The DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) is widely used as an anticancer drug for the treatment of leukemia and solid tumors. Gastric cancer (GC) patients who were positive for caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) expression showed a higher survival rate compared with those who were CDX2 negative, which suggests that CDX2 performs a tumor suppressor role. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the inactivation of CDX2 remain unclear. In the present study we demonstrated that the expression levels of CDX2 and DNA methyltransferase enzyme 1 (DNMT1) mRNA were significantly higher in GC compared with distal non-cancerous tissue. The expression of CDX2 mRNA was significantly correlated with Lauren classification, TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. DNMT1 mRNA expression was significantly correlated with TNM stage, pathological differentiation and lymph node metastasis. The expression of CDX2 mRNA was inversely correlated with that of DNMT1 mRNA in GC. Hypermethylation of the CDX2 gene promoter region, extremely low expression levels of CDX2 mRNA and no expression of CDX2 protein were the characteristics observed in MKN-45 and SGC-7901 GC cell lines. Following the treatment of MKN-45 cells with 5-aza-CdR, the hypermethylated CDX2 gene promoter region was demethylated and expression of CDX2 was upregulated, while DNMT1 expression was downregulated. Furthermore, a concentration- and time-dependent growth inhibition as well as increased apoptosis were observed. Caspase-3, −8 and −9 activities increased in a concentration-dependent manner following exposure to different concentrations of 5-aza-CdR. Therefore, our data show that the overexpression of DNMT1 and methylation of the CDX2 gene promoter region is likely to be responsible for CDX2 silencing in GC. 5-Aza-CdR may effectively induce re-expression of the CDX2 gene, inhibit cell proliferation and enhance the caspase-independent apoptosis of MKN-45 cells in vitro.
gastric neoplasms; caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2; DNA methylation; DNA methyltransferase enzyme 1; proliferation; apoptosis
In this article, we report the change of optical properties for europium chelates on silver nanorods by near-field interactions. The silver rods were fabricated in a seed-growth method followed by depositing thin layers of silica on the surfaces. The europium chelates were physically absorbed in the silica layers on the silver rods. The silver rods were observed to exhibit two plasmon absorption bands from longitudinal and transverse directions, respectively, centered at 394 and 675 nm, close to absorption and emission bands from the Eu(III) chelates. As a result, the immobilized Eu(III) chelates on the silver rods should have strong interactions with the silver nanorods and lead to greatly improved optical properties. The Eu–Ag rod complexes were observed to have enhanced emission intensity up to 240-fold in comparison with the Eu(III) chelates in the metal-free silica templates. This enhancement is much larger than the value for the Eu(III) chelates on the gold rods or silver spheres indicating the presence of stronger interactions for the Eu(III) chelates with the silver rods. The interactions of Eu(III) chelates with the silver rods were also proven by extremely reduced lifetime. Moreover, the Eu–Ag rod complexes exhibited a polarized emission, which was also due to strong interactions of the Eu(III) chelates with the silver rods. All of these features may promise that the Eu(III)–Ag rod complexes have great potential for use as fluorescence imaging agents in biological assays.
In this article, luminescent properties of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) were studied at the single nanoparticle level and also used as novel imaging agents in cell media. Two types of water-soluble AuNCs which were stabilized with a monolayer composed of either mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) or tiopronin thiolate ligands were synthesized by a chemical reduction reaction. These AuNCs were determined to have an average core diameter of less than 2 nm. On a time-resolved confocal microscope, the emission signals from the single AuNCs were distinctly recordable. The quantum yields of these AuNCs were measured to be ca. 5%. The lifetime of these AuNCs is also much longer than the lifetime of cellular autofluorescence in lifetime cell imaging as well as the lifetime of organic dye Alexa Fluor 488. After being derivatized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties, the AuNCs were uploaded efficiently in the HeLa cells. Fluorescence intensity and lifetime cell images were recorded on the time-resolved confocal microscope in which the emission from the AuNCs was readily differentiated from the cellular autofluorescence background because of their relatively stronger emission intensities and longer lifetimes. These loaded nanoclusters in the cells were observed to widely distribute throughout the cells and especially densely loaded near the cell nucleuses. The AuNCs in the cells were also tested to have a better photostability relative to the organic fluorophores under the same conditions. We thus conclude that the AuNCs have a great potential as novel nanoparticle imaging agents, especially as lifetime imaging agents, in fluorescence imaging applications. We also prospect much broader applications of these AuNCs after further improvements of their luminescence quantum yields.
Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a key metabolite in cellular energy conversion. Flavin can also bind with some enzymes in the metabolic pathway and the binding sites may be changed due to the disease progression. Thus, there is interest on studying its expression level, distribution, and redox state within the cells. FAD is naturally fluorescent, but it has a modest extinction coefficient and quantum yield. Hence the intrinsic emission from FAD is generally too weak to be isolated distinctly from the cellular backgrounds in fluorescence cell imaging. In this article, the metal nanostructures on the glass coverslips were used as substrates to measure FAD in cells. Particulate silver films were fabricated with an optical resonance near the absorption and the emission wavelengths of FAD which can lead to efficient coupling interactions. As a result, the emission intensity and quantum yield by FAD were greatly increased and the lifetime was dramatically shortened resulting in less interference from the longer lived cellular background. This feature may overcome the technical limits that hinder the direct observation of intrinsically fluorescent coenzymes in the cells by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence cell imaging on the metallic particle substrates may provide a non-invasive strategy for collecting the information of coenzymes in cells.
Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD); Intrinsic fluorescence; Silver island film (SIF); Plasmon resonance; Near-field interaction; Fluorescence cell imaging
Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is critical for cancer progression by regulating tumor cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Herein, we investigated the regulation of STAT3 activation and the therapeutic effects of Icaritin, a prenyl flavonoid derivative from Epimedium Genus, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Icaritin showed significant anti-tumor activity in the human and mouse RCC cell lines, 786-O and Renca, respectively. Icaritin inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-induced phospho-STAT3 (STAT3Y705) and reduced the level of STAT3-regulated proteins Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, Survivin, and CyclinD1 in a dose-dependent manner. Icaritin also inhibited activation of Janus-activated kinase-2 (JAK2), while it showed minimal effects on the activation of other key signaling pathways, including AKT and MAPK. Expression of the constitutively active form of STAT3 blocked Icaritin-induced apoptosis, while siRNA directed against STAT3 potentiated apoptosis. Finally, Icaritin significantly blunted RCC tumor growth in vivo, reduced STAT3 activation, and inhibited Bcl-xL and Cyclin E, as well as VEGF expression in tumors, which was associated with reduced tumor angiogenesis. Overall, these results suggest that Icaritin strongly inhibits STAT3 activation and is a potentially effective therapeutic option for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.
To conduct a meta-analysis assessing the prevalence and trends of the abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) epidemic in general population.
Studies that reported prevalence rates of AAA from the general population were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and reference lists for the period between 1988 and 2013. Studies were included if they reported prevalence rates of AAA in general population from the community. In stratified analyses possible sources of bias, including areas difference, age, gender and diameter of aneurysms were examined. Publication bias was assessed with Egger's test method.
56 studies were identified. The overall pooled prevalence of AAA was 4.8% (4.3%, 5.3%). Stratified analyses showed the following results, areas difference: America 2.2% (2.2%, 2.2%), Europe 2.5% (2.4%, 2.5%), Australia 6.7% (6.5%, 7.0%), Asia 0.5% (0.3%, 0.7%); gender difference: male 6.0% (5.3%, 6.7%), female 1.6% (1.2%, 1.9%); age difference: 55–64years 1.3% (1.2%, 1.5%), 65–74 years 2.8% (2.7%, 2.9%), 75–84 years1.2%(1.1%, 1.3%), ≥85years0.6% (0.4%, 0.7%); aortic diameters difference: 30–39 mm, 3.3% (2.8%, 3.9%), 40–49 mm,0.7% (0.4%,1.0%), ≥50 mm, 0.4% (0.3%, 0.5%). The prevalence of AAA has decreased in Europe from 1988 to 2013. Hypertension, smoking, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, respiratory disease, cerebrovascular disease, claudication and renal insufficiency were risk factors for AAA in Europe.
