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1.  FMR1 CGG Expansions: Prevalence and Sex Ratios 
We have estimated the prevalence of FMR1 premutation and gray zone CGG repeat expansions in a population-based sample of 19,996 male and female adults in Wisconsin and compared the observed sex ratios of the prevalence of FMR1 CGG premutation and gray zone expansions to theoretical sex ratios. The female premutation prevalence was 1 in 148 and comparable to past research, but the male premutation prevalence of 1 in 290 is somewhat higher than most previous estimates. The female:male premutation prevalence ratio is in line with the theoretically predicted sex ratio. The prevalence of CGG repeats in the gray zone (45–54 repeats) was 1 in 33 females and 1 in 62 males. The prevalence of the “expanded” gray zone (defined here as 41–54 CGG repeats) was 1 in 14 females and 1 in 22 males, leading to a female:male ratio of 1.62 (95% confidence interval 1.39–1.90). This female:male ratio was significantly lower than the expected ratio of 2.0. We examined results from three previously published FMR1 prevalence studies and found similar female:male ratios for CGG repeats in this “expanded” gray zone range (pooled female:male ratio across all four studies 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.51–1.82). Further research is needed to understand the apparent excess prevalence of males with CGG repeats in this range.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.32176
PMCID: PMC3885228  PMID: 23740716
Fragile X; gray zone; premutation; FMR1
2.  Variation in Genome-Wide Levels of Meiotic Recombination Is Established at the Onset of Prophase in Mammalian Males 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(1):e1004125.
Segregation of chromosomes during the first meiotic division relies on crossovers established during prophase. Although crossovers are strictly regulated so that at least one occurs per chromosome, individual variation in crossover levels is not uncommon. In an analysis of different inbred strains of male mice, we identified among-strain variation in the number of foci for the crossover-associated protein MLH1. We report studies of strains with “low” (CAST/EiJ), “medium” (C3H/HeJ), and “high” (C57BL/6J) genome-wide MLH1 values to define factors responsible for this variation. We utilized immunofluorescence to analyze the number and distribution of proteins that function at different stages in the recombination pathway: RAD51 and DMC1, strand invasion proteins acting shortly after double-strand break (DSB) formation, MSH4, part of the complex stabilizing double Holliday junctions, and the Bloom helicase BLM, thought to have anti-crossover activity. For each protein, we identified strain-specific differences that mirrored the results for MLH1; i.e., CAST/EiJ mice had the lowest values, C3H/HeJ mice intermediate values, and C57BL/6J mice the highest values. This indicates that differences in the numbers of DSBs (as identified by RAD51 and DMC1) are translated into differences in the number of crossovers, suggesting that variation in crossover levels is established by the time of DSB formation. However, DSBs per se are unlikely to be the primary determinant, since allelic variation for the DSB-inducing locus Spo11 resulted in differences in the numbers of DSBs but not the number of MLH1 foci. Instead, chromatin conformation appears to be a more important contributor, since analysis of synaptonemal complex length and DNA loop size also identified consistent strain-specific differences; i.e., crossover frequency increased with synaptonemal complex length and was inversely related to chromatin loop size. This indicates a relationship between recombination and chromatin compaction that may develop as DSBs form or earlier during establishment of the meiotic axis.
Author Summary
During prophase of meiosis, homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material, in a process known as crossing-over. Crossovers are thought to be essential for proper separation of chromosomes during meiosis but, surprisingly, most mammalian species exhibit substantial individual variation in the number of crossovers per cell. We investigated the basis for this variation by examining localization patterns of crossover-associated proteins in inbred strains of male mice with differing average numbers of crossovers per spermatocyte. Our results indicate that the strain-specific variation is established early in meiotic prophase, possibly even before the DNA is broken in advance of subsequent exchanges between homologous chromosomes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004125
PMCID: PMC3907295  PMID: 24497841
3.  Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at, or Prior to, Establishment of Double-Strand Breaks 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e85075.
