-37.
Background
Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated.
Methods
The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention.
Results
As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision.
Conclusions
Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.01.002
PMCID: PMC3101290  PMID: 21277119
Alcohol; Distraction; Divided Attention; Driving
12.  Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on behavioral control: Risks for college students consuming trendy cocktails 
Background
There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in young people. AmEDs have been implicated in risky drinking practices and greater accidents and injuries have been associated with their consumption. Despite the increased popularity of these beverages (e.g., Red Bull and vodka), there is little laboratory research examining how the effects of AmED differ from alcohol alone. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED alters neurocognitive and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone.
Methods
Participants (n=56) attended one session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of four doses (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED or a placebo beverage). Performance on a cued go/no-go task was used to measure the response of inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control following dose administration. Subjective ratings of stimulation, sedation, impairment and level of intoxication were recorded.
Results
Alcohol alone impaired both inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control, as evidenced by increased inhibitory failures and increased response times compared to baseline performance. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol counteracted some of the alcohol-induced impairment of response activation, but not response inhibition. For subjective effects, alcohol increased ratings of stimulation, feeling the drink, liking the drink, impairment and level of intoxication and alcohol decreased the rating of ability to drive. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol increased self-reported stimulation, but resulted in similar ratings of the other subjective effects as when alcohol was administered alone.
Conclusions
An energy drink appears to alter some of alcohol’s objective and subjective impairing effects, but not others. Thus AmEDs may contribute to a high risk scenario for the drinker. The mix of impaired behavioral inhibition and enhanced stimulation is a combination that may make AmED consumption riskier than alcohol consumption alone.
doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01464.x
PMCID: PMC3117195  PMID: 21676002
alcohol; energy drink; behavioral control; reaction time; stimulation
13.  Does Response Variability Predict Distractibility among Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? 
Psychological assessment  2011;23(2):427-436.
Increased intra-individual variability in response time (RTSD) has been observed reliably in ADHD and is often used as a measure of inattention. RTSD is assumed to reflect attentional lapses and distractibility, though evidence for the validity of this connection is lacking. We assessed whether RTSD is an indicator of inattention by comparing RTSD on the stop-signal task (SST) to performance on the Delayed Oculomotor Response (DOR) Task, a measure of distractibility. Participants included 30 adults with ADHD and 28 controls. Participants completed the SST and the DOR task, which measured subjects’ ability to maintain attention and avoid distraction by inhibiting reflexive saccades toward distractors. On the SST, the ADHD group was slower to inhibit than controls, indicating poorer inhibitory control in ADHD. The ADHD group also displayed slower RTs, greater RTSD, and more omission errors. On the DOR task, the ADHD group displayed more premature saccades (i.e., greater distractibility) than controls. Greater variability in RT was associated with increased distraction on the DOR task but only in ADHD participants. Results suggest that RTSD is linked to distractibility among adults with ADHD and support the use of RTSD as a valid measure of inattention in ADHD.
doi:10.1037/a0022112
PMCID: PMC3115498  PMID: 21443365
ADHD; adults; variable attention; eye movements
14.  Separating Automatic and Intentional Inhibitory Mechanisms of Attention in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 
Journal of abnormal psychology  2011;120(1):223-233.
Researchers in the cognitive sciences recognize a fundamental distinction between automatic and intentional mechanisms of inhibitory control. The use of eye-tracking tasks to assess selective attention has led to a better understanding of this distinction in specific populations such as children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined automatic and intentional inhibitory control mechanisms in adults with ADHD using a saccadic interference (SI) task and a delayed ocular response (DOR) task. Thirty adults with ADHD were compared to 27 comparison adults on measures of inhibitory control. The DOR task showed that adults with ADHD were less able than comparison adults to inhibit a reflexive saccade towards the sudden appearance of a stimulus in the periphery. However, SI task performance showed that the ADHD group did not differ significantly from the comparison group on a measure of automatic inhibitory control. These findings suggest a dissociation between automatic and intentional inhibitory deficits in adults with ADHD.
doi:10.1037/a0021408
PMCID: PMC3065892  PMID: 21058752
ADHD; inhibition; automatic; intentional
15.  Behavioral Components of Impulsivity Predict Alcohol Consumption in Adults with ADHD and Healthy Controls 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2010;113(2-3):139-146.
