Diabetes adversely impacts many organ systems including the skeleton. Clinical trials have revealed a startling elevation in fracture risk in diabetic patients. Bone fractures can be life threatening: nearly 1 in 6 hip fracture patients die within one year. Because physical exercise is proven to improve bone properties and reduce fracture risk in non-diabetic subjects, we tested its efficacy in type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that diabetic bone's response to anabolic mechanical loading would be attenuated, partially due to impaired mechanosensing of osteocytes under hyperglycemia. Heterozygous C57BL/6-Ins2Akita/J (Akita) male and female diabetic mice and their age- and gender-matched wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J controls (7-month-old, N=5-7 mice/group) were subjected to unilateral axial ulnar loading with a peak strain of 3500 με at 2Hz and 3 min/day for 5 days. The Akita female mice, which exhibited a relatively normal body weight and a mild 40% elevation of blood glucose level, responded with increased bone formation (+6.5% in Ct.B.Ar, and 4 to 36-fold increase in Ec.BFR/BS and Ps.BFR/BS), and the loading effects, in terms of changes of static and dynamic indices, did not differ between Akita and WT females (p≥0.1). However, loading-induced anabolic effects were greatly diminished in Akita males, which exhibited reduced body weight, severe hyperglycemia (+230%), diminished bone formation (ΔCt.B.Ar: 0.003 vs. 0.030 mm2, p=0.005), and suppressed periosteal bone appositions (ΔPs.BFR/BS, p=0.02). Hyperglycemia (25mM glucose) was further found to impair the flow-induced intracellular calcium signaling in MLO-Y4 osteocytes, and significantly inhibited the flow-induced downstream responses including reduction in apoptosis and sRANKL secretion and PGE2 release. These results, along with previous findings showing adverse effects of hyperglycemia on osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells, suggest that failure to maintain normal glucose levels may impair bone's responses to mechanical loading in diabetics.
Akita diabetic mouse; ulnar mechanical loading; bone formation; osteocyte mechanosensitivity; fluid flow
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play prominent roles in numerous biological systems. While classically expressed by neutrophils and macrophages, CD4 T cells also express NADPH oxidase (NOX), the superoxide-generating multisubunit enzyme. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that superoxide-deficient nonobese diabetic (NOD.Ncf1m1J) mice exhibited a delay in type 1 diabetes (T1D) partially due to blunted IFN-γ synthesis by CD4 T cells. For further investigation of the roles of superoxide on CD4 T-cell diabetogenicity, the NOD.BDC-2.5.Ncf1m1J (BDC-2.5.Ncf1m1J) mouse strain was generated, possessing autoreactive CD4 T cells deficient in NOX-derived superoxide. Unlike NOD.Ncf1m1J, stimulated BDC-2.5.Ncf1m1J CD4 T cells and splenocytes displayed elevated synthesis of Th1 cytokines and chemokines. Superoxide-deficient BDC-2.5 mice developed spontaneous T1D, and CD4 T cells were more diabetogenic upon adoptive transfer into NOD.Rag recipients due to a skewing toward impaired Treg suppression. Exogenous superoxide blunted exacerbated Th1 cytokines and proinflammatory chemokines to approximately wild-type levels, concomitant with reduced IL-12Rβ2 signaling and P-STAT4 (Y693) activation. These results highlight the importance of NOX-derived superoxide in curbing autoreactivity due, in part, to control of Treg function and as a redox-dependent checkpoint of effector T-cell responses. Ultimately, our studies reveal the complexities of free radicals in CD4 T-cell responses.
Tooth formation is tightly regulated by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions via hierarchic cascades of signaling molecules. The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains covalently attached to the core protein of proteoglycans (PGs) provide docking sites for signaling molecules and their receptors during the morphogenesis of tissues and organs. While PGs are believed to play important roles in tooth formation, little is known about their exact functions in this developmental process and the relevant molecular basis. Family with sequence similarity member 20-B (FAM20B) is a newly identified kinase phosphorylating the xylose in the common linkage region connecting the GAG with the protein core of PGs. The phosphorylation of xylose is essential to the common linkage elongation and the subsequent GAG assembly. In this study, we generated Fam20B-floxed allele in mice and found that inactivating Fam20B in the dental epithelium leads to supernumerary maxillary and mandibular incisors. This finding highlights the pivotal role of PGs in tooth morphogenesis and opens a new window for understanding the regulatory mechanism of PG-mediated signaling cascades during tooth formation.
glycosaminoglycan; kinase; proteoglycan; tooth development, supernumerary teeth
Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.
GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) deficiency is critical for endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling in endothelial dysfunction. MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of regulatory RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. We investigated whether statins prevent endothelial dysfunction via miR-dependent GCH1 upregulation.
Endothelial function was assessed by measuring acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in the organ chamber. MiR-133a expression was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization.
We first demonstrated that GCH1 mRNA is a target of miR-133a. In endothelial cells, miR-133a was robustly induced by cytokines/oxidants and inhibited by lovastatin. Furthermore, lovastatin upregulated GCH1 and tetrahydrobiopterin, and recoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase in stressed endothelial cells. These actions of lovastatin were abolished by enforced miR-133a expression and were mirrored by a miR-133a antagomir. In mice, hyperlipidemia- or hyperglycemia-induced ectopic miR-133a expression in the vascular endothelium, reduced GCH1 protein and tetrahydrobiopterin levels, and impaired endothelial function, which were reversed by lovastatin or miR-133a antagomir. These beneficial effects of lovastatin in mice were abrogated by in vivo miR-133a overexpression or GCH1 knockdown. In rats, multiple cardiovascular risk factors including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperhomocysteinemia resulted in increased miR-133a vascular expression, reduced GCH1 expression, uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase function, and induced endothelial dysfunction, which were prevented by lovastatin.
Statin inhibits aberrant miR-133a expression in the vascular endothelium to prevent endothelial dysfunction by targeting GCH1. Therefore, miR-133a represents an important therapeutic target for preventing cardiovascular diseases.
endothelial cells; GTP cyclohydrolase; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors; MIRN133; mic; roRNA, rat; nitric oxide synthase; type III
Synthesis of star-shaped block copolymer with oxalyl chloride and preparation of micelles to assess the prospect for drug-carrier applications.
Materials and methods
Three-arm star block copolymers of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (3S-PLGA)–polyethylene glycol (PEG) were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization, then PEG as the hydrophilic block was linked to the terminal hydroxyl of 3S-PLGA with oxalyl chloride. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to identify the structure and properties of 3S-PLGA-PEG. Rapamycin (RPM)-loaded micelles were prepared by solvent evaporation, and pyrene was used as the fluorescence probe to detect the critical micelle concentration of the copolymer. The particle size, distribution, and ζ-potential of the micelles were determined by dynamic light scattering, and the morphology of the RPM-loaded micelles was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. High-performance liquid chromatography was conducted to analyze encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading capacity, as well as the release behavior of RPM-loaded micelles. The biocompatibility of material and the cytostatic effect of RPM-loaded micelles were investigated by Cell Counting Kit 8 assay.
FT-IR, GPC, and 1H-NMR suggested that 3S-PLGA-PEG was successfully synthesized. The RPM-loaded micelles prepared with the 3S-PLGA-PEG possessed good properties. The micelles had good average diameter and encapsulation efficiency. For in vitro release, RPM was released slowly from 3S-PLGA-PEG micelles, showing that 3S-PLGA-PEG-RPM exhibited a better and longer antiproliferative effect than free RPM.
In this study, we first used oxalyl chloride as the linker to synthesize 3S-PLGA-PEG successfully, and compared with reported literature, this method shortened the reaction procedure and improved the reaction yield. The micelles prepared with this material proved suitable for drug-carrier application.
block copolymer; RPM; micelles; cytostatic effect
The prevalence of HBV DNA among seronegative blood donations in China has not been studied extensively on a nationwide scale. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence, trend, distributions, and serological characteristics of HBV DNA positive/seronegative blood donations. We collected HBV test data from all blood banks of China from 2010 to 2015 and performed supplemental serological tests and quantitative detection of HBV DNA of the seronegative/HBV DNA positive blood donations. We analysed the prevalence of HBV DNA among seronegative blood donations screened by varying nucleotide acid test (NAT) reagents. The analysis results showed that a total of 20,084,187 seronegative blood donations were screened by NAT from 2010 to 2015 in China. The average frequency of HBV DNA among seronegative blood donations was 1/1482, but there has been a steady increase from 1/1861 in 2011 to 1/1269 in 2015. The geographical distribution of seronegative and HBV DNA positive blood donations was roughly consistent with that of HBsAg. The most common serological pattern was HBeAb and HBcAb positive. In conclusion, our study offeres fundamental data of seronegative and HBV DNA positive blood donations throughout China.