Meiotic recombination is sexually dimorphic in most mammalian species, including humans, but the basis for the male:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences in upstream events of double-strand break (DSB) formation and synaptic initiation. Specifically, we utilized the DNA mismatch repair protein MLH1 as a marker of recombination events, the RecA homologue RAD51 as a surrogate for DSBs, and the synaptonemal complex proteins SYCP3 and/or SYCP1 to examine synapsis between homologs. Consistent with linkage studies, genome-wide recombination levels were higher in females than in males, and the placement of exchanges varied between the sexes. Subsequent analyses of DSBs and synaptic initiation sites indicated similar male:female differences, providing strong evidence that sex-specific differences in recombination rates are established at or before the formation of meiotic DSBs. We then asked whether these differences might be linked to variation in the organization of the meiotic axis and/or axis-associated DNA and, indeed, we observed striking male:female differences in synaptonemal complex (SC) length and DNA loop size. Taken together, our observations suggest that sex specific differences in recombination in humans may derive from chromatin differences established prior to the onset of the recombination pathway.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085075
PMCID: PMC3869931  PMID: 24376867
4.  High-Throughput Computer Vision Introduces the Time Axis to a Quantitative Trait Map of a Plant Growth Response 
Genetics  2013;195(3):1077-1086.
Automated image acquisition, a custom analysis algorithm, and a distributed computing resource were used to add time as a third dimension to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) map for plant root gravitropism, a model growth response to an environmental cue. Digital images of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling roots from two independently reared sets of 162 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and one set of 92 near isogenic lines (NILs) derived from a Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) × Landsberg erecta (Ler) cross were collected automatically every 2 min for 8 hr following induction of gravitropism by 90° reorientation of the sample. High-throughput computing (HTC) was used to measure root tip angle in each of the 1.1 million images acquired and perform statistical regression of tip angle against the genotype at each of the 234 RIL or 102 NIL DNA markers independently at each time point using a standard stepwise procedure. Time-dependent QTL were detected on chromosomes 1, 3, and 4 by this mapping method and by an approach developed to treat the phenotype time course as a function-valued trait. The QTL on chromosome 4 was earliest, appearing at 0.5 hr and remaining significant for 5 hr, while the QTL on chromosome 1 appeared at 3 hr and thereafter remained significant. The Cvi allele generally had a negative effect of 2.6–4.0%. Heritability due to the QTL approached 25%. This study shows how computer vision and statistical genetic analysis by HTC can characterize the developmental timing of genetic architectures.
doi:10.1534/genetics.113.153346
PMCID: PMC3813838  PMID: 23979570
root gravitropism; QTL; natural variation; Arabidopsis
5.  Identification of a Novel Polymorphism in X-Linked Sterol-4-Alpha-Carboxylate 3-Dehydrogenase (Nsdhl) Associated with Reduced High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in I/LnJ Mice 
G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics  2013;3(10):1819-1825.
Loci controlling plasma lipid concentrations were identified by performing a quantitative trait locus analysis on genotypes from 233 mice from a F2 cross between KK/HlJ and I/LnJ, two strains known to differ in their high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When fed a standard diet, HDL cholesterol concentration was affected by two significant loci, the Apoa2 locus on Chromosome (Chr) 1 and a novel locus on Chr X, along with one suggestive locus on Chr 6. Non-HDL concentration also was affected by loci on Chr 1 and X along with a suggestive locus on Chr 3. Additional loci that may be sex-specific were identified for HDL cholesterol on Chr 2, 3, and 4 and for non-HDL cholesterol on Chr 5, 7, and 14. Further investigation into the potential causative gene on Chr X for reduced HDL cholesterol levels revealed a novel, I/LnJ-specific nonsynonymous polymorphism in Nsdhl, which codes for sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Although many lipid quantitative trait locus have been reported previously, these data suggest there are additional genes left to be identified that control lipid levels and that can provide new pharmaceutical targets.
doi:10.1534/g3.113.007567
PMCID: PMC3789806  PMID: 23979938
QTL; genomics; HDL cholesterol; Nsdhl
6.  Acute-Phase CD8 T Cell Responses That Select for Escape Variants Are Needed to Control Live Attenuated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(16):9353-9364.
The overall CD8 T cell response to human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) targets a collection of discrete epitope specificities. Some of these epitope-specific CD8 T cells emerge in the weeks and months following infection and rapidly select for sequence variants, whereas other CD8 T cell responses develop during the chronic infection phase and rarely select for sequence variants. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that acute-phase CD8 T cell responses that do not rapidly select for escape variants are unable to control viral replication in vivo as well as those that do rapidly select for escape variants. We created a derivative of live attenuated SIV (SIVmac239Δnef) in which we ablated five epitopes that elicit early CD8 T cell responses and rapidly accumulate sequence variants in SIVmac239-infected Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCMs) that are homozygous for the M3 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype. This live attenuated SIV variant was called m3KOΔnef. Viremia was significantly higher in M3 homozygous MCMs infected with m3KOΔnef than in either MHC-mismatched MCMs infected with m3KOΔnef or MCMs infected with SIVmac239Δnef. Three CD8 T cell responses, including two that do not rapidly select for escape variants, predominated during early m3KOΔnef infection in the M3 homozygous MCMs, but these animals were unable to control viral replication. These results provide evidence that acute-phase CD8 T cell responses that have the potential to rapidly select for escape variants in the early phase of infection are needed to establish viral control in vivo.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00909-13
PMCID: PMC3754066  PMID: 23785211
7.  Identification of X-linked quantitative trait loci affecting cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and fine mapping by selective sweep analysis 
Molecular ecology  2010;20(3):530-544.
