No systematic study is yet available that focuses on the surgical anatomy of the superior petrosal vein and its significance during surgery for cerebellopontine angle meningiomas. The aim of the present study was to examine the variation of the superior petrosal vein via the retrosigmoid suboccipital approach in relation to the tumor attachment of cerebellopontine angle meningiomas as well as postoperative complications related to venous occlusion. Forty-three patients with cerebellopontine angle meningiomas were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the operative findings, the tumors were classified into four subtypes: the petroclival type, tentorial type, anterior petrous type, and posterior petrous type. According to a previous anatomical report, the superior petrosal veins were divided into three groups: Type I which emptied into the superior petrosal sinus above and lateral to the internal acoustic meatus, Type II which emptied between the lateral limit of the trigeminal nerve at Meckel’s cave and the medial limit of the facial nerve at the internal acoustic meatus, and Type III which emptied into the superior petrosal sinus above and medial to Meckel’s cave. In both the petroclival and anterior petrous types, the most common vein was Type III which is the ideal vein for a retrosigmoid approach. In contrast, the Type II vein which is at high risk of being sacrificed during a suprameatal approach procedure was most frequent in posterior petrous type, in which the superior petrosal vein was not largely an obstacle. Intraoperative sacrificing of veins was associated with a significantly higher rate of venous-related phenomena, while venous complications occurred even in cases where the superior petrosal vein was absent or compressed by the tumor. The variation in the superior petrosal vein appeared to differ among the tumor attachment subtypes, which could permit a satisfactory surgical exposure without dividing the superior petrosal vein. In cases where the superior petrosal vein was previously occluded, other bridging veins could correspond with implications for the crucial venous drainage system, and should thus be identified and protected whenever possible.
Attachment; Classification; Cerebellopontine angle; Meningioma; Petrosal vein; Venous complication
Because of the diversity of aneurysm morphology, complicated arterial anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics, tailored surgical treatments are required for cases of individual complex middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms.
During an 8-year period, 59 complex MCA aneurysms in 58 patients were treated microsurgically in our department. Complex aneurysms were defined as having large (10–24 mm in diameter) or giant (diameter ≥ 25 mm) size or non-saccular morphology (fusiform, dissecting or serpentine).
Direct clipping of the aneurysmal necks was achieved in eight patients, while reconstructive clipping was performed in 25 patients. Indirect aneurysm occlusion was performed in 25 cases, including trapping or resecting the aneurysm in four cases, trapping or resecting the aneurysm with extra-intracranial (EC) or intra-intracranial (IC) bypass in 21 cases and internal carotid artery (ICA) sacrifice with EC-IC bypass in one case. Forty-eight aneurysms (81.4 %) were completely obliterated. Graft patency was confirmed in 20 of 21 cases (95.2 %) with bypass. A recurrent aneurysm was detected in one case and a re-operation was performed. Two patients with Hunt-Hess grade IV aneurysms died during the perioperative period. Overall, 52 cases (88.1 %) had good outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale ≥ 4) during the late follow-up period.
The surgical modality and strategy for treating complex MCA aneurysm are decided according to the morphology of the aneurysm, vascular anatomy and the hemodynamic characteristics of each case. Thus, we developed a new classification based on the angioarchitecture. Favorable outcomes can be achieved by treating complex MCA aneurysms with appropriate surgical modalities, strategies and techniques.
Middle cerebral artery; Complex aneurysm; Bypass surgery; Clipping
Meningiomas of the anterior and middle skull base frequently involve the optic nerve and cause progressive visual impairment. Surgical decompression of the optic nerve is the only option to preserve visual function. Depending on the invaded structures, optic nerve decompression can be part of a complete tumor removal or the main surgical intention in terms of local debulking. However, bony decompression of the optic canal including anterior clinoidectomy for optic nerve decompression is still a surgical maneuver under discussion.
From 2006 to 2011, 46 consecutive patients with skull base meningiomas in and around the optic canal were operated. The pterional approach was tailored for each patient. Resection included bony decompression of the optic canal with or without anterior clinoidectomy. Visual acuity and fields were evaluated pre- and postoperatively.
