Hantaan virus (HTNV) infection causes a severe form of HFRS(hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome)in Asia. Although HTNV has been isolated for nearly forty years, the pathogenesis of HFRS is still unknown, and little is known regarding the signaling pathway that is activated by the virus.
Cardamonin was selected as a NF-κB inhibitor, and indirect immunofluorescence assays were used to detect the effect of cardamonin on HTNV-infected HUVECs. The effect of cardamonin on the HTNV-induced phosphorylation of Akt and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB were determined using Western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), respectively. Then, flow cytometric and quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed to quantify the expression levels of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and the concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and CCL5 in HUVEC supernatants were examined using ELISA. The results showed that cardamonin did not effect the proliferation of HUVECs or the replication of HTNV in HUVECs. Instead, cardamonin inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear transduction of NF-κB and further reduced the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HTNV-infected HUVECs. Cardamonin also inhibited the secretion of IL-6 and CCL5, but not IL-8.
HTNV replication may not be dependent upon the ability of the virus to activate NF-κB in HUVECs. The Akt/NF-κB pathways may be involved in the pathogenesis of HFRS; therefore, cardamonin may serve as a potential beneficial agent for HFRS therapy.
In this paper, the synchronization problem for a class of discrete-time complex-valued neural networks with time-varying delays is investigated. Compared with the previous work, the time delay and parameters are assumed to be time-varying. By separating the real part and imaginary part, the discrete-time model of complex-valued neural networks is derived. Moreover, by using the complex-valued Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional method and linear matrix inequality as tools, sufficient conditions of the synchronization stability are obtained. In numerical simulation, examples are presented to show the effectiveness of our method.
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) relies on a homeostasis of macrophages and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The small heat shock protein, Mtb Hsp16.3 (also known as latency-associated antigen), plays an important role in Mtb persistence within macrophages. However, the mechanism of LTBI remains elusive. The aim of this study was to delineate LTBI-related miRNA expression in U937 macrophages expressing Mtb Hsp16.3 protein. U937 macrophages were infected with an integrase-deficient Lentivirus vector to transiently express Mtb Hsp16.3, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a control. We used a microRNA (miRNA) microarray chip containing more than 1000 probes to identify the significant differentially expressed miRNAs in the infected U937 cells, and employed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for validation. Furthermore, we confirmed these candidate LTBI-related miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with LTBI and in healthy control individuals. Functional annotation prediction of miRNA target genes and pathway enrichment analyses were used to explore the putative links between these miRNAs and LTBI.
Analysis of the miRNA expression profile identified 149 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in U937 macrophages expressing Mtb Hsp16.3 compared with the control expressing GFP. The expression level of seven miRNAs (miR-424-5p, miR-493-5p, miR-296-5p, miR-27b-3p, miR-377-5p, miR-3680-5p, miR-191-5p) were validated by qRT-PCR. The expression level of four miRNAs (miR-424-5p, miR-27b-3p, miR-377-5p, miR-3680-5p) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells samples from LTBI and healthy participants reflected the altered patterns observed in the microarray profile. The bioinformatic analyses suggest that the miRNAs may regulate Mtb latent infection by affecting the development of macrophage cells.
The results suggest that miRNA expression may play a considerable role in the pathogenesis of LTBI, and this would increase our understanding of the molecular basis of Hsp16.3-facilitated Mtb survival in macrophages.
microRNAs; Macrophages; Mycobacterium; Tuberculosis; Small heat shock protein; Latent tuberculosis infection
The aim of the present study was to analyze an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), caused by a Hantavirus, in college students in the northern urban area of Xi’an in 2012. The outbreak affected six students and included two deaths. The epidemiological survey revealed that both of the deceased cases were misdiagnosed initially, and treatment was delayed. Furthermore, a higher rodent population density and lower HFRS vaccine coverage were observed in the affected area, which indicates a possible role in the outbreak. Rattus norvegicus (Rn) and Mus musculus (Mm) were the predominant host populations in the area. Genotyping revealed that all HVs from patients and rodents were Hantaan virus (HTNV). Sequence analysis of the S segments revealed that the HTNVs reported in this study had high similarity with strains reported in 2011 and 1985, but these viruses diverged from a strain isolated in 1984 and the HTNV prototype strain 76-118. Detection of anti-HV IgG and amplification of the S segment of HTNV from a non-natural HTNV reservoir indicates that further investigations by increased rodent trapping are necessary.