Background
The degree to which distinct behavioral components of impulsivity predict alcohol consumption is as yet not well-understood. Further, the possibility that this relation might be more pronounced in groups characterized by heightened impulsivity (i.e., individuals with ADHD) has not been tested.
Methods
The current study examined the degree to which three specific behavioral components of impulsivity (i.e., poor response inhibition, poor attentional inhibition, and increased risk-taking) were associated with quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption in a group of young adult social drinkers with ADHD (n = 33) and in a comparison control group (n = 21). Participants performed the delayed ocular return task (attentional inhibition), the cued go/no-go task (behavioral inhibition), and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (risk-taking).
Results
Both poor behavioral inhibition and greater risk-taking were related to greater quantity of consumption in the entire sample, whereas poor attentional inhibition was related to greater quantity specifically among those with ADHD. By contrast, only risk-taking was associated with frequency of consumption, and this was found specifically in the control group.
Conclusions
These findings provide important information regarding the potential role of distinct behavioral components of impulsivity in drinking behavior, and highlight unique relevance of attentional impairments to drinking behavior in those with ADHD.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.07.027
PMCID: PMC3010339  PMID: 20863628
behavioral impulsivity; alcohol consumption; ADHD
16.  Tolerance to the impairing effects of alcohol on the inhibition and activation of behavior 
Psychopharmacology  2010;212(4):465-473.
Rationale
Moderate doses of alcohol impair response inhibition and slow response activation, and some recent work has shown that during a single dose, response inhibition recovers from the impairing effects of alcohol more slowly than response activation. Evidence for a possible lag in tolerance development to inhibitory versus activational mechanisms suggests that as blood alcohol declines, drinkers' response inhibition might continue to be impaired despite having an unimpaired ability to activate responses; however, this effect has not been studied across repeated doses.
Objective
The present study examined how cross-session tolerance to the impairing effects of alcohol develops differentially between response activation and inhibition.
Methods
Thirty-two healthy adults performed a cued go/no-go task that measured response activation and inhibition. The study tested the degree to which response activation and inhibition developed acute and cross-session tolerances to a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) administered twice on separate days.
Results
Alcohol slowed response activation and decreased response inhibition during both administrations. Response activation displayed acute tolerance to alcohol impairment during both administrations and cross-session tolerance from the first to second administration. By contrast, response inhibition showed no acute or cross-session tolerance.
Conclusion
Biased recovery of response activation over inhibition during a single dose and as doses are repeated could contribute to some of the impulsive behavior commonly observed under alcohol.
doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1972-y
PMCID: PMC2982863  PMID: 20686751
Alcohol; Inhibition; Activation; Tolerance; Response Conflict; Go/no-go task
17.  Effects of d-amphetamine in human models of information processing and inhibitory control 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2005;77(2):151-159.
Although stimulants are generally associated with enhanced information processing, reports of stimulant effects on behavioral functions that rely on inhibitory processes have been inconsistent. The present research tested the joint effects of d-amphetamine on information processing and inhibitory control in healthy adults (N = 22) with no reported history of illicit stimulant use or drug dependence. Information processing was measured by a rapid information processing (RIP) task and inhibitory control was measured using a stop-signal task. Performance was measured in response to 15 mg/70 kg, 7.5 mg/70 kg, and 0 mg/70 mg (placebo) doses of d-amphetamine, administered double-blind in a randomized, within-subjects design. Results showed that d-amphetamine improved information processing in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, no enhancement of response inhibition was observed. Stimulant effects were also observed in physiological and subjective effects measures. The findings indicate that a stimulant drug can enhance aspects of cognitive functioning without producing a concomitant improvement in inhibitory control of behavior. The findings highlight the complex nature of stimulant effects on human behavior and the utility of performance tasks as models of complex behavioral and cognitive functions.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.07.013
PMCID: PMC3201830  PMID: 15664716
d-Amphetamine; Response inhibition; Information processing; ADHD; Human
18.  Individual differences in drug abuse vulnerability: d-Amphetamine and sensation-seeking status 
Psychopharmacology  2006;189(1):17-25.