Fifty-three percent of patients underwent anterior clinoidectomy, 23 % optic canal unroofing, and 24 % any bony decompression. In 21 patients (46 %), gross total resection (GTR, Simpson grade I or II) was achieved, while 25 patients (54 %) received subtotal resection (STR, Simpson grade III or IV). Sixty-three percent of patients presented with preoperative visual impairment. Postoperative visual changes were significantly related to preoperative visual function. While all patients with normal preoperative vision remained unchanged, in patients with impaired vision, surgery caused improvement in 70 % and deterioration in 10 % of patients (p < 0.0001). In patients with anterior clinoidectomy, vision improved more frequently than without anterior clinoidectomy (p < 0.05).
Anterior clinoidectomy is safe and may improve visual outcome in meningiomas in and around the optic canal.
Anterior clinoid process; Optic nerve; Visual function; Skull base; Meningioma
Data regarding the safety of endoscopic skull base exploration are very scarce. With this method, fragile vital structures (cranial nerves, the optic complex, brainstem, hypothalamus or cerebral ventricles) are exposed to direct illumination within a closed space. Also, high-speed drills, cauterization and ultrasonic aspiration deliver a significant load of thermal energy. The aim of this study was to record the temperature close to the structures of the skull base and in the intradural space during the procedures performed using extended endoscopic transnasal approaches.
The temperature of the skull base was continuously recorded during six transnasal endoscopic procedures. Implantable copper-constantan thermocouples were inserted: one into the esophagus and another through the nostril to reach the operative field at the skull base.
At the beginning of the procedure, the temperature of the operative field was on average 36.8 °C ± 0.80 °C, i.e. only 1 °C higher than the esophageal temperature. Then it grew continuously during the whole procedure, to eventually reach a level of 42–43 °C at the final stage, whereas the esophageal temperature remained stable. Occasionally, the temperature increased up to 45 °C during cauterization and ultrasonic aspiration, and even up to 62 °C during high-speed drilling.
Endoscopic skull base surgery is associated with an incessant increase of the temperature of the intraoperative field. The temperature can peak suddenly to levels which can potentially harm neural structures and influence the rate of postoperative complications.
Endoscopy; Transnasal; Extended approach; Cranial base; Temperature
Intraoperative ultrasound imaging is used in brain tumor surgery to identify tumor remnants. The ultrasound images may in some cases be more difficult to interpret in the later stages of the operation than in the beginning of the operation. The aim of this paper is to explain the causes of surgically induced ultrasound artefacts and how they can be recognized and reduced.
The theoretical reasons for artefacts are addressed and the impact of surgery is discussed. Different setups for ultrasound acquisition and different acoustic coupling fluids to fill up the resection cavity are evaluated with respect to improved image quality.
The enhancement artefact caused by differences in attenuation of the resection cavity fluid and the surrounding brain is the most dominating surgically induced ultrasound artefact. The influence of the artefact may be reduced by inserting ultrasound probes with small footprint into the resection cavity for a close-up view of the areas with suspected tumor remnants. A novel acoustic coupling fluid developed for use during ultrasound imaging in brain tumor surgery has the potential to reduce surgically induced ultrasound artefacts to a minimum.
Surgeons should be aware of artefacts in ultrasound images that may occur during brain tumor surgery. Techniques to identify and reduce image artefacts are useful and should be known to users of ultrasound in brain tumor surgery.
Ultrasound; Neurosurgery; Brain tumors; Resection control; Ultrasound artefacts; Enhancement artefact; Ultrasonography; Intraoperative imaging
Bone invasive skull base meningiomas are a subset of meningiomas that present a unique clinical challenge due to brain and neural structure involvement and limitations in complete surgical resection, resulting in higher recurrence and need for repeat surgery. To date, the pathogenesis of meningioma bone invasion has not been investigated. We investigated immunoexpression of proteins implicated in bone invasion in other tumor types to establish their involvement in meningioma bone invasion.
Retrospective review of our database identified bone invasive meningiomas operated on at our institution over the past 20 years. Using high-throughput tissue microarray (TMA), we established the expression profile of osteopontin (OPN), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), and integrin beta-1 (ITGB1). Differential expression in tumor cell and vasculature was evaluated and comparisons were made between meningioma anatomical locations.
MMP2, OPN, and ITGB1 immunoreactivity was cytoplasmic in tumor and/or endothelial cells. Noninvasive transbasal meningiomas exhibited higher vascular endothelial cell MMP2 immunoexpression compared to invasive meningiomas. We found higher expression levels of OPN and ITGB1 in bone invasive transbasal compared to noninvasive meningiomas. Strong vascular ITGB1 expression extending from the endothelium through the media and into the adventitia was found in a subset of meningiomas.