Hantaan virus; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; outbreak; Xi’an City
Congenital atrial septal defect (ASD) is the second commonest form of cardiac developmental anomaly, responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in affected individuals. Previous studies have implicated genetic defects in the pathogenesis of ASD. However, ASD is largely a genetically heterogeneous disease and the genetic determinants for ASD in the majority of patients remain to be identified.
Material and methods
The entire coding region of GATA4, a gene encoding a zinc-finger transcription factor essential for normal cardiac morphogenesis, was sequenced in 220 unrelated patients with ASD. The available relatives of the patients harboring the identified mutations and 200 unrelated ethnicity-matched control individuals were genotyped.
Four heterozygous missense GATA4 mutations, p.P36S, p.H190R, p.S262A, and p.V399G, were identified in four unrelated patients with ASD, respectively. These mutations were neither detected in 200 control individuals nor described in the human SNP database. Alignment of multiple GATA4 protein sequences across species indicated that the affected amino acids were highly conserved evolutionarily. Genetic analysis of the available relatives of the mutation carriers showed that in each family the mutation co-segregated with ASD.
The findings expand the spectrum of mutations in GATA4 linked to ASD and provide new insight into the molecular etiology associated with ASD, suggesting the potential implications for the genetic diagnosis and gene-specific therapy for this prevalent cardiovascular abnormality in humans.
atrial septal defect; transcription factor; genetics
Reactive aldehydes can initiate protein oxidative damage which may contribute to heart senescence. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is considered to be a potential interventional target for I/R injury management in the elderly. We hypothesized that aldehyde mediated carbonyl stress increases susceptibility of aged hearts to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms with a focus on SIRT1. Male C57BL/6 young (4-6 mo) and aged (22-24 mo) mice were subjected to myocardial I/R. Cardiac aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), SIRT1 activity and protein carbonyls were assessed. Our data revealed that aged heart exhibited increased endogenous aldehyde/carbonyl stress due to impaired ALDH2 activity concomitant with blunted SIRT1 activity (P<0.05). Exogenous toxic aldehydes (4-HNE) exposure in isolated cardiomyocyte verified that aldehyde-induced carbonyl modification on SIRT1 impaired SIRT1 activity leading to worse hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury, which could all be rescued by Alda-1 (ALDH2 activator) (all P<0.05). However, SIRT1 inhibitor blocked the protective effect of Alda-1 on H/R cardiomyocyte. Interestingly, myocardial I/R leads to higher carbonylation but lower activity of SIRT1 in aged hearts than that seen in young hearts (P<0.05). The application of Alda-1 significantly reduced the carbonylation on SIRT1 and markedly improved the tolerance to in vivo I/R injury in aged hearts, but failed to protect Sirt1+/− knockout mice against myocardial I/R injury. This was verified by Alda-1 treatment improved postischemic contractile function recovery in ex vivo perfused aged but not in Sirt1+/− hearts. Thus, aldehyde/carbonyl stress is accelerated in aging heart. These results provide a new insight that impaired cardiac SIRT1 activity by carbonyl stress plays a critical role in the increased susceptibility of aged heart to I/R injury. ALDH2 activation can restore this aging-related myocardial ischemic intolerance.
Evidence suggests Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), a biologically active extract from the medical plant Panax Ginseng, exerts antioxidant effect, decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Current study determined the effect of GSRd on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury (a pathological condition where ROS production is significantly increased) and investigated the underlying mechanisms. The current study utilized an in vivo rat model of MI/R injury and an in vitro neonatal rat cardiomyocyte (NRC) model of simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R) injury. Infarct size was measured by Evans blue/TTC double staining. NRC injury was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay. ROS accumulation and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was determined by 5, 5′, 6, 6′-tetrachloro-1, 1′, 3, 3′-tetrathylbenzimidazol carbocyanine iodide (JC-1). Cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c and expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bcl-2 family proteins, and phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β were determined by western blot. Pretreatment with GSRd (50 mg/kg) significantly augmented rat cardiac function, as evidenced by increased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and ±dP/dt. GSRd reduced myocardial infarct size, apoptotic cell death, and blood creatine kinase/lactate dehydrogenase levels after MI/R. In NRCs, GSRd (10 µM) inhibited SI/R-induced ROS generation (P<0.01), decreased cellular apoptosis, stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and attenuated cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c. GSRd inhibited activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, increased the phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Together, these data demonstrate GSRd mediated cardioprotective effect against MI/R–induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.