Drosophila melanogaster is a cosmopolitan species that colonizes a great variety of environments. One trait that shows abundant evidence for naturally segregating genetic variance in different populations of D. melanogaster is cold tolerance. Previous work has found quantitative trait loci (QTL) exclusively on the second and the third chromosomes. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of cold tolerance on the X chromosome and to compare the results with our analyses of selective sweeps, a mapping population was derived from a cross between substitution lines that solely differed in the origin of their X chromosome: one originates from a European inbred line and the other one from an African inbred line. We found a total of six QTL for cold tolerance factors on the X chromosome of D. melanogaster. Although the composite interval mapping revealed slightly different QTL profiles between sexes, a coherent model suggests that most QTL overlapped between sexes, and each explained around 5–14% of the genetic variance (which may be slightly overestimated). The allelic effects were largely additive, but we also detected two significant interactions. Taken together, this provides evidence for multiple QTL that are spread along the entire X chromosome and whose effects range from low to intermediate. One detected transgressive QTL influences cold tolerance in different ways for the two sexes. While females benefit from the European allele increasing their cold tolerance, males tend to do better with the African allele. Finally, using selective sweep mapping, the candidate gene CG16700 for cold tolerance colocalizing with a QTL was identified.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04951.x
PMCID: PMC3668310  PMID: 21199023
cold stress; QTL analysis; selective sweep mapping; thermal adaptation
8.  Scram1 is a modifier of spinal cord resistance for astrocytoma on mouse Chr 5 
Mammalian Genome  2011;23(3-4):277-285.
Tumor location can profoundly affect morbidity and patient prognosis even for the same tumor type. Very little is known about whether tumor location is determined stochastically or whether genetic risk factors can affect where tumors arise within an organ system. We have taken advantage of the Nf1−/+;Trp53−/+cis mouse model of astrocytoma/glioblastoma to map genetic loci affecting whether astrocytomas are found in the spinal cord. We identify a locus on distal Chr 5, termed Scram1 for spinal cord resistance to astrocytoma modifier 1 with a LOD score of 5.0 and a genome-wide significance of P<0.004. Mice heterozygous for C57BL/6JX129S4/SvJae at this locus show less astrocytoma in the spinal cord compared to 129S4/SvJae homozygous mice, although we have shown previously that 129S4/SvJae mice are more resistant to astrocytoma than C57BL/6J. Furthermore, the astrocytomas that are found in the spinal cord of Scram1 heterozygous mice arise in older mice. Because spinal cord astrocytomas are very rare and difficult to treat, better understanding of the genetic factors that govern astrocytoma in the spine may suggest new targets of therapy or prevention.
doi:10.1007/s00335-011-9380-0
PMCID: PMC3299925  PMID: 22160242
astrocytoma; glioma; spinal cord; Nf1; p53
9.  Arlm1 is a male-specific modifier of astrocytoma resistance on mouse Chr 12 
Neuro-Oncology  2012;14(2):160-174.
While many cancers show a sex bias, the genetic basis and molecular mechanisms underlying sex bias are not always clear. Astrocytoma and glioblastoma show male predominance in humans. We have shown previously that glial tumors forming in the Nf1−/+; Trp53−/+cis (NPcis) mouse model also show a sex bias in some genetic contexts. Using cross-species comparisons we have identified candidate male-specific modifiers of astrocytoma/glioblastoma. Linkage analysis of B6X(B6X129)-NPcis mice identifies a modifier of astrocytoma resistance specific to males, named Arlm1, on distal mouse Chr 12. Arlm1 is syntenic to human Chr 7p15, 7p21, 7q36, and 14q32 regions that are altered in human glioblastoma. A subset of these genes shows male-specific correlations to glioblastoma patient survival time and represents strong candidates for the Arlm1 modifier gene. Identification of male-specific modifier genes will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of male predominance in astrocytoma and glioblastoma.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nor206
PMCID: PMC3266387  PMID: 22234937
astrocytoma; glioblastoma; modifier; sex differences
10.  Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci onto a Phylogenetic Tree 
Genetics  2012;192(1):267-279.
