Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a risk factor for rejection and mortality soon after renal transplantation. Little is known about its consequences longer after transplantation. We prospectively investigated whether latent CMV infection is a risk factor for graft failure and mortality long after transplantation.
Our study included 606 renal transplant recipients (RTR) with a functioning graft for >1 year. CMV serology was determined using ELISA. RTRs were divided into CMV-seronegative and latent CMV (seropositive + seroconverted).
We measured CMV IgG at 6.0 [2.6–11.4] years post-transplant. During follow-up (7.0 [6.2–7.5] years), 54 (9%) RTRs experienced graft failure and 137 (23%) RTRs died. Risk for graft failure and mortality was significantly higher in RTRs with latent CMV compared to CMV-seronegative RTRs (HR=3.1, P=0.005 and HR=2.0, P=0.002, respectively). After adjustment for potential confounders, latent CMV infection remained an independent risk factor for graft failure (HR=4.6, P=0.001), but not for mortality (HR=1.4, P=0.2).
Latent CMV is an independent risk factor for graft failure long after renal transplantation and carries a higher risk for graft failure than for mortality. These findings confirm the notion that latent CMV can be harmful in transplanted kidneys.
cytomegalovirus; chronic transplant dysfunction; recipient survival; renal transplantation
Bilirubin may confer cardiovascular protection because of its strong antioxidative properties. Both thyroid dysfunction and the diabetic state affect bilirubin metabolism. Here we tested whether low-normal thyroid function affects serum bilirubin among euthyroid subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Serum total bilirubin, thyrotropin and free thyroxine (free T4), transaminases, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment), and lipids were measured in 74 T2DM and 82 nondiabetic subjects with thyrotropin and free T4 levels within the euthyroid range.
Bilirubin was positively related to free T4 in T2DM subjects (r=0.370, p<0.001), but not in nondiabetic subjects (r=0.047, p=0.68). In age- and sex-adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, free T4 was found to interact positively with the presence of T2DM on serum bilirubin (interaction term: β=0.251, p=0.024). This interaction remained present after additional adjustment for alcohol intake, aspartate aminotransferase and insulin sensitivity (interaction term: β=0.222, p=0.043), or alternatively for cholesterol and triglycerides (interaction term: β=0.203, p=0.057).
Lower free T4 levels within the euthyroid range confer decreased bilirubin in T2DM. Low-normal thyroid function could enhance atherosclerosis susceptibility in T2DM by decreasing serum bilirubin.
Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, has been associated with cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by end-stage renal disease or acute myocardial infarction. For stable outpatients, these associations are unknown. Our aim was to investigate whether copeptin is associated with CV and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the observational Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes Project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC) study were included. Cox regression analyses with age as time scale were used to assess the relationship of baseline copeptin with CV and all-cause mortality.
We included 1,195 patients (age 67 ± 12 years, 44% male). Median baseline copeptin concentration was 5.4 (interquartile range [IQR] 3.1–9.6) pmol/L. After a median follow-up of 5.9 (IQR 3.2–10.1) years, 345 patients died (29%), with 148 CV deaths (12%). Log2 copeptin was associated with CV (hazard ratio 1.17 [95% CI 0.99–1.39]; P = 0.068) and all-cause mortality (1.22 [1.09–1.36]; P = 0.001) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol to HDL ratio, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, treatment with ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, history of CV diseases, log serum creatinine, and log albumin to creatinine ratio; however, copeptin did not substantially improve risk prediction for CV (integrated discrimination improvement 0.14% [IQR −0.27 to 0.55%]) and all-cause mortality (0.77% [0.17–1.37%]) beyond currently used clinical markers.
We found copeptin to be associated with CV and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care. Intervention studies should show whether the high CV risk in type 2 diabetes can be reduced by suppression of vasopressin, for example by reducing salt intake.
β2‐Microglobulin and cystatin C may have advantages over creatinine in assessing risk associated with kidney function. We therefore investigated whether emerging filtration markers, β2‐microglobulin and cystatin C, are prospectively associated with risk of the development of peripheral artery disease (PAD).