We have demonstrated that key proteins are differentially expressed in bone invasive meningiomas and that the anatomical location of bone invasion is a key determinant of expression pattern of MMP1, OPN, and ITGB1. This data provides initial insights into the pathophysiology of bone invasion in meningiomas and identifies factors that can be pursued as potential therapeutic targets.
Bone invasion; Integrins; Matrix metalloproteinase; Meningioma; Osteopontin; Transbasal meningioma
Chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) is a common entity in neurosurgery with a considerable postoperative recurrence rate. Computerised tomography (CT) scanning remains the most important diagnostic test for this disorder. The aim of this study was to characterise the relationship between the recurrence of CSDH after treatment with burr-hole irrigation and closed-system drainage technique and CT scan features of these lesions to assess whether CT findings can be used to predict recurrence.
We investigated preoperative and postoperative CT scan features and recurrence rate of 107 consecutive adult surgical cases of CSDH and assessed any relationship with univariate and multivariate regression analyses.
Seventeen patients (15.9 %) experienced recurrence of CSDH. The preoperative haematoma volume, the isodense, hyperdense, laminar and separated CT densities and the residual total haematoma cavity volume on the 1st postoperative day after removal of the drainage were identified as radiological predictors of recurrence. If the preoperative haematoma volume was under 115 ml and the residual total haematoma cavity volume postoperatively was under 80 ml, the probability of no recurrence was very high (94.4 % and 97.4 % respectively).
These findings from CT imaging may help to identify patients at risk for postoperative recurrence.
Chronic subdural haematoma; Computerised tomography; Densities; Multiple regression; Recurrence; Volume
There is agreement that symptomatic sacral meningeal cysts with a check-valve mechanism and/or large cysts representing space-occupying lesions should be treated surgically. This study investigated factors indicating a need for surgical intervention and surgical techniques for sacral meningeal cysts with a check-valve mechanism.
In ten patients presenting with sciatica and neurological deficits, myelography, computed tomography (CT) myelography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) detected sacral meningeal cysts with a check-valve mechanism. One patient had two primary cysts. Ten cysts were type 2 and one cyst was type 1. Nine of the ten patients had not undergone previous surgery, while the remaining case involved recurrent cyst. For the seven patients with normal (i.e., not huge or recurrent) type 2 cysts and no previous surgery (eight cysts), suture after collapse of the cyst wall was performed. For the recurrent type 2 cyst, duraplasty and suture with collapse of the cyst wall were performed to eliminate the check-valve mechanism. For the remaining type 2 cyst, a primary root was sacrificed because of the huge size of the cyst. For the type 1 cyst, the neck of the cyst was ligated.
In all cases, chief complaints disappeared immediately postoperatively and no deterioration of clinical symptoms has been seen after a mean follow-up of 27 months.
The presence or absence of a check-valve mechanism is very important in determining the need for surgical intervention for sacral meningeal cysts.
Sacral meningeal cyst; Check-valve mechanism; Surgical strategy
Vaccination against tumour-associated antigens is one approach to elicit anti-tumour responses. We investigated the effect of polynucleotide (DNA) vaccination using a model antigen (E. coli lacZ) in a syngeneic gliosarcoma model (9L).
Fisher 344 rats were vaccinated thrice by intramuscular injection of a lacZ-encoding or a control plasmid in weekly intervals. One week after the last vaccination, lacZ-expressing 9L cells were implanted into the striatum.
After 3 weeks, in lacZ-vaccinated animals the tumours were significantly smaller than in control-vaccinated animals. In cytotoxic T cell assays lysis rates of >50 % could only be observed in a few of the lacZ-vaccinated animals. This response was directed against lacZ-expressing and parental 9L cells but not against syngeneic MADB 106 adenocarcinoma cells. In Elispot assays interferon-γ production was observed upon stimulation with 9LlacZ and 9L wild-type but not MADB 106 cells. This response was higher for lacZ-immunized animals. All animals revealed dense infiltrates with CD8+ lymphocytes and, to a lesser extent, with NK cells. CD25-staining indicated cells possibly associated with the maintenance of peripheral tolerance to self-antigens. All tumours were densely infiltrated by microglia consisting mostly of ramified cells. Only focal accumulation of macrophage-like cells expressing ED1, a marker for phagocytic activity, was observed.