Tetraology of Fallot (TOF) is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease and is a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence demonstrates that genetic risk factors are involved in the pathogenesis of TOF. However, TOF is genetically heterogeneous and the genetic defects responsible for TOF remain largely unclear. In the present study, the whole coding region of the GATA5 gene, which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor essential for cardiogenesis, was sequenced in 130 unrelated patients with TOF. The relatives of the index patients harboring the identified mutations and 200 unrelated control individuals were subsequently genotyped. The functional characteristics of the mutations were analyzed using a luciferase reporter assay system. As a result, 2 novel heterozygous GATA5 mutations, p.R187G and p.H207R, were identified in 2 families with autosomal dominantly inherited TOF, respectively. The variations were absent in 400 control alleles and the altered amino acids were completely conserved evolutionarily. Functional analysis showed that the GATA5 mutants were associated with significantly decreased transcriptional activation compared with their wild-type counterpart. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of GATA5 loss-of-function mutations with TOF, suggesting potential implications for the early prophylaxis and allele-specific therapy of human TOF.
Congenital heart disease; Tetralogy of Fallot; Genetics; Transcription factor; GATA5.
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most prevalent type of congenital heart disease and is a major cause of substantial morbidity and mortality in infants. Accumulating evidence implicates genetic defects, especially in cardiac transcription factors, in the pathogenesis of VSD. However, VSD is genetically heterogeneous and the genetic determinants for VSD in most patients remain to be identified.
A cohort of 230 unrelated patients with congenital VSD was included in the investigation. A total of 200 unrelated ethnically matched healthy individuals were recruited as controls. The entire coding region of GATA4, a gene encoding a zinc-finger transcription factor essential for normal cardiac morphogenesis, was sequenced initially in 230 unrelated VSD patients. The available relatives of the mutation carriers and 200 control subjects were subsequently genotyped for the presence of identified mutations.
Four heterozygous missense GATA4 mutations of p.Q55R, p.G96R, p.N197S, and p.K404R were identified in 4 unrelated patients with VSD. These mutations were not detected in 200 control individuals nor described in the human SNP database. Genetic analysis of the relatives of the mutation carriers showed that in each family the mutation co-segregated with VSD.
These findings expand the mutation spectrum of GATA4 linked to VSD and provide new insight into the molecular etiology responsible for VSD, suggesting potential implications for the genetic diagnosis and gene-specific therapy for VSD.
ventricular septal defect; transcription factor; genetics
Increased expression of transcriptional coactivator p300 has been observed in a variety of human cancers. However, the expression status of p300 protein/mRNA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues and its clinicopathologic/prognostic implication are poorly understood.
In our study, mRNA and protein expression levels of p300 was explored by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in nasopharyngeal mucosal and NPC tissues. The data were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, spearman’s rank correlation, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression model.
Up-regulated expression of p300 mRNA/p300 protein was detected in NPC tissues by RT-PCR and WB, when compared to nasopharyngeal mucosal tissues. Based on ROC curve analysis, the cutoff score for p300 high expression was defined when more than 35% of the tumor cells were positively stained. High expression of p300 was observed in 127/209 (60.7%) of NPCs. In NPCs, high expression of p300 was positively associated with later T classification, later N classification, distant metastasis and later clinical stage (P < 0.05). In univariate survival analysis, overexpression of p300 was found to be an indicator of progression-free (P = 0.002) and overall survival (P = 0.001) in NPCs. More importantly, p300 expression was evaluated as an independent prognostic factor for NPC in multivariate analysis (P = 0.036).
Our findings support that high expression of p300 protein might be important in conferring a more aggressive behavior, and is an independent molecular marker for shortened survival time of patients with NPC.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; p300; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis
To investigate the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of gambogic acid (GA) on TNF-α-induced metastasis of human prostate cancer PC3 cells in vitro.
TNF-α-mediated migration and invasion of PC3 cells was examined using migration and invasion assays, respectively. NF-κB transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation were analyzed with luciferase reporter gene assays, immunofluorescence assays and Western blots. The ability of p65 to bind the promoter of Snail, an important mesenchymal molecular marker, was detected using a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. After treatment with Snail-specific siRNA, the expression of invasiveness-associated genes was measured using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot.