Methods and Results
We conducted nested case‐control studies among women within the Nurses’ Health Study (1990–2010) and among men within the Health Professionals Follow‐up Study (1994–2008) with the use of archived blood samples collected before PAD diagnosis. During follow‐up, symptomatic PAD was confirmed in 144 women and 143 men. Controls were matched 3:1 based on age, race, smoking status, fasting status, and date of blood sampling. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and were adjusted for plasma creatinine and cardiovascular risk factors. In women, the RRs (95% CI) per 1‐SD) increment were 1.16 (0.85 to 1.58) for β2‐microglobulin and 0.94 (0.69 to 1.28) for cystatin C. Corresponding RRs in men were 1.50 (1.08 to 2.09) for β2‐microglobulin and 1.54 (1.07 to 2.22) for cystatin C. There was no association between creatinine and PAD risk in women, whereas the association in men (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.81) disappeared after adjustment for either β2‐microglobulin or cystatin C. In pooled analyses of men and women, only β2‐microglobulin was associated with PAD risk (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.64).
In pooled analyses, β2‐microglobulin was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic PAD; a similar association with cystatin C was observed only in men. The findings suggest that β2‐microglobulin may capture the atherosclerosis‐promoting or atherosclerosis‐related elements of kidney dysfunction better than creatinine.
creatinine; cystatin C; kidney; peripheral artery disease; β2‐microglobulin
Chronic exposure to calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids poses renal transplant recipients (RTR) at high risk for development of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction may be crucial to the pathophysiology of NODAT and specific markers for β-cell dysfunction may have additive value for predicting NODAT in this population. Therefore, we prospectively investigated whether proinsulin, as a marker of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, is associated with future development of NODAT and improves prediction of it.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
All RTR between 2001 and 2003 with a functioning graft for ≥1 year were considered eligible for inclusion, except for subjects with diabetes at baseline who were excluded. We recorded incidence of NODAT until April 2012.
A total of 487 RTR (age 50 ± 12 years, 55% men) participated at a median time of 6.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 2.6–11.5) years after transplantation. Median fasting proinsulin levels were 16.6 (IQR, 11.0–24.2) pmol/L. During median follow-up for 10.1 (IQR, 9.1–10.4) years, 42 (35%) RTR had development of NODAT in the highest quartile of the distribution of proinsulin versus 34 (9%) in the lowest three quartiles (P < 0.001). In Cox regression analyses, proinsulin (hazard ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.85–2.83; P < 0.001) was strongly associated with NODAT development. This was independent of age, sex, calcineurine inhibitors, prednisolone use, components of the metabolic syndrome, or homeostasis model assessment.
In conclusion, fasting proinsulin is strongly associated with NODAT development in RTR. Our results highlight the role of β-cell dysfunction in the pathophysiology of NODAT and indicate the potential value of proinsulin for identification of RTR at increased risk for NODAT.
Oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We previously showed that the circulating antioxidant peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. We aimed to evaluate the association of Prx4 with type 2 diabetes risk in the general population.
We analysed data on 7,972 individuals from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease (PREVEND) study (49% men, aged 28–75 years) with no diabetes at baseline. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, waist circumference, hypertension and family history of diabetes were used to estimate the ORs for type 2 diabetes.
During a median follow up of 7.7 years, 496 individuals (288 men; 58%) developed type 2 diabetes. The median (Q1–Q3) Prx4 level was 0.84 (0.53–1.40) U/l in individuals who developed type 2 diabetes and 0.68 (0.43–1.08) U/l in individuals who did not develop type 2 diabetes. For every doubling of Prx4 levels, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for type 2 diabetes was 1.16 (1.05–1.29) in the whole population; by sex, it was 1.31 (1.14–1.50) for men and 1.03 (0.87–1.21) for women. Further adjustment for other clinical measures did not materially change the results. The addition of Prx4 to a validated diabetes risk score significantly improved the prediction of type 2 diabetes in men (p = 0.002 for reclassification improvement).