Rationale
While the personality dimensions of novelty seeking and sensation seeking are associated with drug abuse vulnerability, the mechanisms associated with this vulnerability remain obscure.
Objective
This study examined the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine in healthy volunteers scoring in the upper and lower quartiles based on age- and gender-adjusted population norms on the impulsive Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) of the Zuckerman–Kuhlman personality questionnaire (ZKPQ).
Method
Participants completed 7-day outpatient studies examining the subjective, performance, and cardiovascular effects of d-amphetamine (0, 7.5, and 15 mg/70 kg, p.o.) under double-blind conditions according to a randomized block design. Performance tasks included behavioral measures of impulsivity, including attention, inhibition, and risk-taking behavior.
Results
No differences in baseline performance or d-amphetamine effects on measures of attention, inhibition, and risk-taking behavior were observed. High impulsive sensation seekers reported greater increases on several subjective report measures associated with drug abuse potential, including visual analog scales feel drug, like drug, and high.
Conclusions
Healthy adults scoring in the top quartile on the population of the impulsive SSS of the ZKPQ may be vulnerable to the abuse potential of d-amphetamine.
doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0487-z
PMCID: PMC3188427  PMID: 16972106
d-amphetamine; Sensation-seeking status; Vulnerability; Subjective effects; Performance effects; Abuse potential
19.  Experimental effect of positive urgency on negative outcomes from risk taking and on increased alcohol consumption 
The current pair of experimental studies sought to further validate the role of positive urgency (acting rashly when in an extreme positive emotional state) as a risk factor for impulsive and maladaptive behavior. Previous research has supported the use of emotion-based dispositions to rash action in predicting a wide range of maladaptive acts. However, that research was conducted in the field and relied on self-reported behavior, thus lacking tight experimental controls and direct observation of risky behaviors. In the two experimental studies described here, we found that, among college students, (1) positive urgency significantly predicted negative outcomes on a risk-taking task following a positive mood manipulation (n = 94), and (2) positive urgency significantly predicted increases in beer consumption following positive mood induction (n = 33). Positive urgency’s role was above and beyond previously identified risk factors; these findings, combined with prior cross-sectional and longitudinal field studies, provide support for the role of positive urgency in rash action.
doi:10.1037/a0019494
PMCID: PMC3050561  PMID: 20853921
20.  Impulsivity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Subtype Classification Using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale 
This study examined the classification accuracy of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS) in discriminating several attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, including predominantly inattentive type (ADHD/I), combined type (ADHD/C), and combined type with behavioral problems (ADHD/ODD), between each other and a non-ADHD control group using logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 88 children ranging in age from 9.0 years to 12.8 years, with a mean of 10.9 years. Children were predominantly male (74%) and Caucasian (86%) and in grades 3–7. Results indicated that the UPPS performed well in classifying ADHD subtypes relative to traditional diagnostic measures. In addition, analyses indicated that differences in symptoms between subtypes can be explained by specific pathways to impulsivity. Implications for the assessment of ADHD and conceptual issues are discussed.
doi:10.1007/s10862-009-9155-z
PMCID: PMC3137261  PMID: 21765593
ADHD; Impulsivity; UPPS; ADHD subtypes
21.  The effect of image complexity on attentional bias toward alcohol-related images in adult drinkers 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2010;105(5):883-890.
Aim
Visual probe tasks are often used to measure attentional bias (AB) toward alcohol-related images in drinkers, but little is known about the effect of the properties of the images used in this task, specifically, image complexity.
Method
AB was examined in a group of adult drinkers (n = 25). Two measures of attentional bias were obtained from a modified visual probe task. First, a traditional dot probe detection task measured attentional bias in drinkers based on their reaction times to probes replacing neutral and alcohol-related images. Second, an eye-tracking measure was applied to this task to directly assess the drinkers' eye gazes to the alcohol-related and neutral images. The effect of image complexity was examined by comparing AB toward images classified as simple and complex.