Prophylactic DNA vaccination resulted in effective but incomplete suppression of brain tumour formation. Mechanisms other than cytotoxic T cell responses as measured in the generally used in vitro assays appear to play a role in tumour suppression.
DNA vaccination; Immunotherapy; Rat glioma; lacZ
The marginal delineation of gliomas cannot be defined by conventional imaging due to their infiltrative growth pattern. Here we investigate the relationship between changes in glioma metabolism by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI) and histopathological findings in order to determine an optimal threshold value of choline/N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho/NAA) that can be used to define the extent of glioma spread.
Eighteen patients with different grades of glioma were examined using 1H-MRSI. Needle biopsies were performed under the guidance of neuronavigation prior to craniotomy. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to evaluate the accuracy of sampling. Haematoxylin and eosin, and immunohistochemical staining with IDH1, MIB-1, p53, CD34 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibodies were performed on all samples. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between Cho/NAA and MIB-1, p53, CD34, and the degree of tumour infiltration. The clinical threshold ratio distinguishing tumour tissue in high-grade (grades III and IV) glioma (HGG) and low-grade (grade II) glioma (LGG) was calculated.
In HGG, higher Cho/NAA ratios were associated with a greater probability of higher MIB-1 counts, stronger CD34 expression, and tumour infiltration. Ratio threshold values of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 appeared to predict the specimens containing the tumour with respective probabilities of 0.38, 0.60, 0.79, 0.90 in HGG and 0.16, 0.39, 0.67, 0.87 in LGG.
HGG and LGG exhibit different spectroscopic patterns. Using 1H-MRSI to guide the extent of resection has the potential to improve the clinical outcome of glioma surgery.
Cho/NAA; Glioma boundary; 1H-MRSI; Tumour infiltration; Needle biopsy; Metabolism
Failed back surgery syndrome is defined as persistent chronic low-back pain and/or leg pain lasting more than 1 year, despite of one or more surgical procedures. Instrumented spinal fusion has been offered by surgeons as a potential treatment to recover from pain and functional disability. Factors contributing to good outcome of instrumented spinal fusion have not been investigated extensively. This study evaluated the global perceived recovery and functional status of patients after instrumented fusion for the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome.
Between January 2004 and September 2007, 100 patients underwent instrumented spinal fusion because of persistent back and/or leg pain lasting more than 1 year despite of one or more previous spine surgeries. The global perceived recovery of the patients was documented on a seven-point Likert scale, in which good outcome was defined as “complete recovery” and “almost complete recovery”. Pain was evaluated by the 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) of back pain and leg pain, and functional disability measured by the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica (RDQ) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) evaluated psychological co-morbidity. All patients were sent questionnaires by mail. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated between outcome measures and preoperative patient characteristics.
Eighty-two patients (82% response rate) returned questionnaires that were useful for analysis. After a mean follow-up period of 15 months, 35% of the patients reported good outcome, whereas 65% had unsatisfactory outcome. The mean (± SD) score of VAS low-back pain and leg pain was 45.7 ± 29 and 37.9 ± 31.9, respectively. The mean (± SD) RDQ and ODI score was 11.8 ± 5.4 and 30.6 ± 20.3, respectively. HADS score indicated a possible anxiety disorder in 28% of the patients and in 30% a possible underlying depression. Of the patients’ baseline characteristics, there was only a significantly negative correlation between level of education and outcome.
The present study showed disappointing outcome of instrumented fusion for the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome in terms of perceived recovery, functional disability and pain. Conservative management is probably more beneficial and, therefore, more selective and careful assessment should be done in order to prevent unnecessary surgery.
Failed back surgery syndrome; Instrumented fusion; Pain; Postlaminectomy syndrome; Surgery
Brain metastases from ovarian cancer are rare, but their incidence is increasing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of brain metastases from ovarian cancer, and to assess the efficacy of treatment with gamma knife surgery (GKS).
A retrospective review was performed of patients with brain metastases from ovarian cancer who were treated at the Tokyo Gamma Unit Center from 2006 to 2010.