Our findings suggest that elevated serum Prx4 levels are associated with a higher risk of incident type 2 diabetes. For men, taking Prx4 into consideration can improve type 2 diabetes prediction over a validated diabetes risk score; in contrast, there is no improvement in risk prediction for women.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-014-3278-9) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Epidemiology; Peroxiredoxin 4; Risk prediction; Sex difference; Type 2 diabetes
The creatinine excretion rate (CER) is inversely associated with mortality in the general and renal transplant population. The CER is a marker for muscle mass. It is unknown whether the CER is associated with outcome in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether the CER is a determinant of all-cause mortality in diabetic patients.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We used data from the combined Reduction of Endpoints in Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) and Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT) studies. A total of 1,872 patients (58% of the overall population) with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy with valid 24-h urinary creatinine excretion data were included. The primary end point of the analyses was all-cause mortality.
Mean age was 60 ± 8 years and median CER was 1,407 (total range 400–3,406) mg/day. Body surface area, hemoglobin, black race, and albuminuria were positive independent determinants of the CER, whereas female sex and age were inverse independent determinants of the CER. During a median follow-up of 36 (29–45) months, 300 patients died. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis of sex-stratified tertiles of the CER, risk for all-cause mortality increased with decreasing CER (P < 0.001). In a multivariable Cox regression analysis, lower CER (as a continuous variable) was independently associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.39 [95% CI 0.29–0.52], P < 0.001). Adjustment for potential collection errors did not materially change these associations.
Lower CER was strongly associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. As the CER can be considered a proxy for muscle mass, this puts renewed emphasis on physical condition and exercise in this population.
Evidence that midregional fragment of pro-A–type natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) is a marker of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes is limited. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the capabilities of MR-proANP in predicting mortality. We also investigated whether MR-proANP influences the relationship between blood pressure and mortality in old age.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In 1998, 1,143 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes participated in the ZODIAC study. Because blood was drawn for 867 patients (76%) and confounders were missing for 19 patients, the final study sample comprised 848 patients. After a follow-up time of 10 years, we used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the relationship between MR-proANP and (cardiovascular) mortality. Harrell C statistic was used to compare models with and without MR-proANP. The regression analyses were repeated without MR-proANP for patients aged older than 75 years.
Median MR-proANP in the total study sample was 75 pmol/L (interquartile range, 48–124 pmol/L). During follow-up, 354 (42%) out of 848 patients had died, of whom 152 (43%) deaths were attributable to cardiovascular factors. MR-proANP was independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, irrespective of age. During old age, there was a significant inverse relationship between blood pressure and mortality. This relationship did not change after adjustment for MR-proANP.
MR-proANP is independently associated with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. MR-proANP did not influence the inverse relationship between blood pressure and mortality in elderly patients.
Elevated albuminuria as well as an increased serum uric acid concentration is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. We questioned whether these 2 variables (albuminuria and serum uric concentration) may be interrelated via tubular uric acid reabsorption.
Methods and Results
Included were 7688 participants of the PREVEND Study, an observational, general population‐based cohort study. Linear regression analyses were used to test associations of baseline albuminuria with baseline serum uric acid concentration and tubular uric acid reabsorption (calculated as [100−fractional uric acid excretion]%). Cox regression analyses were used to study the association of baseline serum uric acid and albuminuria with incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In cross‐sectional analyses, albuminuria was associated positively with serum uric acid concentration, both crude and after adjustment for potential confounders (both P<0.001). Albuminuria was found to be associated positively with tubular uric acid reabsorption, again both crude and after adjustment for potential confounders (both P<0.001). In longitudinal analyses during a median follow‐up of 10.5 years, 702 cardiovascular events occurred. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, both albuminuria and serum uric acid were associated with incident cardiovascular events (Hazard Ratios 1.09 [1.03 to 1.17], P=0.01 and 1.19 [1.09 to 1.30], P<0.001, respectively). A significant interaction between these variables was present (P<0.001), consistent with high serum uric acid being less predictive for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the presence of high albuminuria and vice versa.
