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1.  ISSN Roundtable: FAQs About the ISSN 
Mission Statement of the ISSN
The mission of the International Society of Sports Nutrition is to be recognized as the leading professional organization in the study and application of sports nutrition. The ISSN is dedicated to promoting and supporting the study, practice, education, research and development of sports nutrition and the sports nutrition profession. All information disseminated by the ISSN is unbiased and scientifically supported.
doi:10.1186/1550-2783-2-2-1
PMCID: PMC2129135  PMID: 18500952
2.  ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations 
Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.
doi:10.1186/1550-2783-7-7
PMCID: PMC2853497  PMID: 20181066
3.  ISSN Exercise & Sport Nutrition Review: Research & Recommendations 
Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1.) how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2.) general nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 3.) our current understanding of the available science behind weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement supplements. Our hope is that ISSN members find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.
doi:10.1186/1550-2783-1-1-1
PMCID: PMC2129137
sport nutrition; dietary supplements; ergogenic aids; weight gain; weight loss
11.  Automated Analysis of Fundamental Features of Brain Structures 
Neuroinformatics  2011;9(4):371-380.
Automated image analysis of the brain should include measures of fundamental structural features such as size and shape. We used principal axes (P-A) measurements to measure overall size and shape of brain structures segmented from MR brain images. The rationale was that quantitative volumetric studies of brain structures would benefit from shape standardization as had been shown for whole brain studies. P-A analysis software was extended to include controls for variability in position and orientation to support individual structure spatial normalization (ISSN). The rationale was that ISSN would provide a bias-free means to remove elementary sources of a structure’s spatial variability in preparation for more detailed analyses. We studied nine brain structures (whole brain, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brainstem, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, inferior frontal gyrus, and precuneus) from the 40-brain LPBA40 atlas. This paper provides the first report of anatomical positions and principal axes orientations within a standard reference frame, in addition to “shape/size related” principal axes measures, for the nine brain structures from the LPBA40 atlas. Analysis showed that overall size (mean volume) for internal brain structures was preserved using shape standardization while variance was reduced by more than 50%. Shape standardization provides increased statistical power for between-group volumetric studies of brain structures compared to volumetric studies that control only for whole brain size. To test ISSN’s ability to control for spatial variability of brain structures we evaluated the overlap of 40 regions of interest (ROIs) in a standard reference frame for the nine different brain structures before and after processing. Standardizations of orientation or shape were ineffective when not combined with position standardization. The greatest reduction in spatial variability was seen for combined standardizations of position, orientation and shape. These results show that ISSNs automated processing can be a valuable asset for measuring and controlling variability of fundamental features of brain structures.
doi:10.1007/s12021-011-9108-z
PMCID: PMC3738178  PMID: 21360205
ISSN; Spatial incidence map; Volumetric variance; Mango; Principal axis analysis; Shape standardization; LPBA40
12.  International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) 
Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) as a nutritional supplement. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. HMB can be used to enhance recovery by attenuating exercise induced skeletal muscle damage in trained and untrained populations. 2. If consuming HMB, an athlete will benefit from consuming the supplement in close proximity to their workout. 3. HMB appears to be most effective when consumed for 2 weeks prior to an exercise bout. 4. Thirty-eight mg·kg·BM-1 daily of HMB has been demonstrated to enhance skeletal muscle hypertrophy, strength, and power in untrained and trained populations when the appropriate exercise prescription is utilized. 5. Currently, two forms of HMB have been used: Calcium HMB (HMB-Ca) and a free acid form of HMB (HMB-FA). HMB-FA may increase plasma absorption and retention of HMB to a greater extent than HMB-CA. However, research with HMB-FA is in its infancy, and there is not enough research to support whether one form is superior. 6. HMB has been demonstrated to increase LBM and functionality in elderly, sedentary populations. 7. HMB ingestion in conjunction with a structured exercise program may result in greater declines in fat mass (FM). 8. HMB’s mechanisms of action include an inhibition and increase of proteolysis and protein synthesis, respectively. 9. Chronic consumption of HMB is safe in both young and old populations.
doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-6
PMCID: PMC3568064  PMID: 23374455
13.  International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks 
Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9. Diabetics and individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular, metabolic, hepatorenal, and neurologic disease who are taking medications that may be affected by high glycemic load foods, caffeine, and/or other stimulants should avoid use of ED and/or ES unless approved by their physician.
doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-1
PMCID: PMC3538552  PMID: 23281794
14.  Development of biomedical publications on ametropia research in PubMed from 1845 to 2010: a bibliometric analysis 
AIM
We have carried out a bibliometric analysis on the development of ametropia literature to determine its growth rule and tendency, and to provide the basis for the problems related to ametropia research.
METHODS
Literatures that contained the descriptors of ametropia in title or paper published before Nov. 10, 2010 in PubMed databases (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Pubmed) were selected. As bibliometric indicators of ametropia, biomedical journals referring to ophthalmology by ISSN were calculated. The principal bibliometric indicators: Price's and Bradford's laws were applied on the increase or dispersion of scientific literature, the participation index of languages and the journals. By means of manual coding, literatures were classified according to documents study and statistical analysis.