AAA is common in general population. The prevalence of AAA is higher in Australia than America and Europe. The pooled prevalence in western countries is higher than the Asia. Future research requires a larger database on the epidemiology of AAA in general population.
In this article, we reported the near-field interactions between the Ru(bpy)32+ complexes and plasmon resonances from the bimetallic nanoshells. The metallic nanoshells were fabricated on 20 nm silica spheres as cores by depositing 10 nm monometallic or bimetallic shells. There were approx. 15 Ru(bpy)32+ complexes in the silica core. The metal shells were constituted of silver or/and gold. The bimetallic shells could be generated in homogeneous or heterogeneous geometries. The homogeneous bimetallic shells contained 10 nm silver-gold alloys. The heterogeneous bimetallic shells contained successive 5 nm gold and 5 nm silver shells, or alternatively, 5 nm silver and 5 nm gold shells. Optical properties of metal nanoshells were studied on both the ensemble spectra and single nanoparticle imaging measurements. The heterogeneous bimetallic shells were found to have a large scale of metal-enhanced emission relative to the monometallic or homogeneous bimetallic shells. It is because the heterogeneous bimetallic shells may display split dual plasmon resonances which can interact with the excitation and emission bands of the Ru(bpy)32+ complexes in the silica cores leading to more efficient near-field interactions. The prediction can be demonstrated by the lifetimes. Therefore, it is suggested that both the compositions and geometries of the metal shells can influence the interactions with the fluorophores in the cores. This observation also offers us an opportunity for developing plasmon-based fluorescence metal nanoparticles as novel nanoparticle imaging agents which have high performances in fluorescence cell or tissue imaging.
fluorescence; bimetallic nanoshell; plasmon resonance; Ru(bpy)32+ complexes; optical properties of single nanoparticle; time-resolved confocal microscope; and near-field interaction
Inherited genetic defects play an important role in congenital hearing loss, contributing to about 60% of deafness occurring in infants. Hereditary nonsyndromic hearing loss is highly heterogeneous, and most patients with a presumed genetic etiology lack a specific molecular diagnosis.
By whole exome sequencing, we identified responsible gene of family 4794 with autosomal recessively nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL). We also used DNA from 56 Chinese familial patients with ARNSHL (autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss) and 108 ethnicity-matched negative samples to perform extended variants analysis.
We identified MYO15A c.IVS25 + 3G > A and c.8375 T > C (p.V2792A) as the disease-causing mutations. Both mutations co-segregated with hearing loss in family 4794, but were absent in the 56 index patients and 108 ethnicity-matched controls.
Our results demonstrated that the hearing loss of family 4794 was caused by novel compound heterozygous mutations in MYO15A.
Autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing loss; Whole-exome sequencing; MYO15A
Currently, there are difficulties associated with the culturing of pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and knowledge regarding their regulatory mechanisms is limited. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and have critical functions in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Moreover, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) are key activators of signaling in hESCs. Based on the identification of complementary binding sites in miR-223 and IGF-1R mRNA, it is proposed that miR-223 acts as a local regulator of IGF-1R. Therefore, levels of miR-223 were detected in differentiated versus undifferentiated hESCs. In addition, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation were assayed in these two hESC populations and were compared in the presence of exogenous miR-223 and miR-223 inhibitor. Inhibition of miR-223 was found to maintain the undifferentiated state of hESCs, while addition of miR-223 induced differentiation. Furthermore, these effects were found to be likely dependent on IGF-1R/Akt signaling.