Sixteen patients were identified. Their median age at diagnosis of brain metastases was 56.5 years, the median interval from diagnosis of ovarian cancer to brain metastases was 27.5 months, and the median number of brain metastases was 2. The median Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) at the first GKS was 80. The median survival following diagnosis of brain metastases was 12.5 months, and 6-month and 1-year survival rates were 75 % and 50 %, respectively. The tumor control rate was 86.4 %. The KPS (<80 vs ≥80) and total volume of brain metastases (<10 cm3 vs ≥10 cm3) were significantly associated with survival according to a univariate analysis (p = 0.004 and p = 0.02, respectively).
The results of this study suggest that GKS is an effective remedy and acceptable choice for the control of brain metastases from ovarian cancer.
Ovarian cancer; Brain metastases; Gamma knife surgery; Tumor control rate
To study the diagnostic and therapeutic features of pituitary tumorous hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism.
Fifteen patients with pituitary tumorous hyperplasia were studied in clinical manifestation, pathologic, endocrinological, radiographic and therapeutic features retrospectively.
All of these patients suffered from primary hypothyroidism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning found that there were masses in the sellar region with equal T1 and little longer T2 signal, and which could be obviously enhanced by gadolinium EDTA injection. Diameters of these masses were between 1.1 and 2.5 cm. Thyroxine substitution therapy was ordered. Four months later, MRI scanning found that the masses disappeared and only normal pituitary gland left. Plasma thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) levels dropped to their normal ranges.
Thyroxine substitution therapy was the first choice of pituitary tumorous hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. If they are followed by TSH adenoma, or the optic chiasma was pressed by the enlarged pituitary, transsphenoidal microsurgery could be applied.
Hypothyroidism; Pituitary; Tumorous hyperplasia
Medicine & Public Health; Neurosurgery; Surgical Orthopedics; Interventional Radiology; Minimally Invasive Surgery; Neurology; Neuroradiology
Frameless stereotactic biopsies are replacing frame-based stereotaxy as a diagnostic approach to brain lesions. In order to avoid a sampling bias or negative histology, multiple specimens are often taken. This in turn increases the risk of hemorrhagic complications.
We present the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in frameless stereotaxy to improve the procedure duration and yield, and thereby reduce the risk of complications.
Patients with suspected high-grade brain tumors are given 5-ALA 4 h prior to stereotactic biopsy. The biopsy needle is guided to the target using frameless stereotaxy based either on preoperative images or combined with intraoperative MRI sequences. The specimen is illuminated with blue light to look for fluorescence. In case of a positive fluorescence within the tissue sample, no frozen sections are obtained, and no further specimens are taken.
The samples of 13 patients revealed a positive fluorescence and were histologically confirmed as malignant or high-grade brain neoplasms. four cases were fluorescence-negative, requiring frozen section confirmation and/or multiple samples. In theses cases histology was either nonspecific gliotic changes or low-grade tumors. There were no complications related to the additional use of 5-ALA.
5-ALA fluorescence in stereotactic biopsies can increase the safety and accuracy of these procedures by reducing sampling errors and eliminating the need for multiple samples and/or frozen section verification, creating a more accurate, faster and safer procedure for cases of suspected malignant or high-grade brain tumors situated in deep or eloquent areas.
5-Aminolevulinic acid; Protoporphyrin IX; Stereotactic biopsy; Brain tumor; Fluorescence
The results of peripheral nerve repair, especially for high-level peripheral nerve injuries, have been unsatisfactory. The method of side-to-side neurorrhaphy was developed in our laboratory from 1994 to 2002. This method involves suturing the injured nerve to a nearby donor nerve in a side-to-side manner. This study was performed to assess the clinical results of side-to-side neurorrhaphy in patients with high-level peripheral nerve injuries.
Twenty-five patients with various types of high-level peripheral nerve injuries who underwent side-to-side neurorrhaphy were studied. The British Medical Research Council (BMRC) scale was used to assess recovery of nerve function.
Average follow-up duration was 3.2 years. Before surgery the patients had a nerve function of M0/S0 to M1/S1. After side-to-side neurorrhaphy, 7 patients had a score of M3/S4, 8 patients a score of M3/S3 and 10 patients a score of M2/S3. The total useful recovery rate (BMRC grade ≥3) was 60% for motor function and 100% for sensory function. Side-to-side neurorrhaphy did not result in any significant loss of donor nerve function. There was significant correlation between both the type of injury and the time interval between injury and surgery and motor nerve function. Age, gender and location of the injured nerve did not correlate with sensory or motor nerve function.