RESULTS
The literatures cited in ametropia, astigmatism, myopia and hypermetropia had accumulated to 26475, which consists of Review (n=1560), Randomized Controlled Trial (n=776), Practice Guideline (n=10), Meta-Analysis (n=23), Letter (n=1222), Editorial (n=328), Clinical Trial (n=1726) and Others (n=20830), and Humans (n=23073), Animals(n=1434) and others (n=1968). 1136 literatures were included in PubMed Central, 22384 in MEDLINE and 2955 in others. The ametropia literatures rose every 5 years which of the ametropia-year cumulated amount of the literatures had three periods: before 1900, slowly increasing from 1901 to 1950, rapidly rising from 1951 to 2010 (increased approximate exponentiation exponent). Sixty kinds of languages listed in PubMed databases, of which English is dominant for aborting to ametropia research documents before 2010 (77.32%, 20471/26475). The document languages of top eight account for 95.58% (English, German, French, Japanese, Russian, Italian, Spanish, Chinese), and others for 4.42% (1171/26475). The SCI database includes 48 ophthalmologic journals and the impact factor of 39 journals is ≥1 on Thomson-Reuters in 2010. Of 48 ophthalmologic journals, there were 14785 documents (55.85%) of ametropia, astigmatism, myopia, and hypermetropia. Others were without exception.
CONCLUSION
The bibliometric analysis results show that ametropia literature are increased progressively, approximate exponentiation exponent during 1951-2010. In addition, ametropia research has become more popular since nearly half century.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2011.01.01
PMCID: PMC3340669  PMID: 22553598
bibliometric analysis; biomedical publications; ametropia; journal; literature
15.  PLoS Medicine 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2004;329(7475):1190.
An open access, online journal from the Public Library of Science; first issue October 2004 ISSN 1549 1277 www.plosmedicine.org
Rating: ★★★★
PMCID: PMC527751
16.  PLOS Biology 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2004;328(7430):56.
An open access online journal from the Public Library of Science; first issue October 2003
ISSN 1544 9173 www.plosbiology.org
Rating: ★★★★
PMCID: PMC314264
17.  Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication 
ZooKeys  2012;1-10.
The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has voted in favour of a revised version of the amendment to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature that was proposed in 2008. The purpose of the amendment is to expand and refine the methods of publication allowed by the Code, particularly in relation to electronic publication. The amendment establishes an Official Register of Zoological Nomenclature (with ZooBank as its online version), allows electronic publication after 2011 under certain conditions, and disallows publication on optical discs after 2012. The requirements for electronic publications are that the work be registered in ZooBank before it is published, that the work itself state the date of publication and contain evidence that registration has occurred, and that the ZooBank registration state both the name of an electronic archive intended to preserve the work and the ISSN or ISBN associated with the work. Registration of new scientific names and nomenclatural acts is not required. The Commission has confirmed that ZooBank is ready to handle the requirements of the amendment.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.219.3994
PMCID: PMC3433695  PMID: 22977348
Amendment; archiving; electronic publication; International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; Official Register of Zoological Nomenclature; ZooBank
18.  Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you? 
Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC). The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF) with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication) the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank). Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.
To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-250
PMCID: PMC3173377  PMID: 21917189
19.  Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you? 
PhytoKeys  2011;5-11.
Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC). The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF) with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication) the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank). Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.
To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.
doi:10.3897/phytokeys.6.1960
PMCID: PMC3261035  PMID: 22287918
20.  The preterm piglet – a model in the study of oesophageal development in preterm neonates 
Rasch S, Sangild PT, Gregersen H., Schmidt M., Omari T, Lau C. The Preterm Piglet – an Animal Model for the Oesophageal Maturation in Preterm Neonates. Acta Paediatr ...... Stockholm. ISSN ......
Aim
Preterm infants have difficulty attaining independent oral feeding. This can ensue from inadequate sucking, swallowing, and/or respiration. In impeding bolus transport, immature oesophageal motility may also be a cause. As studies on the development of oesophageal motility are invasive in preterm infants, the preterm piglet was investigated as a potential research model.
Methods
Oesophageal motility (EM) of term (n=6) and preterm (n=15) piglets were monitored by manometry for 10 min immediately following bottle feeding on days 1-2 and 3-4 of life.
Results
Piglets’ oral feeding performance and EM were similar to those of their human counterparts. Term piglets readily completed their feeding whereas their preterm counterparts did not. They also presented with greater peristaltic activity and propagating velocity. Peristaltic activity remained unchanged over time in preterm piglets, but an increase in synchronous and decrease in incomplete motor activity were noted. Preterm piglets that developed symptoms analogous to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) demonstrated uncharacteristic oesophageal activity.