In light of the evidence for brain white matter (WM) abnormalities in schizophrenia, study of normal WM maturation in adolescence may provide critical insights relevant to the neurodevelopment of the disorder. Voxel-wise diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have consistently demonstrated increases in fractional anisotropy (FA), a putative measure of WM integrity, from childhood into adolescence. However, the WM tracts that show FA increases have been variable across studies. Here, we aimed to assess which WM tracts show the most pronounced changes across adolescence.
DTI was performed in 78 healthy subjects aged 8–21 years, and voxel-wise analysis conducted using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In addition, we performed the first meta-analysis of TBSS studies on WM development in adolescence.
In our sample, we observed bilateral increases in FA with age, which were most significant in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and anterior thalamic radiation. These findings were confirmed by the meta-analysis, and FA increase in the bilateral SLF was the most consistent finding across studies. Moreover, in our sample, FA of the bilateral SLF showed a positive association with verbal working memory performance and partially mediated increases in verbal fluency as a function of increasing age.
These data highlight increasing connectivity in the SLF during adolescence. In light of evidence for compromised SLF integrity in high-risk and first-episode patients, these data suggest that abnormal maturation of the SLF during adolescence may be a key target in the neurodevelopment of schizophrenia.
adolescence; development; diffusion tensor imaging; superior longitudinal fasciculus; verbal fluency; working memory
The aim of this study was to detect the effects of different perfusion pressure and different length of perfusion period on whole ovarian cryopreservation
Bovine whole ovaries were vitrified-warmed. The ovaries were divided into the experimental groups according to different perfusion pressure and different length of perfusion period. Follicular viability was assessed using the trypan blue test; the percentage of morphologically normal primordial follicles and the 17-β estradiol level in the culture supernatants were measured.
When perfusion pressure was 100 mmHg, and the length of perfusion period was 40 min, the viability of ovarian tissues in bovine whole ovarian cryopreservation were higher than other protocols.
Protocol IIb (the perfusion pressure was 100 mmHg, and the length of perfusion period was 40 min) was appropriate for bovine whole ovarian cryopreservation.
Perfusion pressure; Length of perfusion period; Cryopreservation; Bovine whole ovaries
Recently, the use of recombinant full-length amelogenin protein in combination with fluoride has shown promising results in the formation of densely packed enamel-like structures. In this study, amelogenin (rP172)-releasing hydrogels containing calcium, phosphate, and fluoride were investigated for remineralization efficacy using in vitro early enamel caries models. The hydrogels were applied to artificial caries lesions on extracted human third molars, and the remineralization efficacy was tested in different models: static gel remineralization in the presence of artificial saliva, pH cyclic treatment at pH 5.4 acetic buffer and pH 7.3 gel remineralization, and treatment with multispecies oral biofilms grown in a continuous flowing constant-depth film fermenter. The surface microhardness of remineralized enamel increased significantly when amelogenin was released from hydrogel. No cytotoxicity was observed when periodontal ligament cells were cultured with the mineralized hydrogels.
Remineralization; biocompatibility; enamel-like crystals; amelogenin; oral bacterial biofilm
The combination of fenretinide and selenite on ovarian cancer cells was investigated to assess its effects on proliferation and ability to induce apoptosis. Our results showed that fenretinide and selenite in combination significantly suppress the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and induced apoptosis (including reactive oxygen species generation, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential) compared with either drug used alone. The caspase3/9-dependent pathway was triggered significantly in combination treatment, and moreover, the AMPK pathway also mediated the apoptosis induction in fenretinide and selenite combination. Fenretinide and selenite combination treatment was demonstrated to suppress tumor growth in vivo, this drug combination has been thus found to have an enhanced anti-tumor effect on ovarian cancers cells.
ovarian cancers cell; fenretinide; selenite; combination; anti-tumor effect
Secondary dystonia commonly presents as hemidystonia and is often refractory to current treatments. We aimed to establish an inducible rat model of hemidystonia utilizing 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) and to determine the pathophysiology of this model.