Understanding the growth and spatial expansion of (re)emerging infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola and avian influenza, is critical for the effective planning of control measures; however, such efforts are often compromised by data insufficiencies and observational errors. Here, we develop a spatial–temporal inference methodology using a modified network model in conjunction with the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter, a Bayesian inference method equipped to handle observational errors. The combined method is capable of revealing the spatial–temporal progression of infectious disease, while requiring only limited, readily compiled data. We use this method to reconstruct the transmission network of the 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone and identify source and sink regions. Our inference suggests that, in Sierra Leone, transmission within the network introduced Ebola to neighbouring districts and initiated self-sustaining local epidemics; two of the more populous and connected districts, Kenema and Port Loko, facilitated two independent transmission pathways. Epidemic intensity differed by district, was highly correlated with population size (r = 0.76, p = 0.0015) and a critical window of opportunity for containing local Ebola epidemics at the source (ca one month) existed. This novel methodology can be used to help identify and contain the spatial expansion of future (re)emerging infectious disease outbreaks.
Ebola; transmission network; Bayesian inference; gravity model; ensemble adjustment Kalman filter
Hydronephrosis is a common congenital condition. The detection of fetal hydronephrosis by ultrasound presents a treatment dilemma. This study aims to examine postnatal follow-up and treatment for hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally.
This was a retrospective study of 210 infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed at the Qilu Hospital (Shangdong, China) between January 2005 and January 2013. The patient cohort was divided into four groups based on prenatal ultrasound examinations using the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) classification system. Data on follow-up investigations and treatment methods were extracted from the charts and analyzed.
Patients with SFU grade 1, 2, and 3 hydronephrosis (n=125, n=74, and n=11, respectively) were followed for two years. In all, 2.4%, 18.9%, and 90.9% of patients with SFU grade 1, 2, and 3 hydronephrosis, respectively, underwent surgery. SFU grade 3 (HR=9.23, 95% CI: 1.43–59.74, p=0.02), APD (HR=2.81, 95% CI: 1.11–7.10, p=0.03), and parenchymal thickness (HR=0.42, 95% CI: 0.24–0.71, p=0.001) were independently associated with the occurrence of surgery. For anterioposterior diameter, using a cut-off point of 1.1, the area under the curve was 0.86, Youden index was 0.556, sensitivity was 70.4%, and specificity was 85.3%. For parenchymal thickness, using a cut-off point of 5, AUC was 0.79, Youden index was 0.478, sensitivity was 74.1%, and specificity was 73.8%.
Patients with SFU grade 2 hydronephrosis require long-term follow-up. Surgery and close postsurgical observation may be necessary for patients with SFU grade 3 and 4 hydronephrosis. An initial B-mode ultrasound screening at 7–10 days after birth may help make an optimal diagnosis and treatment selection.
Aftercare; Diagnosis; Hydronephrosis
Potential benefits of subglottic secretion suction for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are not fully understood.
We searched Cochrane Central, PubMed, and EMBASE up to March 2016 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared subglottic secretion suction versus non-subglottic secretion suction in adults with mechanical ventilation. Meta-analysis was conducted using Revman 5.3, trial sequential analysis (TSA) 0.9 and STATA 12.0. The primary outcome was incidence of VAP. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to evaluate the level of evidence.
Twenty RCTs (N = 3544) were identified. Subglottic secretion suction was associated with reduction of VAP incidence in four high quality trials (relative risk (RR) 0.54, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.40–0.74; p < 0.00001) and in all trials (RR = 0.55, 95 % CI 0.48– 0.63; p < 0.00001). Sensitivity analyses did not show differences in the pooled results. Additionally, the results of the above-mentioned analyses were confirmed in TSA. GRADE level was high. Subglottic secretion suction significantly reduced incidence of early onset VAP, gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria causing VAP, and duration of mechanical ventilation. It delayed the time-to-onset of VAP. However, no significant differences in late onset VAP, intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, hospital mortality, or ICU length of stay were found.