Conclusion
Immature EM may cause oral feeding difficulties. NEC-like symptoms may adversely affect EM. The piglet is a valid research model for studying human infant oral feeding and oesophageal development.
doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01564.x
PMCID: PMC2848287  PMID: 19878132
oral feeding; prematurity; oesophageal motility
21.  Pneumatose kystique iléale révélée par un volvulus du grêle 
La pneumatose kystique intestinale est une pathologie rare qui se caractérise par la présence de kystes gazeux dans la paroi intestinale. Elle est asymptomatique ou pauci symptomatique, et le plus souvent découverte lors d’un examen d’imagerie ou d’endoscopie. Nous rapportons un cas de pneumatose iléale compliquée d’un volvulus sur bride chez un patient jamais opéré auparavant.
© Hicham El bouhaddouti et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
PMCID: PMC3063497  PMID: 21436952
Pneumatose; volvulus; bride; chirurgie
22.  bioGUID: resolving, discovering, and minting identifiers for biodiversity informatics 
BMC Bioinformatics  2009;10(Suppl 14):S5.
Background
Linking together the data of interest to biodiversity researchers (including specimen records, images, taxonomic names, and DNA sequences) requires services that can mint, resolve, and discover globally unique identifiers (including, but not limited to, DOIs, HTTP URIs, and LSIDs).
Results
bioGUID implements a range of services, the core ones being an OpenURL resolver for bibliographic resources, and a LSID resolver. The LSID resolver supports Linked Data-friendly resolution using HTTP 303 redirects and content negotiation. Additional services include journal ISSN look-up, author name matching, and a tool to monitor the status of biodiversity data providers.
Conclusion
bioGUID is available at . Source code is available from .
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-10-S14-S5
PMCID: PMC2775151  PMID: 19900301
23.  Dietary protein safety and resistance exercise: what do we really know? 
Resistance trainers continue to receive mixed messages about the safety of purposely seeking ample dietary protein in their quest for stimulating protein synthesis, improving performance, or maintaining health. Despite protein's lay popularity and the routinely high intakes exhibited by strength athletes, liberal and purposeful protein consumption is often maligned by "experts". University textbooks, instructors, and various forms of literature from personal training groups and athletic organizations continue to use dissuasive language surrounding dietary protein. Due to the widely known health benefits of dietary protein and a growing body of evidence on its safety profile, this is unfortunate. In response, researchers have critiqued unfounded educational messages. As a recent summarizing example, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) Position Stand: Protein and Exercise reviewed general literature on renal and bone health. The concluding remark that "Concerns that protein intake within this range [1.4 – 2.0 g/kg body weight per day] is unhealthy are unfounded in healthy, exercising individuals." was based largely upon data from non-athletes due to "a lack of scientific evidence". Future studies were deemed necessary. This assessment is not unique in the scientific literature. Investigators continue to cite controversy, debate, and the lack of direct evidence that allows it. This review discusses the few existing safety studies done specific to athletes and calls for protein research specific to resistance trainers. Population-specific, long term data will be necessary for effective education in dietetics textbooks and from sports governing bodies.
doi:10.1186/1550-2783-6-3
PMCID: PMC2631482  PMID: 19138405
24.  Retraction: Epigenetic aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes in small cell lung cancer 
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2013.09.12
PMCID: PMC3944180  PMID: 24605244
25.  Differences in the alveolar macrophage proteome in transgenic mice expressing human SP-A1 and SP-A2 
Surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays a number of roles in lung host defense and innate immunity. There are two human genes, SFTPA1 and SFTPA2, and evidence indicates that the function of SP-A1 and SP-A2 proteins differ in several respects. To investigate the impact of SP-A1 and SP-A2 on the alveolar macrophage (AM) phenotype, we generated humanized transgenic (hTG) mice on the SP-A knockout (KO) background, each expressing human SP-A1 or SP-A2. Using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) we studied the AM cellular proteome. We compared mouse lines expressing high levels of SPA1, high levels of SP-A2, low levels of SP-A1, and low levels of SP-A2, with wild type (WT) and SP-A KO mice. AM from mice expressing high levels of SP-A2 were the most similar to WT mice, particularly for proteins related to actin and the cytoskeleton, as well as proteins regulated by Nrf2. The expression patterns from mouse lines expressing higher levels of the transgenes were almost the inverse of one another – the most highly expressed proteins in SP-A2 exhibited the lowest levels in the SP-A1 mice and vice versa. The mouse lines where each expressed low levels of SP-A1 or SP-A2 transgene had very similar protein expression patterns suggesting that responses to low levels of SP-A are independent of SP-A genotype, whereas the responses to higher amounts of SP-A are genotype-dependent. Together these observations indicate that in vivo exposure to SP-A1 or SP-A2 differentially affects the proteomic expression of AMs, with SP-A2 being more similar to WT.
doi:10.14302/issn.2326-0793.jpgr-12-207
PMCID: PMC3981560
surfactant; lung; 2D-DIGE; collectin; host defense

Results 1-25 (6125)