Two different doses of 3-NP were stereotactically administered into the ipsilateral caudate putamen (CPu) of Wistar rats. Behavioral changes and alterations in the neurotransmitter levels in the basal ganglia were analyzed. We also performed an electromyogram, 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging and transmission electron microscopy examination to determine the pathophysiology of the model.
In the CPu region, 3-NP produced mitochondrial cristae rupture, axonal degeneration, increased excitatory synaptic vesicles and necrosis. The extracellular concentrations of excitatory amino acids increased, whereas the inhibitory amino acids decreased in the CPu. Furthermore, an imbalance of neurotransmitters was found in other regions of the basal ganglia with the exception of the external globus pallidus. This study demonstrated that 3-NP administration results in CPu damage, and combined with a neurotransmitter imbalance in the basal ganglia, it produces specific neurobehavioral changes in rats. Right limb (contralateral side of CPu lesion) and trunk dystonic postures, shortened step length and ipsiversive dystonic posturing were observed in these rats. Furthermore, EMG recordings confirmed that co-contraction of the agonist and antagonist muscles could be seen for several seconds in right limbs.
Stereotactic injection of 3-NP into the ipsilateral CPu of rats established an inducible model for hemidystonia. This effect might result from an imbalance of neurotransmitter levels, which induce dysfunctional activity of the basal ganglia mainly via the cortico-striato-GPi direct pathway. Symptoms in this model were present for 1 week. Activation of the cortico-striato-GPe indirect pathway and rebalance of neurotransmitters may lead to recovery. This rat model may be a suitable tool used to understand and further investigate the pathophysiology of dystonia.
Seed storage proteins in wheat endosperm, particularly high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), are primary determinants of dough properties, and affect both end-use quality and grain utilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). In order to investigate the interactive effects between the transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 subunit with different HMW-GS on dough quality traits, we developed a set of 8 introgression lines (ILs) overexpressing the transgenic HMW-glutenin subunit 1Ax1 by introgression of this transgene from transgenic line B102-1-2/1 into an elite Chinese wheat variety Chuanmai107 (C107), using conventional crossing and backcrossing breeding technique. The donor C107 strain lacks 1Ax1 but contains the HMW-GS pairs 1Dx2+1Dy12 and 1Bx7+1By9. The resultant ILs showed robust and stable expression of 1Ax1 even after five generations of self-pollination, and crossing/backcrossing three times. In addition, overexpression of 1Ax1 was compensated by the endogenous gluten proteins. All ILs exhibited superior agronomic performance when compared to the transgenic parent line, B102-1-2/1. Mixograph results demonstrated that overexpressed 1Ax1 significantly improved dough strength, resistance to extension and over-mixing tolerance, in the targeted wheat cultivar C107. Further, comparisons among the ILs showed the interactive effects of endogenous subunits on dough properties when 1Ax1 was overexpressed: subunit pair 17+18 contributed to increased over-mixing tolerance of the dough; expression of the Glu-D1 allele maintained an appropriate balance between x-type and y-type subunits and thereby improved dough quality. It is consistent with ILs C4 (HMW-GS are 1, 17+18, 2+12) had the highest gluten index and Zeleny sedimentation value. This study demonstrates that wheat quality could be improved by using transgenic wheat overexpressing HMW-GS and the feasibility of using such transgenic lines in wheat quality breeding programs.
AIM: To investigate the effects of photodynamic therapy with quantum dots-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) probe as photosensitizer on the proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic carcinoma cells.
METHODS: Construction of quantum dots-RGD probe as photosensitizer for integrin-targeted photodynamic therapy was accomplished. After cells were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT), the proliferation of SW1990 cells were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Morphologic changes, cell cycle retardance and apoptosis were observed under fluoroscope and flow cytometry. The expression of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), protein kinase B (Akt) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The amount of reactive oxygen species were also evaluated by fluorescence probe.