Despite advances in genetic mapping of quantitative traits and in phylogenetic comparative approaches, these two perspectives are rarely combined. The joint consideration of multiple crosses among related taxa (whether species or strains) not only allows more precise mapping of the genetic loci (called quantitative trait loci, QTL) that contribute to important quantitative traits, but also offers the opportunity to identify the origin of a QTL allele on the phylogenetic tree that relates the taxa. We describe a formal method for combining multiple crosses to infer the location of a QTL on a tree. We further discuss experimental design issues for such endeavors, such as how many crosses are required and which sets of crosses are best. Finally, we explore the method’s performance in computer simulations, and we illustrate its use through application to a set of four mouse intercrosses among five inbred strains, with data on HDL cholesterol.
doi:10.1534/genetics.112.142448
PMCID: PMC3430541  PMID: 22745229
quantitative trait loci (QTL); phylogenetic tree; evolution; multiple crosses; combining crosses
11.  The Lsktm1 Locus Modulates Lung and Skin Tumorigenesis in the Mouse 
G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics  2012;2(9):1041-1046.
Alleles derived from skin tumor−resistant Car-R mice provide resistance to both skin and lung tumorigenesis over the susceptibility of the SWR/J strain. In an effort to map tumor modifier loci affecting both tumor types, we carried out a genetic linkage analysis in backcross SWR/J x (SWR/J x Car-R) mice and identified a locus (Lsktm1) on chromosome 1 linked to both skin (LOD score = 3.93) and lung (LOD score = 8.74) tumorigenesis. Two genes, Igfbp5 and Igfbp2, residing in this locus and belonging to the insulin-like growth factor binding protein family were expressed at significantly greater levels in normal lung tissue from cancer-resistant Car-R mice than in cancer-susceptible SWR/J mice. Overexpression of the recombinant Igfbp5 and Igfbp2 genes in two lung cancer cell lines significantly inhibited clonogenicity (P < 0.0001). Collectively, we have identified a single polymorphic locus that affects skin and lung tumorigenesis and identify Igfbp5 and Igfbp2 as candidate modifier genes of lung tumorigenesis.
doi:10.1534/g3.112.003525
PMCID: PMC3429918  PMID: 22973541
disease models; cancer modifier genes; lung cancer; quantitative trait loci (QTLs); skin cancer; single-nucleotide polymorphisms
12.  Quantile-Based Permutation Thresholds for Quantitative Trait Loci Hotspots 
Genetics  2012;191(4):1355-1365.
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) hotspots (genomic locations affecting many traits) are a common feature in genetical genomics studies and are biologically interesting since they may harbor critical regulators. Therefore, statistical procedures to assess the significance of hotspots are of key importance. One approach, randomly allocating observed QTL across the genomic locations separately by trait, implicitly assumes all traits are uncorrelated. Recently, an empirical test for QTL hotspots was proposed on the basis of the number of traits that exceed a predetermined LOD value, such as the standard permutation LOD threshold. The permutation null distribution of the maximum number of traits across all genomic locations preserves the correlation structure among the phenotypes, avoiding the detection of spurious hotspots due to nongenetic correlation induced by uncontrolled environmental factors and unmeasured variables. However, by considering only the number of traits above a threshold, without accounting for the magnitude of the LOD scores, relevant information is lost. In particular, biologically interesting hotspots composed of a moderate to small number of traits with strong LOD scores may be neglected as nonsignificant. In this article we propose a quantile-based permutation approach that simultaneously accounts for the number and the LOD scores of traits within the hotspots. By considering a sliding scale of mapping thresholds, our method can assess the statistical significance of both small and large hotspots. Although the proposed approach can be applied to any type of heritable high-volume “omic” data set, we restrict our attention to expression (e)QTL analysis. We assess and compare the performances of these three methods in simulations and we illustrate how our approach can effectively assess the significance of moderate and small hotspots with strong LOD scores in a yeast expression data set.
doi:10.1534/genetics.112.139451
PMCID: PMC3416013  PMID: 22661325
hotspots; permutation tests; multiple traits; LOD scores; quantitative trait loci (QTL)
13.  xQTL workbench: a scalable web environment for multi-level QTL analysis 
Bioinformatics  2012;28(7):1042-1044.