Subglottic secretion suction decreased VAP incidence and duration of mechanical ventilation and delayed VAP onset. However, subglottic secretion suction did not reduce mortality and length of ICU stay. Subglottic secretion suction is recommended for preventing VAP and for reducing ventilation length, especially in the population at high risk of early onset VAP.
A protocol of this meta-analysis has been registered on PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42015015715); registered on 5 January 2015.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13054-016-1527-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Subglottic secretion suction; Ventilator-associated pneumonia; Meta-analysis; Trial sequential analysis
The relationship between cyclin D1 (CCND1) rs9344 G>A polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is still ambiguous. To obtain a precise estimation of the relationship, we performed an extensive meta-analysis based on the eligible studies. Crude odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals were harnessed to determine the strength of correlation between CCND1 rs9344 G>A polymorphism and CRC risk under the allele, the homozygote, the dominant, and the recessive genetic models, respectively (28 studies with 5,784 CRC cases and 7,858 controls). Our results indicated evidence of the association between CCND1 rs9344 G>A polymorphism and the increased risk of CRC in four genetic models: A vs G, AA vs GG, AA+GA vs GG, and AA vs GA+GG. In a stratified analysis by cancer type of CRC, there was an increased risk of sporadic CRC found in three genetic models: A vs G, AA vs GG, and AA+GA vs GG. In a stratified analysis by ethnicity, there was an increased CRC risk found among Asians in allele comparison genetic models, as well as Caucasians in two genetic models: AA+GA vs GG and A vs T. In summary, this meta-analysis demonstrates that CCND1 rs9344 G>A polymorphism may be a risk factor for CRC.
polymorphism; CCND1; colorectal cancer; susceptibility; meta-analysis
Exertional heat stroke is a fatal condition and remains a health problem. This paper evaluates the publication trend regarding exertional heat stroke research between 1996 and 2015 using a bibliometric method.
Articles regarding exertional heat stroke research published between 1996 and December 2015 were searched for in the SCI-EXPANDED database of Web of Science. The search results were analyzed with regard to publication year; publication quantity regarding countries/regions, and authors; citation frequency; and journal distribution. CiteSpace (v3.6) was used for a document co-citation visualization analysis.
In total, 289 publications on heat stroke were located. After selection, 209 original articles conducted across 28 countries/regions and published in 83 journals were included in the analysis. The USA, Isreal, and France were the most common locations for exertional heat stroke studies. The CiteSpace visualization cluster analysis showed that exertional heat stroke-related mortality and protective measures were constant concerns of research.
Research related to exertional heat stroke has been continuous concerned. USA is still the leading country in this field.
Heat stroke; Bibliometric analysis
The AZFc deletion has been associated with wide range of phenotypes including complete absence of germ cells in the testes (SCOS), reduction in germ cells hypospermatogenesis, and maturation arrest. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between AZFc microdeletions and testicular histology in South Chinese men with azoospermia or severe oligospermia.
338 men presenting with idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia or severe oligospermia were evaluated between March 2012 and April 2015. Thirty-nine of the patients examined had an AZFc deletion (10.9 %). Testicular cytopathology was examined in 25 patients with an AZFc microdeletion and 14 with an AZFc deletion. There was no significant difference in the testicular histology of patients with partial or complete AZFc deletions (Mann–Whitney U = 152.500, p = 0.515). There was an association between testicular histology and gr/gr, b1/b3 or b2/b3 deletion (Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.013).
Men with a gr/gr partial deletion were at higher risk of having hypospermatogenesis or maturation arrest. Men with a b1/b3 partial deletion were at higher risk of having maturation arrest. Men with a b2/b3 partial deletion were at higher risk of having maturation arrest or complete absence of germ cells in the testes.