RESULTS: The photodynamic therapy with quantum dots-RGD probe as photosensitizer significantly inhibited cell proliferation (P < 0.01). Apoptotic cells and morphologic changes could be found under optical microscope. The FCM revealed PDT group had more significant cell apoptosis rate compared to control cells (F = 130.617, P < 0.01) and cell cycle G0/G1 and S retardance (P < 0.05) compared to control cells. The expression of Mcl-1 and Akt mRNA were down-regulated, while expression of TRAIL mRNA was up-regulated after cells treated with PDT. PDT group had more significant number of cells producing reactive oxygen species compared to control cells (F = 3262.559, P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: The photodynamic therapy with quantum dots-RGD probe as photosensitizer significantly inhibits cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in SW1990 cells.
Pancreatic carcinoma; Targeted probe; Photodynamic therapy; Apoptosis; Reactive oxygen species
The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a locally aggressive cystic jaw lesion that occurs sporadically or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). PTCH1, the gene responsible for NBCCS, may play an important role in sporadic KCOTs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the distribution pattern of PTCH1 mutations in patients with sporadic and NBCCS-associated KCOTs.
We detected PTCH1 mutations in 14 patients with NBCCS-associated KCOTs and 29 patients with sporadic KCOTs by direct sequencing. In addition, five electronic databases were searched for studies detecting PTCH1 mutations in individuals with NBCCS-associated or sporadic KCOTs, published between January 1996 and June 2013 in English language.
We identified 15 mutations in 11 cases with NBCCS-associated KCOTs and 19 mutations in 13 cases with sporadic KCOTs. In addition, a total of 204 PTCH1 mutations (187 mutations from 210 cases with NBCCS-associated and 17 mutations from 57 cases with sporadic KCOTs) were compiled from 78 published papers.
Our study indicates that mutations in transmembrane 2 (TM2) are closely related to the development of sporadic KCOTs. Moreover, for the early diagnosis of NBCCS, a genetic analysis of the PTCH1 gene should be included in the new diagnostic criteria.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of one-stitch anastomosis through the skin with bicanalicular silicone tube intubation in repairing of bicanalicular laceration.
The clinical data of 15 consecutive patients with both superior and inferior canalicular laceration in one eye who underwent surgical repair using one-stitch anastomosis through the skin and bicanalicular stent were retrospective studied. All the operations were performed under surgical microscope, 5-0 silk sutures were used and were with bicanalicular silicone tube (diameter was 8mm) intubation, for one lacerated canaliculi one-stitch anastomosis through the skin. The stents were left in place for 3 months postoperatively and then removed. The follow-up period was 3 - 36 months (average 14 months).
In 15 patients, 13 patients were cured entirely, 1 patient was meliorated, 1 patient with no effects. All patients had got good recovery of eyelid laceration with no traumatic deformity in eyelid and canthus. Complication was seen in one case, for not followed the doctor's guidance to come back to hospital to had the suture removed on the 7th day after operation, when he came at the 15th day, the inferior canalicular wall and eyelid skin were corroded by the suture caused 2mm wound, and the inside silicone tube was exposed, a promptly repair with 10-0 nylon suture was done, the wound healed in a week. There were no early tube protrusions and punctal slits in the patients.
One-stitch anastomosis through the skin with bicanalicular silicone tube intubation is a good method in repair of bicanalicular laceration in one eye, the cut ends can be anastomosed directly, and with excellent cosmetic results, it is acceptable for the patients. For there is no suture remained in the wound permanently, so there is no suture-related granuloma which may cause obstruction or stenosis of canaliculi. It is simple, economical, effective and safe.
both superior and inferior canalicular laceration; repair; one-stitch anastomosis through the skin; bicanalicular intubation
The hydrological cycle is an important way of transportation and reallocation of reactive nitrogen (N) in forest ecosystems. However, under a high level of atmospheric N deposition, the N distribution and cycling through water flows in forest ecosystems especially in bamboo ecosystems are not well understood.
