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1.  Model of Tumor Dormancy/Recurrence after Short-Term Chemotherapy 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e98021.
Although many tumors regress in response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, residual tumor cells are detected in most cancer patients post-treatment. These residual tumor cells are thought to remain dormant for years before resuming growth, resulting in tumor recurrence. Considering that recurrent tumors are most often responsible for patient mortality, there exists an urgent need to study signaling pathways that drive tumor dormancy/recurrence. We have developed an in vitro model of tumor dormancy/recurrence. Short-term exposure of tumor cells (breast or prostate) to chemotherapy at clinically relevant doses enriches for a dormant tumor cell population. Several days after removing chemotherapy, dormant tumor cells regain proliferative ability and establish colonies, resembling tumor recurrence. Tumor cells from “recurrent” colonies exhibit increased chemotherapy resistance, similar to the therapy resistance of recurrent tumors in cancer patients. Previous studies using long-term chemotherapy selection models identified acquired mutations that drive tumor resistance. In contrast, our short term chemotherapy exposure model enriches for a slow-cycling, dormant, chemo-resistant tumor cell sub-population that can resume growth after drug removal. Studying unique signaling pathways in dormant tumor cells enriched by short-term chemotherapy treatment is expected to identify novel therapeutic targets for preventing tumor recurrence.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098021
PMCID: PMC4028269  PMID: 24845582
2.  Optical Redox Ratio Differentiates Breast Cancer Cell Lines Based on Estrogen Receptor Status 
Cancer research  2010;70(11):10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2572.
Autofluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful imaging technique that exploits endogenous fluorophores. The endogenous fluorophores NADH and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are two of the principal electron donors and acceptors in cellular metabolism, respectively. The optical oxidation-reduction (redox) ratio is a measure of cellular metabolism and can be determined by the ratio of NADH/FAD. We hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the optical redox ratio of normal mammary epithelial cells compared with breast tumor cell lines and that estrogen receptor (ER)–positive cells would have a higher redox ratio than ER-negative cells. To test our hypothesis, the optical redox ratio was determined by collecting the fluorescence emission for NADH and FAD via confocal microscopy. We observed a statistically significant increase in the optical redox ratio of cancer compared with normal cell lines (P < 0.05). Additionally, we observed a statistically significant increase in the optical redox ratio of ER(+) breast cancer cell lines. The level of ESR1 expression, determined by real-time PCR, directly correlated with the optical redox ratio (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.8122, P = 0.0024). Furthermore, treatment with tamoxifen and ICI 182,870 statistically decreased the optical redox ratio of only ER(+) breast cancer cell lines. The results of this study raise the important possibility that fluorescence spectroscopy can be used to identify subtypes of breast cancer based on receptor status, monitor response to therapy, or potentially predict response to therapy. This source of optical contrast could be a potentially useful tool for drug screening in preclinical models.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2572
PMCID: PMC3826951  PMID: 20460512
3.  CpG Island Tumor Suppressor Promoter Methylation in Non-BRCA-Associated Early Mammary Carcinogenesis 
Background:
Only 5% of all breast cancers are the result of BRCA1/2 mutations. Methylation silencing of tumor suppressor genes is well described in sporadic breast cancer; however, its role in familial breast cancer is not known.
Methods:
CpG island promoter methylation was tested in the initial random periareolar fine-needle aspiration sample from 109 asymptomatic women at high risk for breast cancer. Promoter methylation targets included RARB (M3 and M4), ESR1, INK4a/ARF, BRCA1, PRA, PRB, RASSF1A, HIN-1, and CRBP1.
Results:
Although the overall frequency of CpG island promoter methylation events increased with age (P < 0.0001), no specific methylation event was associated with age. In contrast, CpG island methylation of RARB M4 (P = 0.051), INK4a/ARF (P = 0.042), HIN-1 (P = 0.044), and PRA (P = 0.032), as well as the overall frequency of methylation events (P = 0.004), was associated with abnormal Masood cytology. The association between promoter methylation and familial breast cancer was tested in 40 unaffected premenopausal women in our cohort who underwent BRCA1/2 mutation testing. Women with BRCA1/2 mutations had a low frequency of CpG island promoter methylation (15 of 15 women had ≤4 methylation events), whereas women without a mutation showed a high frequency of promoter methylation events (24 of 25 women had 5-8 methylation events; P < 0.0001). Of women with a BRCA1/2 mutation, none showed methylation of HIN-1 and only 1 of 15 women showed CpG island methylation of RARB M4, INK4a/ARF, or PRB promoters.