Male infertility; FNAC; Testicular phenotype; Spermatogenesis; AZFc partial deletion
The cranial neural crest (CNC) cells play a vital role in craniofacial development and regeneration. They are multi-potent progenitors, being able to differentiate into various types of tissues. Both pre-migratory and post-migratory CNC cells are plastic, taking on diverse fates by responding to different inductive signals. However, what sustains the multipotency of CNC cells and derivatives remains largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence that FGF8 signaling is able to sustain progenitor status and multipotency of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells both in vivo and in vitro. We show that augmented FGF8 signaling in pre-migratory CNC cells prevents cell differentiation and organogenesis in the craniofacial region by maintaining their progenitor status. CNC-derived mesenchymal cells with Fgf8 overexpression or control cells in the presence of exogenous FGF8 exhibit prolonged survival, proliferation, and multi-potent differentiation capability in cell cultures. Remarkably, exogenous FGF8 also sustains the capability of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells to participate in organogenesis such as odontogenesis. Furthermore, FGF8-mediated signaling strongly promotes adipogenesis but inhibits osteogenesis of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro. Our results reveal a specific role for FGF8 in the maintenance of progenitor status and in fate determination of CNC cells, implicating a potential application in expansion and fate manipulation of CNC-derived cells in stem cell-based craniofacial regeneration.
FGF8; cranial neural crest; cell fate; differentiation; tooth
Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were reported to play a crucial role in diabetes-cancer relationship. This study aimed to explore the associations between insulin resistance and several female cancers in a non-diabetic population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 121,230 middle-aged and elderly non-diabetic women. Cancer diagnosis was self-reported and further validated by medical records. Insulin resistance was defined as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 2.50. The prevalence of both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, postmenopausal ovarian cancer and premenopausal endometrial cancer were higher in insulin-resistant participants than in insulin-sensitive participants (premenopausal breast cancer, 0.45 vs 0.28%; postmenopausal breast cancer, 0.86 vs 0.63%; postmenopausal ovarian cancer, 0.17 vs 0.09%; premenopausal endometrial cancer, 0.43 vs 0.25%, respectively, all P < 0.05). Individuals with insulin resistance had higher odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer, both premenopausal and postmenopausal (OR 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-3.32; OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.63), postmenopausal ovarian cancer (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.10-3.40) as well as total endometrial cancer (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.12). Subgroup analysis revealed that the possitive association between insulin resistance and risk of prevalent breast cancer was observed in popualtion with younger age, overweight or obesity, higher education and impaired glucose tolerance (IGR). No relationships were observed for the risk of prevalent cervical cancers with insulin resistance. Non-diabetic women with insulin resistance had higher risk of prevalent breast, ovarian and endomatrial cancer, which suggests special attentions to these female cancer screening and prevention.
Insulin resistance; non-diabetic; breast; ovarian; endometrial and cervical cancers
The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex of influenza A viruses (IAVs) contains an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex (RdRp) and nucleoprotein (NP) and is the functional unit for viral RNA transcription and replication. The vRNP complex is an important determinant of virus pathogenicity and host adaptation, implying that its function can be affected by host factors. In our study, we identified host protein Moloney leukemia virus 10 (MOV10) as an inhibitor of IAV replication, since depletion of MOV10 resulted in a significant increase in virus yield. MOV10 inhibited the polymerase activity in a minigenome system through RNA-mediated interaction with the NP subunit of vRNP complex. Importantly, we found that the interaction between MOV10 and NP prevented the binding of NP to importin-α, resulting in the retention of NP in the cytoplasm. Both the binding of MOV10 to NP and its inhibitory effect on polymerase activity were independent of its helicase activity. These results suggest that MOV10 acts as an anti-influenza virus factor through specifically inhibiting the nuclear transportation of NP and subsequently inhibiting the function of the vRNP complex.
IMPORTANCE The interaction between the influenza virus vRNP complex and host factors is a major determinant of viral tropism and pathogenicity. Our study identified MOV10 as a novel host restriction factor for the influenza virus life cycle since it inhibited the viral growth rate. Conversely, importin-α has been shown as a determinant for influenza tropism and a positive regulator for viral polymerase activity in mammalian cells but not in avian cells. MOV10 disrupted the interaction between NP and importin-α, suggesting that MOV10 could also be an important host factor for influenza virus transmission and pathogenicity. Importantly, as an interferon (IFN)-inducible protein, MOV10 exerted a novel mechanism for IFNs to inhibit the replication of influenza viruses. Furthermore, our study potentially provides a new drug design strategy, the use of molecules that mimic the antiviral mechanism of MOV10.