Summary: xQTL workbench is a scalable web platform for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) at multiple levels: for example gene expression (eQTL), protein abundance (pQTL), metabolite abundance (mQTL) and phenotype (phQTL) data. Popular QTL mapping methods for model organism and human populations are accessible via the web user interface. Large calculations scale easily on to multi-core computers, clusters and Cloud. All data involved can be uploaded and queried online: markers, genotypes, microarrays, NGS, LC-MS, GC-MS, NMR, etc. When new data types come available, xQTL workbench is quickly customized using the Molgenis software generator.
Availability: xQTL workbench runs on all common platforms, including Linux, Mac OS X and Windows. An online demo system, installation guide, tutorials, software and source code are available under the LGPL3 license from http://www.xqtl.org.
Contact: m.a.swertz@rug.nl
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/bts049
PMCID: PMC3315722  PMID: 22308096
14.  Genotype Probabilities at Intermediate Generations in the Construction of Recombinant Inbred Lines 
Genetics  2012;190(2):403-412.
The mouse Collaborative Cross (CC) is a panel of eight-way recombinant inbred lines: eight diverse parental strains are intermated, followed by repeated sibling mating, many times in parallel, to create a new set of inbred lines whose genomes are random mosaics of the genomes of the original eight strains. Many generations are required to reach inbreeding, and so a number of investigators have sought to make use of phenotype and genotype data on mice from intermediate generations during the formation of the CC lines (so-called pre-CC mice). The development of a hidden Markov model for genotype reconstruction in such pre-CC mice, on the basis of incompletely informative genetic markers (such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms), formally requires the two-locus genotype probabilities at an arbitrary generation along the path to inbreeding. In this article, I describe my efforts to calculate such probabilities. While closed-form solutions for the two-locus genotype probabilities could not be derived, I provide a prescription for calculating such probabilities numerically. In addition, I present a number of useful quantities, including single-locus genotype probabilities, two-locus haplotype probabilities, and the fixation probability and map expansion at each generation along the course to inbreeding.
doi:10.1534/genetics.111.132647
PMCID: PMC3276635  PMID: 22345609
15.  Haplotype Probabilities in Advanced Intercross Populations 
G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics  2012;2(2):199-202.
Advanced intercross populations, in which multiple inbred strains are mated at random for many generations, have the advantage of greater precision of genetic mapping because of the accumulation of recombination events across the multiple generations. Related designs include heterogeneous stock and the diversity outcross population. In this article, I derive the two-locus haplotype probabilities on the autosome and X chromosome with these designs. These haplotype probabilities provide the key quantities for developing hidden Markov models for the treatment of missing genotype information. I further derive the map expansion in these populations, which is the frequency of recombination breakpoints on a random chromosome.
doi:10.1534/g3.111.001818
PMCID: PMC3284327  PMID: 22384398
advanced intercross lines; heterogeneous stock; diversity outcross; map expansion; Collaborative Cross; Mouse Genetic Resource
16.  R/qtl: high-throughput multiple QTL mapping 
Bioinformatics  2010;26(23):2990-2992.
Motivation: R/qtl is free and powerful software for mapping and exploring quantitative trait loci (QTL). R/qtl provides a fully comprehensive range of methods for a wide range of experimental cross types. We recently added multiple QTL mapping (MQM) to R/qtl. MQM adds higher statistical power to detect and disentangle the effects of multiple linked and unlinked QTL compared with many other methods. MQM for R/qtl adds many new features including improved handling of missing data, analysis of 10 000 s of molecular traits, permutation for determining significance thresholds for QTL and QTL hot spots, and visualizations for cis–trans and QTL interaction effects. MQM for R/qtl is the first free and open source implementation of MQM that is multi-platform, scalable and suitable for automated procedures and large genetical genomics datasets.
Availability: R/qtl is free and open source multi-platform software for the statistical language R, and is made available under the GPLv3 license. R/qtl can be installed from http://www.rqtl.org/. R/qtl queries should be directed at the mailing list, see http://www.rqtl.org/list/.
Contact: kbroman@biostat.wisc.edu
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btq565
PMCID: PMC2982156  PMID: 20966004
17.  Cross-Reactive T Cells Are Involved in Rapid Clearance of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus in Nonhuman Primates 
PLoS Pathogens  2011;7(11):e1002381.