Conclusions:
This is the first evidence of CpG island methylation of tumor suppressor gene promoters in non-BRCA1/2 familial breast cancer.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0875
PMCID: PMC2667866  PMID: 19258476
4.  ESR1 Promoter Hypermethylation Does Not Predict Atypia in RPFNA nor Persistent Atypia after 12 Months Tamoxifen Chemoprevention 
Purpose
Currently, we lack biomarkers to predict whether high-risk women with mammary atypia will respond to tamoxifen chemoprevention.
Experimental Design
Thirty-four women with cytologic mammary atypia from the Duke University High-Risk clinic were offered tamoxifen chemoprevention. We tested whether ESR1 promoter hypermethylation and/or estrogen receptor (ER) protein expression by immunohistochemistry predicted persistent atypia in 18 women who were treated with tamoxifen for 12 months and in 16 untreated controls.
Results
We observed a statistically significant decrease in the Masood score of women on tamoxifen chemoprevention for 12 months compared with control women. This was a significant interaction effect of time (0, 6, and 12 months) and treatment group (tamoxifen versus control) P = 0.0007. However, neither ESR1 promoter hypermethylation nor low ER expression predicted persistent atypia in Random Periareolar Fine Needle Aspiration after 12 months tamoxifen prevention.
Conclusions
Results from this single institution pilot study provide evidence that, unlike for invasive breast cancer, ESR1 promoter hypermethylation and/or low ER expression is not a reliable marker of tamoxifen-resistant atypia.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-2696
PMCID: PMC2717700  PMID: 18708376
5.  Suppression of p53 function in normal human mammary epithelial cells increases sensitivity to extracellular matrix–induced apoptosis 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2001;155(3):471-486.
Little is known about the fate of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) that lose p53 function in the context of extracellular matrix (ECM)–derived growth and polarity signals. Retrovirally mediated expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were used to suppress p53 function in HMECs as a model of early breast cancer. p53+ HMEC vector controls grew exponentially in reconstituted ECM (rECM) until day 6 and then underwent growth arrest on day 7. Ultrastructural examination of day 7 vector controls revealed acinus-like structures characteristic of normal mammary epithelium. In contrast, early passage p53− HMEC cells proliferated in rECM until day 6 but then underwent apoptosis on day 7. p53− HMEC-E6 passaged in non-rECM culture rapidly (8–10 passages), lost sensitivity to both rECM-induced growth arrest and polarity, and also developed resistance to rECM-induced apoptosis. Resistance was associated with altered expression of α3-integrin. Treatment of early passage p53− HMEC-E6 cells with either α3- or β1-integrin function-blocking antibodies inhibited rECM-mediated growth arrest and induction of apoptosis. Our results indicate that suppression of p53 expression in HMECs by HPV-16 E6 and ODNs may sensitize cells to rECM-induced apoptosis and suggest a role for the α3/β1-heterodimer in mediating apoptosis in HMECs grown in contact with rECM.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200011001
PMCID: PMC2150841  PMID: 11673474
extracellular matrix; mammary epithelial cells; apoptosis; p53; α3/β1-integrin
6.  Evidence for Phenotypic Plasticity in Aggressive Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Human Biology Is Recapitulated by a Novel Model System 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e45684.