Albuminuria is strongly associated with tubular uric acid reabsorption, and consequently with serum uric acid concentration. This phenomenon may explain in part why albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular outcome.
albuminuria; cardiovascular outcome; tubular reabsorption; uric acid
The strong anti-oxidative properties of bilirubin largely explain its cardioprotective effects. Insulin resistance is featured by low circulating bilirubin. Thyroid hormone affects both bilirubin generation and its biliary transport, but it is unknown whether circulating bilirubin is associated with thyroid function in euthyroid subjects. Aim is to determine relationships of bilirubin with TSH, free T4 and free T3 in euthyroid subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to assess whether such a relationship would be modified by the degree of insulin resistance.
Total bilirubin, TSH, free T4, free T3, glucose, insulin, lipids and transaminases were measured in 1854 fasting euthyroid subjects without T2DM, recruited from the general population (PREVEND cohort). Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment.
Bilirubin was positively related to free T4 (β = 0.116, P<0.001) and free T3 (β = 0.078, P = 0.001), but bilirubin was unrelated to TSH. The relationship of bilirubin with free T4 was modified by insulin resistance with a larger effect in more insulin resistant individuals (adjusted for age and sex: β = 0.043, P = 0.056 for interaction; additionally adjusted for smoking, alcohol intake, transaminases and total cholesterol (β = 0.044, P = 0.044 for interaction). The association of bilirubin with free T4 was also modified by high density lipoprotein cholesterol (age- and sex-adjusted: β = 0.040, P = 0.072).
Low bilirubin relates to low free T4 in euthyroid non-diabetic subjects. Low normal free T4 may particularly confer low bilirubin in more insulin resistant individuals.
To determine if the associations among established risk factors and reduced kidney function vary by age.
We pooled cross-sectional data from 14,788 non-diabetics aged 40–100 years in 4 studies: Cardiovascular Health Study, Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease cohort.
Hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol were associated with reduced cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) across the age spectrum. In adjusted analyses, hypertension was associated with a 2.3 (95% CI 0.1, 4.4), 5.1 (4.1, 6.1), and 6.9 (3.0, 10.4) mL/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR in participants 40–59, 60–79, and 80+ years, respectively (p-value for interaction <0.001). The association of low HDL-cholesterol with reduced kidney function was also greater in the older age groups: 4.9 (3.5, 6.3), 7.1 (CI 6.0, 8.3), 8.9 (CI 5.4, 11.9) mL/min/1.73 m2 (p-value for interaction <0.001). Smoking and obesity were associated with reduced kidney function in participants under 80 years. All estimates of the potential population impact of the risk factors were modest.
Hypertension, obesity, smoking, and low HDL-cholesterol are modestly associated with reduced kidney function in non-diabetics. The associations of hypertension and HDL-cholesterol with reduced kidney function appear stronger in older adults.
Chronic kidney insufficiency; aged; hypertension; cholesterol; obesity; smoking
Oxidative stress plays an underlying pathophysiologic role in the development of diabetes complications. The aim of this study was to investigate peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4), a proposed novel biomarker of oxidative stress, and its association with and capability as a biomarker in predicting (cardiovascular) mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Prx4 was assessed in baseline serum samples of 1161 type 2 diabetes patients. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the relationschip between Prx4 and (cardiovascular) mortality. Risk prediction capabilities of Prx4 for (cardiovascular) mortality were assessed with Harrell’s C statistic, the integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement.
Mean age was 67 and the median diabetes duration was 4.0 years. After a median follow-up period of 5.8 years, 327 patients died; 137 cardiovascular deaths. Prx4 was associated with (cardiovascular) mortality. The Cox proportional hazard models added the variables: Prx4 (model 1); age and gender (model 2), and BMI, creatinine, smoking, diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol-HDL ratio, history of macrovascular complications, and albuminuria (model 3). Hazard ratios (HR) (95% CI) for cardiovascular mortality were 1.93 (1.57 – 2.38), 1.75 (1.39 – 2.20), and 1.63 (1.28 – 2.09) for models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. HR for all-cause mortality were 1.73 (1.50 – 1.99), 1.50 (1.29 – 1.75), and 1.44 (1.23 – 1.67) for models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Addition of Prx4 to the traditional risk factors slightly improved risk prediction of (cardiovascular) mortality.
Prx4 is independently associated with (cardiovascular) mortality in type 2 diabetes patients. After addition of Prx4 to the traditional risk factors, there was a slightly improvement in risk prediction of (cardiovascular) mortality in this patient group.