In order to investigate N fluxes through water flows in a Pleioblastus amarus bamboo forest, event rainfall/snowfall (precipitation, PP), throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF), surface runoff (SR), forest floor leachate (FFL), soil water at the depth of 40 cm (SW1) and 100 cm (SW2) were collected and measured through the whole year of 2009. Nitrogen distribution in different pools in this ecosystem was also measured. Mean N pools in vegetation and soil (0–1 m) were 351.7 and 7752.8 kg ha−1. Open field nitrogen deposition at the study site was 113.8 kg N ha−1 yr−1, which was one of the highest in the world. N-NH4+, N-NO3− and dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 54%, 22% and 24% of total wet N deposition. Net canopy accumulated of N occurred with N-NO3− and DON but not N-NH4+. The flux of total dissolved N (TDN) to the forest floor was greater than that in open field precipitation by 17.7 kg N ha−1 yr−1, due to capture of dry and cloudwater deposition net of canopy uptake. There were significant negative exponential relationships between monthly water flow depths and monthly mean TDN concentrations in PP, TF, SR, FFL and SW1.
The open field nitrogen deposition through precipitation is very high over the world, which is the main way of reactive N input in this bamboo ecosystem. The water exchange and N consume mainly occurred in the litter floor layer and topsoil layer, where most of fine roots of bamboo distributed.
Tissue factor (TF) is expressed in various types of cells. TF expression is essential for many biological processes, such as blood coagulation and embryonic development, while its high expression in stem cells often leads to failure of transplantation. In this study, we used the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) culture system to understand the molecular mechanisms by which TF expression is regulated in hESC-derived hematopoietic and trophoblastic cells.
hESCs were induced in vitro to differentiate into hematopoietic and trophoblastic cells. TF expression in various types of cells during these differentiation processes was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and western blot analysis. The regulatory mechanisms of TF expression were investigated by miRNA expression analysis, luciferase report assay, TF mRNA and protein analysis, and pathway phosphorylation analysis.
We first found that TF was expressed only in trophoblasts and granulocyte–monocyte (G-M) cells differentiated from hESCs; and then demonstrated that miR-20b downregulated and Erk1/2 signaling pathway upregulated the TF expression in trophoblasts and G-M cells. Finally, we found that miR-20b downregulated the TF expression independently of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway.
The miR-20b and Erk1/2 pathway independently regulate expression of TF in trophoblasts and G-M cells differentiated from hESCs. These findings will open an avenue to further illustrate the functions of TF in various biological processes.
Ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest, called “Lin-Xia-Shan-Shen” (LXSS) in China's Pharmacopoeia. In recent years, it has been quickly propelled to plant at a large scale.
To study the profiles of ginsenosides and carbohydrate profiles of LXSS.
Materials and Methods:
The contents of ginsenosides and carbohydrates, such as soluble sugar, polysaccharide, pectin, and starch in LXSS, were determined. All the above components were profiled, and the correlations between them were analyzed.
The results indicated that the contents of total ginsenoside, protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol, Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, starch, and pectin were negatively correlated with the growing years within 17 years. Among them, the content of starch was positively correlated with that of pectin. The total ginsenosides was positively correlated with starch and pectin, which cannot be found in garden ginseng, maybe resulting of fertilizer and other manual intervention in process of cultivation of garden ginseng.
Discussion and Conclusions:
The accumulation of ginsenosides and carbohydrate, especially starch and pectin, was different in garden ginseng and LXSS. This research may provide the scientific basis for germplasm evaluation, the cultivation and utilization of ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest.
