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1.  N-Glycosylation of Carnosinase Influences Protein Secretion and Enzyme Activity 
Diabetes  2010;59(8):1984-1990.
OBJECTIVE
The (CTG)n polymorphism in the serum carnosinase (CN-1) gene affects CN-1 secretion. Since CN-1 is heavily glycosylated and glycosylation might influence protein secretion as well, we tested the role of N-glycosylation for CN-1 secretion and enzyme activity. We also tested whether CN-1 secretion is changed under hyperglycemic conditions.
RESULTS
N-glycosylation of CN-1 was either inhibited by tunicamycin in pCSII-CN-1–transfected Cos-7 cells or by stepwise deletion of its three putative N-glycosylation sites. CN-1 protein expression, N-glycosylation, and enzyme activity were assessed in cell extracts and supernatants. The influence of hyperglycemia on CN-1 enzyme activity in human serum was tested in homozygous (CTG)5 diabetic patients and healthy control subjects.
Tunicamycin completely inhibited CN-1 secretion. Deletion of all N-glycosylation sites was required to reduce CN-1 secretion efficiency. Enzyme activity was already diminished when two sites were deleted. In pCSII-CN-1–transfected Cos-7 cells cultured in medium containing 25 mmol/l d-glucose, the immature 61 kilodaltons (kDa) CN-1 immune reactive band was not detected. This was paralleled by an increased GlcNAc expression in cell lysates and CN-1 expression in the supernatants. Homozygous (CTG)5 diabetic patients had significantly higher serum CN-1 activity compared with genotype-matched, healthy control subjects.
CONCLUSIONS
We conclude that apart from the (CTG)n polymorphism in the signal peptide of CN-1, N-glycosylation is essential for appropriate secretion and enzyme activity. Since hyperglycemia enhances CN-1 secretion and enzyme activity, our data suggest that poor blood glucose control in diabetic patients might result in an increased CN-1 secretion even in the presence of the (CTG)5 allele.
doi:10.2337/db09-0868
PMCID: PMC2911063  PMID: 20460427
2.  Life-threatening intoxication with methylene bis(thiocyanate): clinical picture and pitfalls. A case report 
Background
Methylene bis(thiocyanate) (MBT) is a microbiocidal agent mainly used in industrial water cooling systems and paper mills as an inhibitor of algae, fungi, and bacteria.
Case presentation
We describe the first case of severe intoxication following inhalation of powder in an industrial worker. Profound cyanosis and respiratory failure caused by severe methemoglobinemia developed within several minutes. Despite immediate admission to the intensive care unit, where mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis for toxin elimination were initiated, multi-organ failure involving liver, kidneys, and lungs developed. While liver failure was leading, the patient was successfully treated with the MARS (molecular adsorbent recirculating system) procedure.
Conclusion
Intoxication with MBT is a potentially life-threatening intoxication causing severe methemoglobinemia and multi-organ failure. Extracorporeal liver albumin dialysis (MARS) appears to be an effective treatment to allow recovery of hepatic function.
doi:10.1186/1471-227X-6-5
PMCID: PMC1481609  PMID: 16608508
3.  Clinical review: Immunomodulatory effects of dopamine in general inflammation 
Critical Care  2004;8(6):485-491.
Large quantitaties of inflammatory mediators are released during the course of endotoxaemia. These mediators in turn can stimulate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to release catecholamines, which ultimately regulate inflammation-associated impairment in tissue perfusion, myocardial impairment and vasodilatation. Treatment of sepsis is based on surgical and/or antibiotic therapy, appropriate fluid management and application of vasoactive catecholamines. With respect to the latter, discussions on the vasopressor of choice are still ongoing. Over the past decade dopamine has been considered the 'first line' vasopressor and is frequently used to improve organ perfusion and blood pressure. However, there is a growing body of evidence that dopamine has deleterious side effects; therefore, its clinical relevance seems to be more and more questionable. Nevertheless, it has not been convincingly demonstrated that other catecholamines are superior to dopamine in this respect. Apart from its haemodynamic action, dopamine can modulate immune responses by influencing the cytokine network. This leads to inhibition of expression of adhesion molecules, inhibition of cytokine and chemokine production, inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis and disturbed T-cell proliferation. In the present review we summarize our knowledge of the immunomodulatory effects of dopamine, with an emphasis on the mechanisms by which these effects are mediated.
doi:10.1186/cc2879
PMCID: PMC1065039  PMID: 15566620
adhesion molecules; cytokines; dopamine; hemostasis; sepsis

Results 1-3 (3)