Individual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiologic studies enable detailed investigation into the predictive ability of risk models. Here we address the challenges in appropriately combining such information across studies. Methods are exemplified by analyses of log C-reactive protein and conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, a collation of individual data from multiple prospective studies with an average follow-up duration of 9.8 years (dates varied). We derive risk prediction models using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis stratified by study and obtain estimates of risk discrimination, Harrell's concordance index, and Royston's discrimination measure within each study; we then combine the estimates across studies using a weighted meta-analysis. Various weighting approaches are compared and lead us to recommend using the number of events in each study. We also discuss the calculation of measures of reclassification for multiple studies. We further show that comparison of differences in predictive ability across subgroups should be based only on within-study information and that combining measures of risk discrimination from case-control studies and prospective studies is problematic. The concordance index and discrimination measure gave qualitatively similar results throughout. While the concordance index was very heterogeneous between studies, principally because of differing age ranges, the increments in the concordance index from adding log C-reactive protein to conventional risk factors were more homogeneous.
C index; coronary heart disease; D measure; individual participant data; inverse variance; meta-analysis; risk prediction; weighting
Development of micro- or macroalbuminuria is associated with increased risk of cardiorenal complications, particularly in diabetes. For prevention of transition to micro- or macroalbuminuria, more accurate prediction markers on top of classical risk markers are needed. We studied a promising new marker, growth-differentiation factor (GDF)-15, to predict transition to increasing stage of albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, we looked at the GDF-15 potential in nondiabetic subjects with hypertension (HT).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Case and control subjects were selected from the PREVEND cohort, a large (n = 8,592), prospective general population study on the natural course of albuminuria, with >10 years of follow-up and repeated albuminuria measurements. We found 24 T2DM and 50 HT case subjects transitioning from normo- to macroalbuminuria and 9 T2DM and 25 HT case subjects transitioning from micro- to macroalbuminuria (average follow-up 2.8 years). Control subjects with stable albuminuria were pair matched for age, sex, albuminuria status, and diabetes duration. GDF-15 was measured in samples prior to albuminuria transition.
Prior to transition, GDF-15 was significantly higher in case subjects with T2DM than in control subjects (median [IQR] 1,288 pg/mL [885–1,546] vs. 948 pg/mL [660–1,016], P < 0.001). The odds ratio for transition in albuminuria increased significantly per SD of GDF-15 (2.9 [95% CI 1.1–7.5], P = 0.03). GDF-15 also improved prediction of albuminuria transition, with significant increases in C statistic (from 0.87 to 0.92, P = 0.03) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.148, P = 0.001). In HT, GDF-15 was also independently associated with transition in albuminuria stage (2.0 [1.1–3.5], P = 0.02) and improved prediction significantly.
We identified GDF-15 as a clinically valuable marker for predicting transition in albuminuria stage in T2DM beyond conventional risk markers. These findings were confirmed in nondiabetic HT subjects.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma COOH-terminal proendothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) and fatal cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and new-onset albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 1,225 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this prospective observational study of two combined cohorts. Three clinical end points were studied: fatal cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and new-onset albuminuria. After a median follow-up of 3 or 10 years, Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to investigate the association between CT-proET-1 and the end points. Harrell C statistic, the Groennesby and Borgan test, the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and the net reclassification improvement (NRI) were used to evaluate whether CT-proET-1 is of additional value compared with classic cardiovascular and renal risk factors.
During follow-up, 364 (30%) patients died, 150 (42%) of whom died of cardiovascular disease; 182 (26.7%) of 688 patients with normoalbuminuria at baseline developed albuminuria. CT-proET-1 was associated with fatal cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and new-onset albuminuria with hazard ratios of 1.59 (95% CI 1.15–2.20), 1.41 (95% CI 1.14–1.74), and 1.48 (95% CI 1.10–2.01), respectively. Addition of CT-proET-1 to a model containing traditional risk factors leads only to improved prediction of fatal cardiovascular events. The IDI appeared significant for fatal cardiovascular events (0.82 [0.1–1.54]) and all-cause mortality (0.4 [0.05–0.92]), but not for new-onset albuminuria.