In mouse models of influenza, T cells can confer broad protection against multiple viral subtypes when antibodies raised against a single subtype fail to do so. However, the role of T cells in protecting humans against influenza remains unclear. Here we employ a translational nonhuman primate model to show that cross-reactive T cell responses play an important role in early clearance of infection with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm). To “prime” cellular immunity, we first infected 5 rhesus macaques with a seasonal human H1N1 isolate. These animals made detectable cellular and antibody responses against the seasonal H1N1 isolate but had no neutralizing antibodies against H1N1pdm. Four months later, we challenged the 5 “primed” animals and 7 naive controls with H1N1pdm. In naive animals, CD8+ T cells with an activated phenotype (Ki-67+ CD38+) appeared in blood and lung 5–7 days post inoculation (p.i.) with H1N1pdm and reached peak magnitude 7–10 days p.i. In contrast, activated T cells were recruited to the lung as early as 2 days p.i. in “primed” animals, and reached peak frequencies in blood and lung 4–7 days p.i. Interferon (IFN)-γ Elispot and intracellular cytokine staining assays showed that the virus-specific response peaked earlier and reached a higher magnitude in “primed” animals than in naive animals. This response involved both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Strikingly, “primed” animals cleared H1N1pdm infection significantly earlier from the upper and lower respiratory tract than the naive animals did, and before the appearance of H1N1pdm-specific neutralizing antibodies. Together, our results suggest that cross-reactive T cell responses can mediate early clearance of an antigenically novel influenza virus in primates. Vaccines capable of inducing such cross-reactive T cells may help protect humans against severe disease caused by newly emerging pandemic influenza viruses.
Author Summary
Antibodies against influenza target the highly mutable proteins on the virus surface. Influenza pandemics are caused by novel viruses whose surface proteins are so different from previously circulating viruses as to be unrecognizable by most individuals' antibodies. We hypothesized that T cells might be capable of reducing the severity of infection with pandemic influenza viruses, against which antibodies are ineffective. Experiments in mice have supported this idea, but the ability of T cells to protect humans against influenza has remained unclear. We therefore tested our hypothesis in macaque monkeys, whose physiology and immune systems closely resemble those of humans. We used a seasonal virus to “prime” macaques to make immune responses against influenza and found that these animals were able to control infection with 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza viruses more effectively than animals that had not been “primed.” Protection was associated with T cell responses, but not antibodies, that were quickly “recalled” after challenge with the pandemic virus. Our results suggest that “cross-reactive” T cells could play an important role in controlling influenza in humans. Vaccines designed to induce strong T cell responses in addition to antibodies could offer enhanced protection against emerging influenza viruses.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002381
PMCID: PMC3213121  PMID: 22102819
18.  An SNP-Based Linkage Map for Zebrafish Reveals Sex Determination Loci 
G3 (Bethesda, Md.)  2011;1(1):3-9.
A surprising diversity of mechanisms controls sex determination of vertebrate organisms, even among closely related species. Both genetic and temperature-dependent systems of sex determination have been described in teleost fish. In the common zebrafish model organism, heteromorphic sex chromosomes are not observed, and the potential role of a genetic component of sex determination remains largely unknown. Here we report a genome-wide linkage study of sex determination in zebrafish using a novel SNP genetic map. We identified loci on zebrafish chromosomes 5 (LOD score 7.9) and 16 (LOD score 9.3) governing sex determination as a complex trait, rather than as an XY or ZW genetic system. Each of these loci contains a prominent candidate gene with a conserved role in sex determination across additional species that suggest potential mechanisms of sex determination in zebrafish. The chromosome 5 locus harbors dmrt1, a key gene in sex determination from fruit flies to humans; mutation of the human DMRT1 ortholog is a cause of complete sex reversal of XY individuals. The chromosome 16 locus harbors cyp21a2; mutation of the human CYP21A2 ortholog is one of the more common causes of pseudohermaphroditism. Mutation detection at each of these candidate genes within the zebrafish cross identified hypomorphic variants on the female-associated allele of each locus. The two loci together accounted for 16% of variance of the trait. Interacting environmental cues are likely to be an additional important component of sex determination in zebrafish.
doi:10.1534/g3.111.000190
PMCID: PMC3178105  PMID: 21949597
DMRT1; doublesex; CYP21A2; 21-hydroxylase; sex determination; teleost fish; SNP; genetic map; recombination rate; genetic diversity; structure; zebrafish
19.  Characterization of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genetics and comprehensive genotyping by pyrosequencing in rhesus macaques 
BMC Genomics  2011;12:295.
Background
Human killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) play a critical role in governing the immune response to neoplastic and infectious disease. Rhesus macaques serve as important animal models for many human diseases in which KIRs are implicated; however, the study of KIR activity in this model is hindered by incomplete characterization of KIR genetics.
