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author:("Vogt, siffert")
1.  SFlt-1 Elevates Blood Pressure by Augmenting Endothelin-1-Mediated Vasoconstriction in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91897.
Objective
Scavenging of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) elevates blood pressure (BP) in patients receiving anti-angiogenic therapy. Similarly, inhibition of circulation VEGF by its soluble receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) underlies BP elevation in pre-eclampsia. Both phenotypes are characterized by augmented production of endothelin-1 (ET-1), suggesting a role for ET-1 in anti-angiogenic hypertension. We aimed to assess the effect of VEGF inhibition on ET-1-induced contractility and downstream ET-1 signaling.
Approach and Results
Male C57BL/6N mice were treated with either sFlt-1 or vehicle and BP was assessed via tail-cuff. Mean arterial pressure of sFlt-1-treated mice markedly increased compared to vehicle-treated controls (N = 11–12, p<0.05). After sacrifice, carotid and mesenteric arteries were isolated for isometric tension measurements. ET-1-induced contractions were similar in mesenteric arteries of vehicle and sFlt-1-treated mice, but augmented in carotid segments of sFlt-1-treated mice compared to controls (N = 9–10, p<0.05). The increased contraction in carotid segments could be completely abrogated by the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin (N = 9–10, p<0.05), indicating heightened prostaglandin-mediated vasoconstriction. This was associated with a shift towards procontractile ETB signaling in sFlt-1-treated mice, possibly explaining the increased ET-1-induced prostaglandin-mediated vasoconstriction. In line with the ex vivo findings, sFlt-1-induced BP elevation could be prevented in vivo by oral treatment with either a high-dose of the COX inhibitor aspirin (N = 7) or with picotamide (N = 9), a dual thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor and receptor antagonist.
Conclusions
VEGF inhibition augments the pressor response to ET-1. The cyclooxygenase-thromboxane signaling route downstream of ET-1 might be a possible target to prevent BP elevation during VEGF inhibition.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091897
PMCID: PMC3954828  PMID: 24632840
2.  Long-term renal outcome in patients with malignant hypertension: a retrospective cohort study 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:71.
Background
Malignant hypertension is frequently complicated by renal insufficiency. Although the survival of this hypertensive emergency has improved, recent data on renal outcome and its predictors are lacking. We assessed renal outcome and its predictors in patients with malignant hypertension.
Methods
Retrospective analysis of patients admitted with malignant hypertension in Amsterdam, the Netherlands between August 1992–January 2010. Follow-up data on vital status, renal function and blood pressure (BP) were obtained from the outpatient department and from general practitioners. The primary composite endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD) defined as the start of kidney replacement therapy (KRT) or ≥ 50% decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The secondary endpoint was all cause mortality.
Results
A total of 120 patients admitted with malignant hypertension were included. After a median follow-up period of 67 months (IQR 28 to 108 months) the primary endpoint was reached by 37 (31%) patients, whereas 18 patients (15%) reached the secondary endpoint. Twenty-nine (24%) patients started KRT and 8 patients (7%) had an eGFR decline ≥ 50%. After the acute phase (> 3 months after admission), initial serum creatinine and follow-up BP were the main predictors of future ESRD with hazard ratios of 6.1 (95% CI, 2.2–17) for patients with initial serum creatinine ≥ 175 μmol /L and 4.3 (95% CI, 1.4–14) for patients with uncontrolled hypertension.
Conclusions
Progressive renal function decline leading to ESRD remains a major threat to patients with malignant hypertension. BP control during follow-up was an important modifiable predictor of renal outcome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-71
PMCID: PMC3470982  PMID: 22846257
Malignant hypertension; End-stage renal disease; Chronic kidney disease; Renal outcome; Mortality
3.  Indomethacin Reduces Glomerular and Tubular Damage Markers but Not Renal Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Post-Hoc Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37957.