CT-proET-1 has additional value for the prediction of fatal cardiovascular events and new-onset albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, compared with conventional risk factors, but not for all-cause mortality.
In non-hypertensive individuals, a high sodium diet has little acute effect on blood pressure but, for unclear reasons, is associated with hypertension if consumed chronically. We hypothesized that a chronically high sodium intake would be associated with increases in biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, specifically serum uric acid (SUA) and urine albumin excretion (UAE), and that high sodium intake would be associated with incident hypertension among those with higher SUA and UAE.
Methods and Results
We prospectively analyzed the associations between sodium intake and the change in SUA (N=4062) and UAE (N=4146) among participants of the PREVEND study who were not taking antihypertensive medications. We also examined the association of sodium intake with the incidence of hypertension (N=5556) among non-hypertensive participants. After adjusting for confounders, each 1 gram higher sodium intake was associated with a 1.2µmol/L increase in SUA (p=0.01) and a 4.6mg/d increase in UAE (p<0.001). The relation between sodium intake and incident hypertension varied according to SUA and UAE. For each 1 gram higher sodium intake, the adjusted hazard ratio for developing hypertension was 0.98 (0.89–1.08) among those in the lowest tertile of SUA, and 1.09 (1.02–1.16) among those in the highest. Corresponding hazard ratios were 0.99 (0.93–1.06) among participants whose UAE was <10mg/d, and 1.18 (1.07–1.29) among those whose UAE was >15mg/d.
Over time, higher sodium intake is associated with increases in SUA and UAE. Among individuals with higher SUA and urine UAE, a higher sodium intake is an independent risk factor for developing hypertension.
diet; epidemiology; hypertension; risk factors; sodium
Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with serum urate concentrations (18 new regions in or near TRIM46, INHBB, SFMBT1, TMEM171, VEGFA, BAZ1B, PRKAG2, STC1, HNF4G, A1CF, ATXN2, UBE2Q2, IGF1R, NFAT5, MAF, HLF, ACVR1B-ACVRL1 and B3GNT4). Associations for many of the loci were of similar magnitude in individuals of non-European ancestry. We further characterized these loci for associations with gout, transcript expression and the fractional excretion of urate. Network analyses implicate the inhibins-activins signaling pathways and glucose metabolism in systemic urate control. New candidate genes for serum urate concentration highlight the importance of metabolic control of urate production and excretion, which may have implications for the treatment and prevention of gout.
Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10−8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.
Men and women differ substantially regarding height, weight, and body fat. Interestingly, previous work detecting genetic effects for waist-to-hip ratio, to assess body fat distribution, has found that many of these showed sex-differences. However, systematic searches for sex-differences in genetic effects have not yet been conducted. Therefore, we undertook a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic genetic effects for anthropometric traits including 133,723 individuals in a large meta-analysis and followed promising variants in further 137,052 individuals, including a total of 94 studies. We identified seven loci with significant sex-difference including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were significant in women, but not in men. Of interest is that sex-difference was only observed for waist phenotypes, but not for height or body-mass-index. We found no evidence for sex-differences with opposite effect direction for men and women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its link to diabetes genetics and therapy. Our findings demonstrate the importance of investigating sex differences, which may lead to a better understanding of disease mechanisms with a potential relevance to treatment options.
Urinary albumin excretion is known to be independently associated with progression of renal and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for progression in albuminuria in the general population.
Data were used of the first 4 screening rounds of a community-based prospective cohort study (PREVEND). Included were 5,825 subjects that at baseline had no known renal disease or macroalbuminuria. Subjects were defined as having progressive albuminuria when they belonged to the quintile of subjects with highest absolute increase in urinary albumin excretion per year and a urinary albumin excretion during the last screening in which they participated of ≥150 mg/24 h. Change in urinary albumin excretion per year was calculated as last available urinary albumin excretion minus baseline UAE divided by follow-up time.