GA significantly inhibited the viability of PC3 cells at 1–5 μmol/L, but did not produce cytotoxic effect at the concentrations below 0.5 μmol/L. GA (0.125–0.5 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of PC3 cells induced by TNF-α (10 ng/mL). Moreover, the TNF-α-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and NF-κB pathways was suppressed by GA (0.5 μmol/L). Furthermore, this anti-invasion effect of GA was associated with regulation of Snail. Snail expression was significantly down-regulated by treatment with GA (0.5 μmol/L) in the TNF-α-stimulated PC3 cells.
GA inhibits TNF-α-induced invasion of PC3 cells via inactivation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways, which may offer a novel approach for the treatment of human prostate cancer.
gambogic acid; human prostate cancer; tumor metastasis; tumor invasion; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); PI3K/Akt signaling pathway; NF-κB signaling pathway; Snail
Anemia is regarded as a major risk factor for unfavorable pregnancy outcomes, but there have been no previous studies describing the pattern of hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy in Tibet and the relationship between altitude and Hb concentration in the pregnant women living in Tibet still has not been clearly established. The main objectives of this study were to study the hemoglobin levels and prevalence of anemia among pregnant women living in the highlands of Tibet and to evaluate potential associations of hemoglobin and anemia with women's characteristics.
The hospital-based study was conducted in 380 pregnant women. Their blood samples were tested and related sociodemographic information was collected. Multiple linear regression model and multiple logistic regression model were used to assess the association of pregnant women's characteristics with hemoglobin level and the occurrence of anemia. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Dirren et al. and Dallman et al. methods were used to adjust the hemoglobin measurements based on altitude for estimating the prevalence of anemia.
The mean hemoglobin concentration was 127.6 g/L (range: 55.0-190.0 g/L). Prevalence rate of anemia in this study was 70.0%, 77.9% and 41.3%, respectively for three altitude-correction methods for hemoglobin (CDC method, Dirren et al. method, and Dallman et al. method). Gestational age, ethnicity, residence and income were significantly associated with the hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia in the study population. Specially, the hemoglobin concentration of pregnant women decreased with increase in gestational age.
The hemoglobin level was low and prevalence rate of anemia was high among pregnant women in Lhasa, Tibet. Gestational age, ethnicity, residence and income were found to be significantly associated with the hemoglobin level and the occurrence of anemia in the study population.
Resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a major cause of chemotherapy failure in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, has a crucial role in growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in several carcinoma cell lines. In this study, we examine rosiglitazone-induced sensitization of HCC cell lines (BEL-7402 and Huh-7 cells) to 5-FU.
The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Western blotting analysis was performed to detect the protein expression (PPARγ, PTEN, and COX-2) in BEL-7402 cells. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to examine the expression of PTEN in 100 advanced HCC tissues and paracancerous tissues. In addition, small interfering RNA was used to suppress PPARγ, PTEN, and COX-2 expression.
Rosiglitazone facilitates the anti-tumor effect of 5-FU in HCC cell lines, which is mediated by the PPARγ signaling pathway. Activation of PPARγ by rosiglitazone increases PTEN expression and decreases COX-2 expression. Since distribution of PTEN in HCC tissues is significantly decreased compared with the paracancerous tissue, over-expression of PTEN by rosiglitazone enhances 5-FU-inhibited cell growth of HCC. Moreover, down-regulation of COX-2 is implicated in the synergistic effect of 5-FU.
Rosiglitazone sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines to 5-FU antitumor activity through the activation of PPARγ. The results suggest potential novel therapies for the treatment of advanced liver cancer.
rosiglitazone; hepatocellular carcinoma; PTEN; PPARγ; 5-fluorouracil
Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, especially in pregnant women. This study examined the agreement between a portable hemoglobin photometer and a laboratory analyzer in determining hemoglobin level in pregnant women.
This study recruited 69 pregnant women in Tibet, China. Capillary blood samples were taken to measure hemoglobin concentration using the hemoglobin photometer and the laboratory analyzer. Limit of agreement, concordance and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to evaluate the agreement. Laboratory measurement was considered as the standard reference method. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to assess the error in screening for anemia.
Mean difference between the two methods was -2.1 g/l. wide 95% limits of agreement were found (-22.6 g/l to 18.4 g/l). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.795, and concordance correlation coefficient was 0.793. Sensitivity and specificity were 94.9% and 76.7% respectively. Positive predictive value was 84.1%, and negative predictive value was 92.0%.
This hemoglobin photometer is not recommended for determining hemoglobin concentration in pregnancy in a high altitude area.