DNA repair genes and pathways that are transcriptionally dysregulated in cancer provide the first line of evidence for the altered DNA repair status in tumours, and hence have been explored intensively as a source for biomarker discovery. The molecular mechanisms underlying DNA repair dysregulation, however, have not been systematically investigated in any cancer type. In this study, we performed a statistical analysis to dissect the roles of DNA copy number alteration (CNA), DNA methylation (DM) at gene promoter regions and the expression changes of transcription factors (TFs) in the differential expression of individual DNA repair genes in normal versus tumour breast samples. These gene-level results were summarised at pathway level to assess whether different DNA repair pathways are affected in distinct manners. Our results suggest that CNA and expression changes of TFs are major causes of DNA repair dysregulation in breast cancer, and that a subset of the identified TFs may exert global impacts on the dysregulation of multiple repair pathways. Our work hence provides novel insights into DNA repair dysregulation in breast cancer. These insights improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the DNA repair biomarkers identified thus far, and have potential to inform future biomarker discovery.
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are significant indications for antibiotic treatment. Daptomycin, a novel antibiotic, has been registered and licensed to be used in the treatment of these infections. However, its efficacy and safety remain controversial.
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of daptomycin for the treatment of SSTIs and to analyze whether the available sample size has been large enough and is conclusive.
PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were searched for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared daptomycin with other antibiotics in adult patients with SSTIs up to February 2016.
This meta-analysis included eight randomized controlled trials (n=2,002). There was no difference in either the clinical success rate (intention-to-treat population: relative risk [RR] =1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.99–1.10, P=0.12; clinically evaluable population: RR =1.00, 95% CI =0.97–1.04, P=0.82) or the microbiological success rate (RR =1.00, 95% CI =0.95–1.06, P=0.92) between the daptomycin and comparator groups for treating SSTIs, which was confirmed by TSA. Compared with vancomycin, daptomycin exhibited no advantage in increasing the clinical success rate (RR =1.03, 95% CI =0.95–1.13, P=0.47), and this was also confirmed by TSA. All-cause mortality, overall treatment-related adverse events, and creatine phosphokinase events were similar between these two groups.
Daptomycin and comparator drugs are equally efficacious with regard to clinical and microbiological success for patients with SSTIs, and TSA showed that no additional randomized controlled trials are required. Although daptomycin is a good alternative when other antibiotics are contraindicated for patients with SSTIs and it can serve as a first-line treatment for SSTIs, clinicians should be aware of potential adverse events, such as daptomycin-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia and creatine phosphokinase, when treating patients with daptomycin.
daptomycin; skin and soft tissue infections; vancomycin; meta-analysis; trial sequential analysis
Over-expression of TROP2 (the trophoblast cell surface antigen 2) was reported to predict poor prognosis in various solid tumors in number of studies. However, the results remained not comprehensive. Therefore, we here carried out this meta-analysis of relevant studies published on this topic to quantitatively evaluate the clinicopathological significance of TROP2 in solid tumors. Relevant articles were identified through searching the PubMed, Web of Science and Embase database. The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). In this meta-analysis, 16 studies involving 2,569 participants were included, and we drew the conclusion that TROP2 overexpression was significantly associated with poor OS (pooled HR = 1.896, 95% CI = 1.599–2.247, P < 0.001) and short DFS (pooled HR = 2.336, 95% CI = 1.596–3.419, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the subgroup analysis revealed that the associations between TROP2 overexpression and the outcome endpoints (OS or DFS) were significant in in patients with female genital system neoplasms, as well in gastrointestine neoplasms. In addition, subgroup analysis found no difference HR across populations of different descent.Taken together, TROP2 overexpression was associated with poor survival in human solid tumors. TROP2 may be a valuable prognosis predictive biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in human solid tumors.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isopropyl myristate (IPM), a penetration enhancer, on the viscoelasticity and drug release of a drug-in-adhesive transdermal patch containing blonanserin. The patches were prepared with DURO-TAK® 87-2287 as a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) containing 5% (w/w) of blonanserin and different concentrations of IPM. An in vitro release experiment was performed and the adhesive performance of the drug-in-adhesive patches with different concentrations of IPM was evaluated by a rolling ball tack test and a shear-adhesion test. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and rheological parameters of the drug-in-adhesive layers were determined to study the effect of IPM on the mechanical properties of the PSA. The results of the in vitro release experiment showed that the release rate of blonanserin increased with an increasing concentration of IPM. The rolling ball tack test and shear-adhesion test showed decreasing values with increasing IPM concentration. The results were interpreted on the basis of the IPM-induced plasticization of the PSA, as evidenced by a depression of the glass transition temperature and a decrease in the elastic modulus. In conclusion, IPM acted as a plasticizer on DURO-TAK® 87-2287, and it increased the release of blonanserin and affected the adhesive properties of the PSA.