Results
Here we present a characterization of KIR genetics in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We conducted a survey of KIRs in this species, identifying 47 novel full-length KIR sequences. Using this expanded sequence library to build upon previous work, we present evidence supporting the existence of 22 Mamu-KIR genes, providing a framework within which to describe macaque KIRs. We also developed a novel pyrosequencing-based technique for KIR genotyping. This method provides both comprehensive KIR genotype and frequency estimates of transcript level, with implications for the study of KIRs in all species.
Conclusions
The results of this study significantly improve our understanding of macaque KIR genetic organization and diversity, with implications for the study of many human diseases that use macaques as a model. The ability to obtain comprehensive KIR genotypes is of basic importance for the study of KIRs, and can easily be adapted to other species. Together these findings both advance the field of macaque KIRs and facilitate future research into the role of KIRs in human disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-295
PMCID: PMC3125267  PMID: 21645414
20.  An SNP-Based Linkage Map for Zebrafish Reveals Sex Determination Loci 
G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics  2011;1(1):3-9.
A surprising diversity of mechanisms controls sex determination of vertebrate organisms, even among closely related species. Both genetic and temperature-dependent systems of sex determination have been described in teleost fish. In the common zebrafish model organism, heteromorphic sex chromosomes are not observed, and the potential role of a genetic component of sex determination remains largely unknown. Here we report a genome-wide linkage study of sex determination in zebrafish using a novel SNP genetic map. We identified loci on zebrafish chromosomes 5 (LOD score 7.9) and 16 (LOD score 9.3) governing sex determination as a complex trait, rather than as an XY or ZW genetic system. Each of these loci contains a prominent candidate gene with a conserved role in sex determination across additional species that suggest potential mechanisms of sex determination in zebrafish. The chromosome 5 locus harbors dmrt1, a key gene in sex determination from fruit flies to humans; mutation of the human DMRT1 ortholog is a cause of complete sex reversal of XY individuals. The chromosome 16 locus harbors cyp21a2; mutation of the human CYP21A2 ortholog is one of the more common causes of pseudohermaphroditism. Mutation detection at each of these candidate genes within the zebrafish cross identified hypomorphic variants on the female-associated allele of each locus. The two loci together accounted for 16% of variance of the trait. Interacting environmental cues are likely to be an additional important component of sex determination in zebrafish.
doi:10.1534/g3.111.000190
PMCID: PMC3178105  PMID: 21949597
DMRT1; doublesex; CYP21A2; 21-hydroxylase; sex determination; teleost fish; SNP; genetic map; recombination rate; genetic diversity; structure; zebrafish
21.  Cortical, but Not Posterior Subcapsular, Cataract Shows Significant Familial Aggregation in an Older Population after Adjustment for Possible Shared Environmental Factors 
Ophthalmology  2005;112(1):73-77.
Purpose
To quantify the risk for age-related cortical cataract and posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) associated with having an affected sibling after adjusting for known environmental and personal risk factors.
Design
Sibling cohort study.
Participants
Participants in the ongoing Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) study (n = 321; mean age, 78.1±4.2 years) and their locally resident siblings (n = 453; mean age, 72.6±7.4 years) were recruited at the time of Rounds 3 and 4 of the SEE study.
Intervention/Testing Methods
Retroillumination photographs of the lens were graded for the presence of cortical cataract and PSC with the Wilmer grading system. The residual correlation between siblings' cataract grades was estimated after adjustment for a number of factors (age; gender; race; lifetime exposure to ultraviolet-B light; cigarette, alcohol, estrogen, and steroid use; serum antioxidants; history of diabetes; blood pressure; and body mass index) suspected to be associated with the presence of cataract.
Results
The average sibship size was 2.7 per family. Multivariate analysis revealed the magnitude of heritability (h2) for cortical cataract to be 24% (95% CI, 6%–42%), whereas that for PSC was not statistically significant (h2 4%; 95% CI, 0%–11%) after adjustment for the covariates. The model revealed that increasing age, female gender, a history of diabetes, and black race increased the odds of cortical cataract, whereas higher levels of provitamin A were protective. A history of diabetes and steroid use increased the odds for PSC.
Conclusions
This study is consistent with a significant genetic effect for age-related cortical cataract but not PSC.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.07.012
PMCID: PMC3102010  PMID: 15629823
22.  Nuclear Cataract Shows Significant Familial Aggregation in an Older Population after Adjustment for Possible Shared Environmental Factors 
Purpose
To quantify the association between siblings in age-related nuclear cataract, after adjusting for known environmental and personal risk factors.
