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1.  Inactivated vaccine with adjuvants consisting of pattern recognition receptor agonists confers protection against avian influenza viruses in chickens 
Veterinary microbiology  2014;172(0):120-128.
Use of adjuvant containing pathogen pattern recognition receptor agonists is one of the effective strategies to enhance the efficacy of licensed vaccines. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines containing an adjuvant (CVCVA5) which was composed of polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic, resiquimod, imiquimod, muramyl dipeptide and levomisole. Avian influenza vaccines adjuvanted with CVCVA5 were found to induce significantly higher titers of hemagglutiniton inhibition antibodies (P ≤ 0.01) than those of commercial vaccines at 2-, 3- and 4-week post vaccination in both specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens and field application. Furthermore, virus shedding was reduced in SPF chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine after H9 subtype heterologous virus challenge. The ratios of both CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes were slowly elevated in chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine. Lymphocytes adoptive transfer study indicates that CD8+ T lymphocyte subpopulation might have contributed to improved protection against heterologous virus challenge. Results of this study suggest that the adjuvant CVCVA5 was capable of enhancing the potency of existing avian influenza vaccines by increasing humoral and cellular immune response.
PMCID: PMC4208718  PMID: 24894132
Avian influenza virus; Inactivated vaccine; Adjuvants; Pattern recognition receptor; Agonist; Toll-like receptor
2.  Effects of Light Interruption on Sleep and Viability of Drosophila melanogaster 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105678.
Light is a very important regulator of the daily sleep rhythm. Here, we investigate the influence of nocturnal light stimulation on Drosophila sleep. Results showed that total daytime sleep was reduced due to a decrease in daytime sleep episode duration caused by discontinuous light stimulation, but sleep was not strongly impacted at nighttime although the discontinuous light stimulation occurred during the scotophase. During a subsequent recovery period without light interruption, the sleep quality of nighttime sleep was improved and of daytime sleep reduced, indicating flies have a persistent response to nocturnal light stimulation. Further studies showed that the discontinuous light stimulation damped the daily rhythm of a circadian light-sensitive protein cryptochrome both at the mRNA and protein levels, which subsequently caused disappearance of circadian rhythm of the core oscillator timeless and decrease of TIMLESS protein at nighttime. These data indicate that the nocturnal light interruption plays an important role in sleep through core proteins CRYTOCHROME and TIMLESS, Moreover, interruption of sleep further impacted reproduction and viability.
PMCID: PMC4141813  PMID: 25148297
3.  The Diagnostic Value of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma by Using Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography Perfusion 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:260859.
Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) with computed tomography perfusion (CTP) for preoperative detection of metastases to lymph nodes (LNs) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods. Between May 2010 and April 2012, 30 patients with head and neck SCC underwent preoperative DWI and CTP. Two radiologists measured apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and CTP parameters independently. Surgery and histopathologic examinations were performed on all patients. Results. On DWI, 65 LNs were detected in 30 patients. The mean ADC value of metastatic nodes was lower than benign nodes and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). On CTP images, the mean value in metastatic nodes of blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) was higher than that in benign nodes, and mean transit time (MTT) in metastatic nodes was lower than that in benign nodes. There were significant differences in BF and MTT values between metastatic and benign LNs (P < 0.05). There were significant differences between the AUCs of DWI and CTP (Z=4.612, P < 0.001). Conclusion. DWI with ADC value measurements may be more accurate than CTP for the preoperative diagnosis of cervical LN metastases.
PMCID: PMC4094719  PMID: 25050333
4.  Reduction of Ribosome Level Triggers Flocculation of Fission Yeast Cells 
Eukaryotic Cell  2013;12(3):450-459.
Deletion of ribosomal protein L32 genes resulted in a nonsexual flocculation of fission yeast. Nonsexual flocculation also occurred when two other ribosomal protein genes, rpl21-2 and rpl9-2, were deleted. However, deletion of two nonribosomal protein genes, mpg and fbp, did not cause flocculation. Overall transcript levels of rpl32 in rpl32-1Δ and rpl32-2Δ cells were reduced by 35.9% and 46.9%, respectively, and overall ribosome levels in rpl32-1Δ and rpl32-2Δ cells dropped 31.1% and 27.8%, respectively, compared to wild-type cells. Interestingly, ribosome protein expression levels and ribosome levels were also reduced greatly in sexually flocculating diploid YHL6381/WT (h+/h−) cells compared to a mixture of YHL6381 (h+) and WT (h−) nonflocculating haploid cells. Transcriptome analysis indicated that the reduction of ribosomal levels in sexual flocculating cells was caused by more-extensive suppression of ribosomal biosynthesis gene expression, while the reduction of ribosomal levels caused by deleting ribosomal protein genes in nonsexual flocculating cells was due to an imbalance between ribosomal proteins. We propose that once the reduction of ribosomal levels is below a certain threshold value, flocculation is triggered.