During 9.3 years follow-up 132 subjects had progressive albuminuria. These subjects were significantly older, more often of male gender and had a worse cardiovascular risk profile. In a multivariable model, testing baseline values, significant predictors of progressive albuminuria were male gender (OR 2.23; p<0.001), age (OR 1.03; p<0.001), BMI (OR 1.06; p = 0.02) and baseline albuminuria (OR 5.71; p<0.001). Based on these findings a risk score was made to estimate a subject's risk for progressive albuminuria.
A high baseline albuminuria is by far the most important predictor of progressive albuminuria. Thus, screening for baseline albuminuria will be more important than screening for cardiovascular risk factors in order to identify subjects at risk for progressive albuminuria.
Individuals at high risk for chronic cardiometabolic disease (cardiovascular disease [CVD], type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) share many risk factors and would benefit from early intervention. We developed a nonlaboratory-based risk-assessment tool for identification of people at high cardiometabolic disease risk.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Data of three population-based cohorts from different regions of the Netherlands were merged. Participants were 2,840 men and 3,940 women, white, aged 28–85 years, free from CVD, type 2 diabetes, and CKD diagnosis at baseline. The outcome was developing cardiometabolic disease during 7 years follow-up.
Age, BMI, waist circumference, antihypertensive treatment, smoking, family history of myocardial infarction or stroke, and family history of diabetes were significant predictors, whereas former smoking, history of gestational diabetes, and use of lipid-lowering medication were not. The models showed acceptable calibration (Hosmer and Lemeshow statistics, P > 0.05) and discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve 0.82 [95% CI 0.81–0.83] for women and 0.80 [0.78–0.82] for men). Discrimination of individual outcomes was lowest for diabetes (area under the ROC curve 0.70 for men and 0.73 for women) and highest for CVD mortality (0.83 for men and 0.85 for women).
We demonstrate that a single risk stratification tool can identify people at high risk for future CVD, type 2 diabetes, and/or CKD. The present risk-assessment tool can be used for referring the highest risk individuals to health care for further (multivariable) risk assessment and may as such serve as an important part of prevention programs targeting chronic cardiometabolic disease.
Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have raised the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes risk (q < 0.05). Loci influencing fasting insulin showed association with lipid levels and fat distribution, suggesting impact on insulin resistance. Gene-based analyses identified further biologically plausible loci, suggesting that additional loci beyond those reaching genome-wide significance are likely to represent real associations. This conclusion is supported by an excess of directionally consistent and nominally significant signals between discovery and follow-up studies. Functional follow-up of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control.
Liver function tests might predict the risk of type 2 diabetes. An independent study evaluating utility of these markers compared with an existing prediction model is yet lacking.
Methods and Findings
We performed a case-cohort study, including random subcohort (6.5%) from 38,379 participants with 924 incident diabetes cases (the Dutch contribution to the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC-NL, the Netherlands), and another population-based cohort study including 7,952 participants with 503 incident cases (the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease, PREVEND, Groningen, the Netherlands). We examined predictive value of combination of the Liver function tests (gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and albumin) above validated models for 7.5-year risk of diabetes (the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg, the KORA study). Basic model includes age, sex, BMI, smoking, hypertension and parental diabetes. Clinical models additionally include glucose and uric acid (model1) and HbA1c (model2). In both studies, addition of Liver function tests to the basic model improved the prediction (C-statistic by∼0.020; NRI by∼9.0%; P<0.001). In the EPIC-NL case-cohort study, addition to clinical model1 resulted in statistically significant improvement in the overall population (C-statistic = +0.009; P<0.001; NRI = 8.8%; P<0.001), while addition to clinical model 2 yielded marginal improvement limited to men (C-statistic = +0.007; P = 0.06; NRI = 3.3%; P = 0.04). In the PREVEND cohort study, addition to clinical model 1 resulted in significant improvement in the overall population (C-statistic change = 0.008; P = 0.003; NRI = 3.6%; P = 0.03), with largest improvement in men (C-statistic change = 0.013; P = 0.01; NRI = 5.4%; P = 0.04). In PREVEND, improvement compared to clinical model 2 could not be tested because of lack of HbA1c data.
Liver function tests modestly improve prediction for medium-term risk of incident diabetes above basic and extended clinical prediction models, only if no HbA1c is incorporated. If data on HbA1c are available, Liver function tests have little incremental predictive value, although a small benefit may be present in men.