Findings
Results showed that drinkers only displayed AB toward simple alcohol-related images as measured by both probe RT and fixation times.
Conclusion
These findings suggest that complex alcohol-related images might be less effective at capturing drinkers' attention and could result in less attentional bias when used in visual probe tasks.
doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02860.x
PMCID: PMC2922935  PMID: 20148790
22.  Acute Alcohol Effects on Inhibitory Control and Implicit Cognition: Implications for Loss of Control Over Drinking 
Alcohol impairs inhibitory control, and it alters implicit alcohol cognitions including attentional bias and implicit associations. These effects are seen after doses of alcohol which do not lead to global impairments in cognitive performance. We review studies which demonstrate that the effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are associated with the ability of alcohol to prime alcohol-seeking behavior. We also hypothesize that alcohol-induced changes in implicit alcohol cognitions may partially mediate alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink. Based on contemporary theoretical models and conceptualizations of executive function, impulsivity, and the motivational salience of alcohol-related cues, we speculate on other aspects of cognition that may underlie alcohol’s effects on alcohol seeking. Inconsistencies in existing research and priorities for future research are highlighted, including dose effects and the potential interactions between chronic heavy drinking and the acute effects of alcohol on these cognitive processes.
doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01218.x
PMCID: PMC2999764  PMID: 20491732
Inhibitory Control; Attentional Bias; Automatic Alcohol Associations; Priming
23.  Gender Differences in Alcohol Impairment of Simulated Driving Performance and Driving-Related Skills 
Aims: Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Methods: Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Results: Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Conclusions: Both biological and social–cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference.
doi:10.1093/alcalc/agp051
PMCID: PMC2842110  PMID: 19786725
24.  Acute effects of alcohol on inhibitory control and information processing in high and low sensation-seekers 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2008;100(1-2):91-99.
Sensation-seeking is a personality characteristic that has been associated with drug abuse. Some evidence suggests that sensation-seekers might experience increased rewarding effects from drugs of abuse, possibly contributing to the association between sensation-seeking and risk for drug abuse. The present study examined the effects of three doses of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.65 g/kg) on inhibitory control, information processing, and subjective ratings in a group of high sensation-seekers and a group of low sensation-seekers (N = 20). Inhibitory control was measured by a cued go/no-go task and speed of information processing was assessed by the Rapid Information Processing (RIP) task. Alcohol impaired inhibitory control and information processing. Group differences were also observed. Compared with their low sensation-seeking counterparts, high sensation-seekers demonstrated increased sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol and a poorer degree of inhibitory control that was further impaired by alcohol. The findings highlight reward- and cognitive-based mechanisms by which sensation-seeking could operate to increase risk for alcohol abuse.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.09.007
PMCID: PMC2647687  PMID: 19004578
Alcohol; Inhibitory Control; Sensation-Seeking; Information Processing
25.  Increased Sensitivity to the Disinhibiting Effects of Alcohol in Adults with ADHD 
The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control have been well documented in healthy drinkers. By contrast, little is known about alcohol effects in individuals with disorders characterized by poor impulse control, such as those with ADHD. Alcohol could produce greater inhibitory impairment in these individuals. The present study tested this hypothesis in adults with ADHD (N = 10) and controls (N = 12) using the cued go/no-go task. The task requires quick responses to go targets and suppression of responses to no-go targets following the presentation of cues. Prior research on healthy adults shows that valid cues can protect against alcohol impairment (Marczinski & Fillmore, 2003). Performance was tested under 3 doses of alcohol: 0.65 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Alcohol dose-dependently increased inhibitory failures in controls in the invalid, but not the valid, cue condition. By contrast, those with ADHD displayed significant alcohol impairment regardless of cue condition. Thus, unlike controls, valid cues offered little protection from the disinhibiting effects of alcohol in drinkers with ADHD, suggesting an increased sensitivity to alcohol-impairment of inhibitory control.
doi:10.1037/a0015418
PMCID: PMC2787090  PMID: 19331488
ADHD; alcohol; inhibitory control; cues

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