Carbohydrate; ginseng; ginsenoside; pectin; polysaccharide; starch
The prolyl oligopeptidase family, which is a group of serine peptidases, can hydrolyze peptides smaller than 30 residues. The prolyl oligopeptidase family in plants includes four members, which are prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, EC22.214.171.124), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV, EC126.96.36.199), oligopeptidase B (OPB, EC188.8.131.52), and acylaminoacyl peptidase (ACPH, EC184.108.40.206). POP is found in human and rat, and plays important roles in multiple biological processes, such as protein secretion, maturation and degradation of peptide hormones, and neuropathies, signal transduction and memory and learning. However, the function of POP is unclear in plants. In order to study POP function in plants, we cloned the cDNA of the OsPOP5 gene from rice by nested-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a protein of 596 amino acid residues with Mw ≈ 67.29 kD. In order to analyze the protein function under different abiotic stresses, OsPOP5 was expressed in Escherichia coli. OsPOP5 protein enhanced the tolerance of E. coli to high salinity, high temperature and simulated drought. The results indicate that OsPOP5 is a stress-related gene in rice and it may play an important role in plant tolerance to abiotic stress.
prolyl oligopeptidase; abiotic stress; protein expression; E. coli; Oryza sativa L
Although thyroid carcinoma is a relatively common form of malignancy, metastatic spread to the skull is rare. Here, we report a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma with frontal and parietal metastasis. A 61-year-old Chinese woman presented with a one year history of a growing mass on the center of the frontal and parietal bone, initially thought to be meningioma. Biopsy of the skull base mass after intracalvarium excision, indicated a tumor of thyroid origin. One month later the patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Pathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma with frontal and parietal bone metastasis. Based on this experience, the key to successful management of the skull metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Skull metastasis should be considered at the outset of the clinical course of papillary thyroid cancer. To facilitate this, patients should be meticulously investigated by a multidisciplinary team to improve quality of life.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma; frontal skull metastasis; diagnosis; treatment
Shape memory alloy (SMA) has great potential to develop light and compact artificial muscle (AM) due to its muscle-like high power-to-weight ratio, flexibility and silent operation properties. In this paper, SMA self-sensing properties are explored and modeled in depth to imitate the integrated muscle-like functions of actuating and self-sensing for SMA-AM based on the investigation of SMA electrical resistivity (ER). Firstly, an ER transformation kinetics model is proposed based on the simulation of SMA differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. Then a series of thermal-electrical-mechanical experiments are carried out to verify the validity of the ER model, whereby the SMA-AM self-sensing function is well established under different stress conditions. Finally the self-sensing capability is further demonstrated by its application to a novel SMA-AM-actuated active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO).
shape memory alloy; artificial muscle; self-sensing model; electrical resistivity; active ankle-foot orthosis
This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) contents in 30 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in adult roosters, and establish the prediction equations to estimate the AME and TME value based on its chemical composition and color score.
Twenty-eight sources of corn DDGS made from several processing plants in 11 provinces of China and others imported from the United States. DDGS were analyzed for their metabolizable energy (ME) contents, measured for color score and chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), to predict the equation of ME in DDGS. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, each DDGS sample was tube fed (50 g) to adult roosters. The experiment was conducted as a randomized incomplete block design with 3 periods. Ninety-five adult roosters were used in each period, with 90 being fed the DDGS samples and 5 being fasted to estimate basal endogenous energy losses.
Results showed that the AME ranged from 5.93 to 12.19 MJ/kg, TME ranged from 7.28 to 13.54 MJ/kg. Correlations were found between ME and ash content (-0.64, P < 0.01) and between ME and yellowness score (0.39, P < 0.05) of the DDGS samples. Furthermore, the best-fit regression equation for AME content of DDGS based on chemical composition and color score was AME = 6.57111 + 0.51475 GE - 0.10003 NDF + 0.13380 ADF + 0.07057 fat - 0.57029 ash - 0.02437 L (R2 = 0.70). The best-fit regression equation for TME content of DDGS was TME = 7.92283 + 0.51475 GE - 0.10003 NDF + 0.13380 ADF + 0.07057 fat - 0.57029 ash - 0.02437 L (R2 = 0.70).
This experiment suggested that measuring the chemical composition and color score of a corn DDGS sample may provide a quality parameter for identifying corn DDGS sources energy digestibility and metabolizable energy content.
Metabolizable energy; Distillers dried grains with solubles; Rooster; Predictive equation