Under specific conditions non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be used to lower therapy-resistant proteinuria. The potentially beneficial anti-proteinuric, tubulo-protective, and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs may be offset by an increased risk of (renal) side effects. We investigated the effect of indomethacin on urinary markers of glomerular and tubular damage and renal inflammation. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a prospective open-label crossover study in chronic kidney disease patients (n = 12) with mild renal function impairment and stable residual proteinuria of 4.7±4.1 g/d. After a wash-out period of six wks without any RAAS blocking agents or other therapy to lower proteinuria (untreated proteinuria (UP)), patients subsequently received indomethacin 75 mg BID for 4 wks (NSAID). Healthy subjects (n = 10) screened for kidney donation served as controls. Urine and plasma levels of total IgG, IgG4, KIM-1, beta-2-microglobulin, H-FABP, MCP-1 and NGAL were determined using ELISA. Following NSAID treatment, 24 h -urinary excretion of glomerular and proximal tubular damage markers was reduced in comparison with the period without anti-proteinuric treatment (total IgG: UP 131[38–513] vs NSAID 38[17–218] mg/24 h, p<0.01; IgG4: 50[16–68] vs 10[1–38] mg/24 h, p<0.001; beta-2-microglobulin: 200[55–404] vs 50[28–110] ug/24 h, p = 0.03; KIM-1: 9[5]–[14] vs 5[2]–[9] ug/24 h, p = 0.01). Fractional excretions of these damage markers were also reduced by NSAID. The distal tubular marker H-FABP showed a trend to reduction following NSAID treatment. Surprisingly, NSAID treatment did not reduce urinary excretion of the inflammation markers MCP-1 and NGAL, but did reduce plasma MCP-1 levels, resulting in an increased fractional MCP-1 excretion. In conclusion, the anti-proteinuric effect of indomethacin is associated with reduced urinary excretion of glomerular and tubular damage markers, but not with reduced excretion of renal inflammation markers. Future studies should address whether the short term glomerulo- and tubulo-protective effects as observed outweigh the possible side-effects of NSAID treatment on the long term.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037957
PMCID: PMC3360674  PMID: 22662255
4.  Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibition, Dietary Sodium Restriction, and/or Diuretics on Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule 1 Excretion in Nondiabetic Proteinuric Kidney Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background
Tubulointerstitial damage plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with proteinuria. Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) reflects tubular KIM-1 and is considered a sensitive biomarker for early tubular damage. We hypothesized that a decrease in proteinuria by using therapeutic interventions is associated with decreased urinary KIM-1 levels.
Study Design
Post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.
Setting & Participants
34 proteinuric patients without diabetes from our outpatient renal clinic.
Intervention
Stepwise 6-week interventions of losartan, sodium restriction (low-sodium [LS] diet), their combination, losartan plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), and the latter plus an LS diet.
Outcomes & Measurements
Urinary excretion of KIM-1, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as a positive control for tubular injury.
Results
Mean baseline urine protein level was 3.8 ± 0.4 (SE) g/d, and KIM-1 level was 1,706 ± 498 ng/d (increased compared with healthy controls; 74 ng/d). KIM-1 level was decreased by using placebo/LS (1,201 ± 388 ng/d; P = 0.04), losartan/high sodium (1,184 ± 296 ng/d; P = 0.09), losartan/LS (921 ± 176 ng/d; P = 0.008), losartan/high sodium plus HCT (862 ± 151 ng/d; P = 0.008) and losartan/LS plus HCT (743 ± 170 ng/d; P = 0.001). The decrease in urinary KIM-1 levels paralleled the decrease in proteinuria (R = 0.523; P < 0.001), but not blood pressure or creatinine clearance. 16 patients reached target proteinuria with protein less than 1 g/d, whereas KIM-1 levels normalized in only 2 patients. Urinary NAG level was increased at baseline and significantly decreased during the treatment periods of combined losartan plus HCT only. The decrease in urinary NAG levels was not closely related to proteinuria.
Limitations
Post hoc analysis.
Conclusions
Urinary KIM-1 level was increased in patients with nondiabetic CKD with proteinuria and decreased in parallel with proteinuria by using losartan, sodium restriction, their combination, losartan plus HCT, and the latter plus sodium restriction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of amelioration of proteinuria-induced tubular damage. Long-term studies are warranted to evaluate whether targeting treatment on KIM-1 can improve outcomes in patients with CKD with proteinuria.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.07.021
PMCID: PMC3298772  PMID: 18823687
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; losartan; angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade; proteinuria; interstitial renal damage; kidney injury molecule 1; N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase; tubular damage marker; biomarker

Results 1-4 (4)