Side-to-side neurorrhaphy appears to be promising as a feasible method for repair of high-level peripheral nerve injuries.
Nerve injury; Denervated muscles; Irreversible atrophy; Side-to-side neurorrhaphy; Nerve function
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) reduces the risk of stroke in patients with symptomatic (>50%) and asymptomatic (>60%) carotid artery stenosis. Here we report the midterm results of a microsurgical non-patch technique and compare these findings to those in the literature.
From 1998 to 2009 we treated 586 consecutive patients with CEA. CEA was performed, under general anesthesia, with a surgical microscope using a non-patch technique. Somatosensory evoked potential and transcranial Doppler were continuously monitored. Cross-clamping was performed under EEG burst suppression and adaptive blood pressure increase. Follow-up was performed by an independent neurologist. Mortality at 30 days and morbidity such as major and minor stroke, peripheral nerve palsy, hematoma and cardiac complications were recorded. The restenosis rate was assessed using duplex sonography 1 year after surgery.
A total of 439 (75%) patients had symptomatic and 147 (25%) asymptomatic stenosis; 49.7% of the stenoses were on the right-side. Major perioperative strokes occurred in five (0.9%) patients [n = 4 (0.9%) symptomatic; n = 1 (0.7%) asymptomatic patients]. Minor stroke was recorded in six (1%) patients [n = 4 (0.9%) symptomatic; n = 2 (1.3%) asymptomatic patients]. Two patients with symptomatic stenoses died within 1 month after surgery. Nine patients (1.5%) had reversible peripheral nerve palsies, and nine patients (1.5%) suffered a perioperative myocardial infarction. High-grade (>70%) restenosis at 1 year was observed in 19 (3.2%) patients [n = 12 (2.7%) symptomatic; n = 7 (4.7%) asymptomatic patients].
The midterm rate of restenosis was low when using a microscope-assisted non-patch endarterectomy technique. The 30-day morbidity and mortality rate was comparable or lower than those in recently published surgical series.
Carotid Stenosis; Asymptomatic; Symptomatic; Microsurgical; Non-patch; Restenosis
In recent years the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms (coiling) has progressively gained recognition, particularly after the publication of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) in 2002. Despite the fact that in ISAT middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms were clearly underrepresented, the study is often used as an argument to favor coiling above surgery in MCA aneurysms. Taken into account that MCA aneurysms are very well accessible for surgery, a contemporary assessment of the benefits of a preferred surgical strategy for MCA aneurysms was performed in a tertiary neurovascular referral center.
A prospectively kept single-center database of 151 consecutive patients with an MCA aneurysm was reviewed over a 6-year period (2001–2006). Long-term follow-up after surgical treatment of a ruptured MCA aneurysm was obtained in 74 out of 77 (96%) patients. The outcome was compared with relevant series in the literature.
After a mean follow-up of 4.7 years, 59 out of 74 surgically treated patients (80%) with a ruptured MCA aneurysm had a good outcome (mRankin 0–2). All patients with an unruptured MCA aneurysm also had a good outcome after clipping. This is well-matched with the findings of the literature search, and competitive with the endovascular results.
Surgical clipping is recommended as the principal treatment strategy for MCA aneurysms. This is not only ethically defendable in view of the surgical results but also in line with a strategy to maintain surgical experience within centralized neurovascular centers.
Brain aneurysm; Middle cerebral artery; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Endovascular coiling; Neurosurgical clipping
Semisynthetic collagen matrices are promising duraplasty grafts with low risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, good tissue integration and minor foreign body reaction. The present study investigates the efficacy and biocompatibility of a novel semisynthetic bilayered collagen matrix (BCM, B. Braun Aesculap) as dural onlay graft for duraplasty.
Thirty-four pigs underwent osteoclastic trepanation, excision of the dura, and placement of a cortical defect, followed by duraplasty using BCM, Suturable DuraGen™ (Integra Neuroscience), or periosteum. CSF tightness and intraoperative handling of the grafts were evaluated. Pigs were sacrificed after 1 and 6 months for histological analysis.