Methods
All participants (probands) in the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) project and their locally resident siblings underwent digital slit lamp photography and were administered a questionnaire to assess risk factors for cataract including: age, gender, lifetime sun exposure, smoking and diabetes history, and use of alcohol and medications such as estrogens and steroids. In addition, blood pressure, body mass index, and serum antioxidants were measured in all participants. Lens photographs were graded by trained observers masked to the subjects' identity, using the Wilmer Cataract Grading System. The odds ratio for siblings for affectedness with nuclear cataract and the sibling correlation of nuclear cataract grade, after adjusting for covariates, were estimated with generalized estimating equations.
Results
Among 307 probands (mean age, 77.6 ± 4.5 years) and 434 full siblings (mean age, 72.4 ± 7.4 years), the average sibship size was 2.7 per family. After adjustment for covariates, the probability of development of nuclear cataract was significantly increased (odds ratio [OR] = 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30–3.30) among individuals with a sibling with nuclear cataract (nuclear grade ≥ 3.0). The final fitted model indicated a magnitude of heritability for nuclear cataract of 35.6% (95% CI: 21.0%–50.3%) after adjustment for the covariates.
Conclusions
Findings in this study are consistent with a genetic effect for age-related nuclear cataract, a common and clinically significant form of lens opacity.
PMCID: PMC3092733  PMID: 15223793
23.  Multiple loci contribute to genome-wide recombination levels in male mice 
Mammalian Genome  2010;21(11-12):550-555.
Recent linkage-based studies in humans suggest the presence of loci that affect either genome-wide recombination rates, utilization of recombination hotspots, or both. We have been interested in utilizing cytological methodology to directly assess recombination in mammalian meiocytes and to identify recombination-associated loci. In the present report we summarize studies in which we combined a cytological assay of recombination in mouse pachytene spermatocytes with QTL analyses to identify loci that contribute to genome-wide levels of recombination in male meiosis. Specifically, we analyzed MLH1 foci, a marker of crossovers, in 194 F2 male mice derived from a subspecific cross between CAST/EiJ and C57BL/6J parental strains. We then used these data to uncover loci associated with individual variation in mean MLH1 values. We identified seven recombination-associated loci across the genome (on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 14, 15, 17, and X), indicating that there are multiple recombination “setting” loci in mammalian male meiosis.
doi:10.1007/s00335-010-9303-5
PMCID: PMC3002158  PMID: 21113599
24.  Extralymphoid CD8+ T Cells Resident in Tissue from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239Δnef-Vaccinated Macaques Suppress SIVmac239 Replication Ex Vivo▿  
Journal of Virology  2010;84(7):3362-3372.
Live-attenuated vaccination with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVmac239Δnef is the most successful vaccine product tested to date in macaques. However, the mechanisms that explain the efficacy of this vaccine remain largely unknown. We utilized an ex vivo viral suppression assay to assess the quality of the immune response in SIVmac239Δnef-immunized animals. Using major histocompatibility complex-matched Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, we did not detect SIV-specific functional immune responses in the blood by gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot assay at select time points; however, we found that lung CD8+ T cells, unlike blood CD8+ T cells, effectively suppress virus replication by up to 80%. These results suggest that SIVmac239Δnef may be an effective vaccine because it elicits functional immunity at mucosal sites. Moreover, these results underscore the limitations of relying on immunological measurements from peripheral blood lymphocytes in studies of protective immunity to HIV/SIV.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02028-09
PMCID: PMC2838091  PMID: 20089651
25.  Detecting single-nucleotide polymorphism by single-nucleotide polymorphism interactions in rheumatoid arthritis using a two-step approach with machine learning and a Bayesian threshold least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) model 
BMC Proceedings  2009;3(Suppl 7):S63.
The objective of this study was to detect interactions between relevant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data from Problem 1 of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 were used. These data consisted of 868 cases and 1,194 controls genotyped with the 500 k Illumina chip. First, machine learning methods were applied for preselecting SNPs. One hundred SNPs outside the HLA region and 1,500 SNPs in the HLA region were preselected using information-gain theory. The software weka was used to reduce colinearity and redundancy in the HLA region, resulting in a subset of 6 SNPs out of 1,500. In a second step, a parametric approach to account for interactions between SNPs in the HLA region, as well as HLA-nonHLA interactions was conducted using a Bayesian threshold least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) model incorporating 2,560 covariates. This approach detected some main and interaction effects for SNPs in genes that have previously been associated with RA (e.g., rs2395175, rs660895, rs10484560, and rs2476601). Further, some other SNPs detected in this study may be considered in candidate gene studies.
PMCID: PMC2795964  PMID: 20018057

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