PMCID: PMC3629774  PMID: 23355005
5.  High Dose Rate versus Low Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Oral Cancer – A Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e65423.
To compare the efficacy and safety of high dose rate (HDR) and low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy in treating early-stage oral cancer.
Data Sources
A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases, restricted to English language up to June 1, 2012, was performed to identify potentially relevant studies.
Study Selection
Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) and controlled trials that compared HDR to LDR brachytherapy in treatment of early-stage oral cancer (stages I, II and III) were of interest.
Data Extraction and Synthesis
Two investigators independently extracted data from retrieved studies and controversies were solved by discussion. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1. One RCT and five controlled trials (607 patients: 447 for LDR and 160 for HDR) met the inclusion criteria. The odds ratio showed no statistically significant difference between LDR group and HDR group in terms of local recurrence (OR = 1.12, CI 95% 0.62–2.01), overall mortality (OR = 1.01, CI 95% 0.61–1.66) and Grade 3/4 complications (OR = 0.86, CI 95% 0.52–1.42).
This meta-analysis indicated that HDR brachytherapy was a comparable alternative to LDR brachytherapy in treatment of oral cancer. HDR brachytherapy might become a routine choice for early-stage oral cancer in the future.
PMCID: PMC3677879  PMID: 23762369
6.  Advances in research on and diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia in China 
Achondroplasia is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease. Research on achondroplasia in China, however, has received little emphasis. Around 80–90% of cases of neonatal achondroplasia result from mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) according to polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Recently, genetic research on achondroplasia in China made a major breakthrough by revealing two novel mutations located on the FGFR3 gene, thus helping to complete the pathological molecular map of achondroplasia. There are still, however, unknown aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia. This review will summarize advances in research on and the clinical diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia in China.
PMCID: PMC4204580  PMID: 25343101
Rare diseases; gene mutation; chondrodystrophia fetalis; chondrodystrophic dwarfism
7.  Paralogous Ribosomal Protein L32-1 and L32-2 in Fission Yeast May Function Distinctively in Cellular Proliferation and Quiescence by Changing the Ratio of Rpl32 Paralogs 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60689.
Fission yeast cells express Rpl32-2 highly while Rpl32-1 lowly in log phase; in contrast, expression of Rpl32-1 raises and reaches a peak level while Rpl32-2 is downregulated to a low basic level when cells enter into stationary phase. Overexpression of Rpl32-1 inhibits cell growth while overexpression of Rpl32-2 does not. Deleting rpl32-2 impairs cell growth more severely than deleting rpl32-1 does. Cell growth impaired by deleting either paralog can be rescued completely by reintroducing rpl32-2, but only partly by rpl32-1. Overexpression of Rpl32-1 inhibits cell division, yielding 4c DNA and multiple septa, while overexpressed Rpl32-2 promotes it. Transcriptomics analysis proved that Rpl32 paralogs regulate expression of a subset of genes related with cell division and stress response in a distinctive way. This functional difference of the two paralogs is due to their difference of 95th amino acid residue. The significance of a competitive inhibition between Rpl32 paralogs on their expression is discussed.
PMCID: PMC3618328  PMID: 23577148
8.  A systematic review of genetic skeletal disorders reported in Chinese biomedical journals between 1978 and 2012 
Little information is available on the prevalence, geographic distribution and mutation spectrum of genetic skeletal disorders (GSDs) in China. This study systematically reviewed GSDs as defined in “Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders (2010 version)” using Chinese biomedical literature published over the past 34 years from 1978 to 2012. In total, 16,099 GSDs have been reported. The most frequently reported disorders were Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, fibrous dysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, multiple cartilaginous exostoses, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), osteopetrosis, achondroplasia, enchondromatosis (Ollier), and osteopoikilosis, accounting for 76.5% (12,312 cases) of the total cases. Five groups (group 8, 12, 14, 18, 21) defined by “Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders” have not been reported in the Chinese biomedical literature. Gene mutation testing was performed in only a minor portion of the 16,099 cases of GSDs (187 cases, 1.16%). In total, 37 genes for 41 different GSDs were reported in Chinese biomedical literature, including 43 novel mutations. This review revealed a significant imbalance in rare disease identification in terms of geographic regions and hospital levels, suggesting the need to create a national multi-level network to meet the specific challenge of care for rare diseases in China.
PMCID: PMC3492206  PMID: 22913777
Rare diseases; Genetic skeletal diseases; China; Bibliographic study

Results 1-8 (8)