Vitamin K is essential for activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP). Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular risk is high but vitamin K intake and status have not been defined. We investigated dietary vitamin K intake, vascular vitamin K status and its determinants in kidney transplant recipients. We estimated vitamin K intake in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (n = 60) with stable renal function (creatinine clearance 61 [42–77] (median [interquartile range]) ml/min), who were 75 [35–188] months after transplantation, using three-day food records and food frequency questionnaires. Vascular vitamin K status was assessed by measuring plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP). Total vitamin K intake was below the recommended level in 50% of patients. Lower vitamin K intake was associated with less consumption of green vegetables (33 vs 40 g/d, p = 0.06) and increased dp-ucMGP levels (621 vs 852 pmol/L, p<0.05). Accordingly, dp-ucMGP levels were elevated (>500 pmol/L) in 80% of patients. Multivariate regression identified creatinine clearance, coumarin use, body mass index, high sensitivity-CRP and sodium excretion as independent determinants of dp-ucMGP levels. In a considerable part of the kidney transplant population, vitamin K intake is too low for maximal carboxylation of vascular MGP. The high dp-ucMGP levels may result in an increased risk for arterial calcification. Whether increasing vitamin K intake may have health benefits for kidney transplant recipients should be addressed by future studies.
Galectin-3 is a lectin involved in fibrosis, inflammation and proliferation. Increased circulating levels of galectin-3 have been associated with various diseases, including cancer, immunological disorders, and cardiovascular disease. To enhance our knowledge on galectin-3 biology we performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Illumina HumanCytoSNP-12 array imputed with the HapMap 2 CEU panel on plasma galectin-3 levels in 3,776 subjects and follow-up genotyping in an additional 3,516 subjects. We identified 2 genome wide significant loci associated with plasma galectin-3 levels. One locus harbours the LGALS3 gene (rs2274273; P = 2.35×10−188) and the other locus the ABO gene (rs644234; P = 3.65×10−47). The variance explained by the LGALS3 locus was 25.6% and by the ABO locus 3.8% and jointly they explained 29.2%. Rs2274273 lies in high linkage disequilibrium with two non-synonymous SNPs (rs4644; r2 = 1.0, and rs4652; r2 = 0.91) and wet lab follow-up genotyping revealed that both are strongly associated with galectin-3 levels (rs4644; P = 4.97×10−465 and rs4652 P = 1.50×10−421) and were also associated with LGALS3 gene-expression. The origins of our associations should be further validated by means of functional experiments.
Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a key role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of our study was to investigate the associations of serum peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4), a hydrogen peroxide–degrading peroxidase, with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. We subsequently examined the incremental value of Prx4 for the risk prediction of CVD compared with the Framingham risk score (FRS).
Methods and Results
We performed Cox regression analyses in 8141 participants without history of CVD (aged 28 to 75 years; women 52.6%) from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease (PREVEND) study in Groningen, The Netherlands. Serum Prx4 was measured by an immunoluminometric assay in baseline samples. Main outcomes were: (1) incident CVD events or CVD mortality and (2) all-cause mortality during a median follow-up of 10.5 years. In total, 708 participants (7.8%) developed CVD events or CVD mortality, and 517 participants (6.3%) died. Baseline serum Prx4 levels were significantly higher in participants with incident CVD events or CVD mortality and in those who died than in participants who remained free of outcomes (both P<0.001). In multivariable models with adjustment for Framingham risk factors, hazard ratios were 1.16 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.27, P<0.001) for incident CVD events or CVD mortality and 1.17 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.29, P=0.003) for all-cause mortality per doubling of Prx4 levels. After the addition of Prx4 to the FRS, the net reclassification improvement was 2.7% (P=0.01) using 10-year risk categories of CVD.
Elevated serum Prx4 levels are associated with a significantly higher risk of incident CVD events or CVD mortality and all-cause mortality after adjustment for clinical risk factors. The addition of Prx4 to the FRS marginally improved risk prediction of future CVD.
cardiovascular disease; epidemiology; mortality; oxidative stress; peroxiredoxin 4