Breast cancers with a basal-like gene signature are primarily triple-negative, frequently metastatic, and carry a poor prognosis. Basal-like breast cancers are enriched for markers of breast cancer stem cells as well as markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). While EMT is generally thought to be important in the process of metastasis, in vivo evidence of EMT in human disease remains rare. Here we report a novel model of human triple-negative breast cancer, the DKAT cell line, which was isolated from an aggressive, treatment-resistant triple-negative breast cancer that demonstrated morphological and biochemical evidence suggestive of phenotypic plasticity in the patient. The DKAT cell line displays a basal-like phenotype in vitro when cultured in serum-free media, and undergoes phenotypic changes consistent with EMT/MET in response to serum-containing media, a unique property among the breast cancer cell lines we tested. This EMT is marked by increased expression of the transcription factor Zeb1, and Zeb1 is required for the enhanced migratory ability of DKAT cells in the mesenchymal state. DKAT cells also express progenitor-cell markers, and single DKAT cells are able to generate tumorspheres containing both epithelial and mesenchymal cell types. In vivo, as few as ten DKAT cells are capable of forming xenograft tumors which display a range of epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. The DKAT model provides a novel model to study the molecular mechanisms regulating phenotypic plasticity and the aggressive biology of triple-negative breast cancers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045684
PMCID: PMC3458110  PMID: 23049838
7.  Protein Microarray Analysis of Mammary Epithelial Cells from Obese and Non-Obese Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer: Feasibility Data 
Background
Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cancer, accounting for up to 20% of cancer deaths in women. Studies of women with breast cancer have shown obesity to be associated with an increased risk of dying from breast cancer and increased risk of distant metastasis. While previous studies have focused on differences in circulating hormone levels as a cause for increased breast cancer incidence in post-menopausal women, few studies have focused on potential differences in the protein expression patterns of mammary epithelial cells obtained from obese versus non-obese women.
Methods
Protein expression was assessed by reverse phase protein microarray in mammary epithelial cells from 31 random periareolar fine needle aspirations performed on 26 high-risk women.
Results
In this pilot and exploratory study, vimentin (unadjusted p=0.028) expression was significantly different between obese and non-obese women.
Conclusions
Vimentin is integral to adipocyte structure and function as well as to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition needed for cancer cell metastasis. Further research is needed to confirm this finding and determine the possible effects of the adipocyte microenvironment on the initiation and progression of breast cancer in high-risk women.
Impact
Differential protein expression patterns obtained from a future expanded study may serve to elaborate the underlying pathology of breast cancer initiation and progression in obese women and identify potential biomarkers of response to preventative interventions, such as dietary changes and exercise.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0847
PMCID: PMC3051011  PMID: 21242333
protein microarray; random periareolar fine needle aspiration; obesity; breast cancer risk assessment
8.  Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk: Is There a Role for Metformin? 
Current Breast Cancer Reports  2011;3(3):142-150.
Obesity is one of the most important known preventable causes of cancer, accounting for up to 20% of cancer deaths in women. Obese women have increased risk of dying from breast cancer as well as an increased risk of distant metastasis. Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn) is a group of metabolic conditions that include 1) abdominal obesity, 2) atherogenic dyslipidemia, 3) elevated blood pressure, and 4) insulin resistance. MetSyn is known to promote the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and may be associated with increased breast cancer risk. Emerging evidence supports an association between mammary adipocytes and their secreted adipocytokines and breast cancer initiation and progression. Metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) is a drug used to treat type 2 diabetes and MetSyn. We review the potential association between MetSyn in promoting breast cancer and emerging evidence for the use of metformin in cancer prevention.
doi:10.1007/s12609-011-0050-8
PMCID: PMC3155025  PMID: 21949568
Metabolic syndrome; Breast cancer risk; Adipose tissue; Metformin
9.  14-3-3ζ Cooperates with ErbB2 to Promote Progression of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ to Invasive Breast Cancer by Inducing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition 
Cancer cell  2009;16(3):195-207.
Summary
ErbB2, a metastasis-promoting oncoprotein, is overexpressed in ~25% of invasive/metastatic breast cancers, but in 50–60% of non-invasive ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS). It has been puzzling how a subset of ErbB2-overexpressing DCIS develops into invasive breast cancer (IBC). We found that co-overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in ErbB2-overexpressing DCIS conferred a higher risk of progression to IBC. ErbB2 and 14-3-3ζ overexpression, respectively, increased cell migration and decreased cell adhesion, two prerequisites of tumor cell invasion. 14-3-3ζ overexpression reduced cell adhesion by activating the TGFβ/Smads pathway that led to ZFHX1B/SIP-1 upregulation, E-cadherin loss, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Importantly, patients whose breast tumors overexpressed both ErbB2 and 14-3-3ζ had higher rates of metastatic recurrence and death than those whose tumors overexpressed only one.
doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2009.08.010
PMCID: PMC2754239  PMID: 19732720

Results 1-9 (9)