BCM and DuraGen™ showed superior handling than periosteum with a trend for better adhesion to dura and CSF tightness for BCM. Periosteum, which was sutured unlike the synthetic grafts, had the highest intraoperative CSF tightness. Duraplasty time with periosteum was significantly higher (14.4 ± 2.7 min) compared with BCM (2.8 ± 0.8 min) or DuraGen™ (3.0 ± 0.5 min). Tissue integration by fibroblast infiltration was observed after 1 month for all devices. More adhesions between graft and cortex were observed with DuraGen™ compared with BCM and periosteum. No relevant adhesions between leptomeninges and BCM were observed and all devices showed comparable lymphocytic reaction of the brain. All devices were completely integrated after 6 months. BCM and DuraGen™ showed a trend for an enhanced lymphocytic reaction of the brain parenchyma compared with periosteum. Implant rejection was not observed.
Semisythetic collagen matrices are an attractive alternative in duraplasty due to their easy handling, lower surgical time, and high biocompatibility.
Collagen matrix; Dural substitute; Dural defect repair; Duraplasty; Cerebrospinal fluid leak; BCM; DuraGen
The resection of eloquent areas is challenging due to postoperative neurological deficits. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and risk of awake brain surgery for non-lesional epilepsy involving the eloquent areas or their adjacent areas and to advocate the generation of a resection frequency map.
We enrolled 55 patients who underwent awake surgery between 1994 and 2007 for non-lesional epilepsy involving the primary sensori-motor or language areas. All patients underwent two-staged operations including subdural electrode monitoring and awake resective surgery. For each case, the preoperative and postoperative images were spatially normalized and compared on a standard atlas, and the resection map was then computed by summing up each resected area on the atlas.
The postoperative seizure outcome was Engel class I in 27 patients (49.1%), II in nine (16.4%), III in 14 (25.5%) and IV in five (9.1%). Ten patients (18.2%) experienced postoperative neurological deficits including seven transient (12.7%) and three permanent, but mild ones (5.5%). The neurological complication rate of purely eloquent area resection was 36.8% (7/19). The resection frequency map computed in this study showed that the resection of eloquent areas was tolerable, with the exception of the Broca’s area.
Awake resective surgery with intraoperative brain mapping is an effective and safe treatment option for non-lesional epilepsy involving eloquent areas. The resection frequency map can show the resected area of a group as well as individuals and provide an objective measure of neurological risk.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00701-011-1074-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Awake surgery; Non-lesional epilepsy; Eloquent area; Neurological deficit; Resection frequency map
Internal carotid artery (ICA) is predominant localization of giant intracranial aneurysms (GIAs). The rupture of GIA is supposed to be related to higher risk of poor clinical outcome. Although endovascular techniques are still being developed, they seem to be unsatisfactory in the mean of GIAs.
Included in the retrospective analysis were 78 giant and 250 smaller surgically treated ICA aneurysms. Exclusion criteria were multiple and blood blister-like aneurysms. Neurological deficit on admission, clinical and radiological presentation, gender, age, segment of ICA, surgical methods, accessory techniques and complications were analyzed. Death rate and short- and long-term outcome of giant aneurysms were compared with smaller aneurysms and risk factors for mortality, unfavorable short- and long-term outcome were determined.
There was no difference in general and surgical complications between ICA aneurysm size groups, as well as in occurrence of newly diagnosed neurological deficit after the operation. There were similar mortality rates, proportion of unfavorable outcome, and low health related quality of life for giant and smaller aneurysms. A 12.2% death rate for all ICA aneurysms was achieved. Trapping method as well as Fisher grades 3 and 4 increased mortality risk in the smaller aneurysm group. No significant factors were related to an unfavorable outcome in the ruptured giant aneurysm group. Patients older than 65, Hunt-Hess grades 4 and 5, Fisher grade 4, and newly diagnosed deficit after operation were connected with unfavorable outcome in the ruptured smaller aneurysm group. Newly diagnosed neurological deficit was also an unfavorable outcome risk factor in both giant and smaller ICA unruptured aneurysms. No difference was noted in long-term health-related quality of life between the giant and smaller ICA groups. Higher age and presence of concomitant disease were independent factors affecting quality of life, although obtained data were incomplete.
The study breaks the stereotype of unfavorable giant ICA aneurysms treatment results. Mortality rate, short- and long-term outcome after the operation of giant and smaller ICA aneurysms are similar. Higher age, patients’ condition at admission, and the amount of extravasated blood and trapping method are poor prognostic factors in patients with smaller ICA aneurysm.
Internal carotid artery; Intracranial aneurysm; Giant cerebral aneurysm; Outcome; Quality of life