Isopropyl myristate (IPM), a commonly used penetration enhancer, can act as a plasticizer on Duro-TAK® 87-2287. The plasticization effect caused an enhancement of drug release, an increase in the tack and a decrease in the shear-adhesion of the transdermal patch.
Isopropyl myristate; Drug-in-adhesive patch; Viscoelasticity; Drug release; Blonanserin
Radioresistance is one of the major factors limiting the therapeutic efficacy and prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Accumulating evidence has suggested that aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) contributes to cancer progression. Therefore, here we identified lncRNAs associated with radioresistance in NPC.
The differential expression profiles of lncRNAs associated with NPC radioresistance were constructed by next-generation deep sequencing by comparing radioresistant NPC cells with their parental cells. LncRNA-related mRNAs were predicted and analyzed using bioinformatics algorithms compared with the mRNA profiles related to radioresistance obtained in our previous study. Several lncRNAs and associated mRNAs were validated in established NPC radioresistant cell models and NPC tissues.
By comparison between radioresistant CNE-2-Rs and parental CNE-2 cells by next-generation deep sequencing, a total of 781 known lncRNAs and 2054 novel lncRNAs were annotated. The top five upregulated and downregulated known/novel lncRNAs were detected using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and 7/10 known lncRNAs and 3/10 novel lncRNAs were demonstrated to have significant differential expression trends that were the same as those predicted by deep sequencing. From the prediction process, 13 pairs of lncRNAs and their associated genes were acquired, and the prediction trends of three pairs were validated in both radioresistant CNE-2-Rs and 6-10B-Rs cell lines, including lncRNA n373932 and SLITRK5, n409627 and PRSS12, and n386034 and RIMKLB. LncRNA n373932 and its related SLITRK5 showed dramatic expression changes in post-irradiation radioresistant cells and a negative expression correlation in NPC tissues (R = −0.595, p < 0.05).
Our study provides an overview of the expression profiles of radioresistant lncRNAs and potentially related mRNAs, which will facilitate future investigations into the function of lncRNAs in NPC radioresistance.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2755-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; Radioresistance; Long noncoding RNA; Deep sequencing
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have critical roles in innate immunity and inflammation and the detailed mechanisms by which TLR signaling is fine tuned remain unclear. Keratin 8 (CK8) belongs to the type II keratin family and is the major compontent of the intermediate filaments of simple or single-layered epithelia. Here we report that down-regulation of CK8 in mice enhanced TLR-mediated responses, rendering mice more susceptible to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock and Escherichia coli–caused septic peritonitis with reduced survival, elevated levels of inflammation cytokines and more severe tissue damage. We found that CK8 suppressed TLR-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and interacted with the adaptor tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to prevent its polyubiquitination. Our findings demonstrate a novel role of CK8 in negative regulation of TLR/NF-κB signaling and highlight a previously unidentified nonclassical function for CK8 in limiting inflammatory responses.
Although combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) successfully decreases plasma viremia to undetectable levels, the complete eradication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains impractical because of the existence of a viral reservoir, mainly in resting memory CD4+ T cells. Various cytokines, protein kinase C activators, and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been used as latency-reversing agents (LRAs), but their unacceptable side effects or low efficiencies limit their clinical use. Here, by a mutation accumulation strategy, we generated an attenuated HIV-1 Tat protein named Tat-R5M4, which has significantly reduced cytotoxicity and immunogenicity, yet retaining potent transactivation and membrane-penetration activity. Combined with HDACi, Tat-R5M4 activates highly genetically diverse and replication-competent viruses from resting CD4+ T lymphocytes isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals receiving suppressive cART. Thus, Tat-R5M4 has promising potential as a safe, efficient, and specific LRA in HIV-1 treatment.
Fam20c is essential for the normal mineralization of dentin and bone. The generation of odontoblast and osteoblast cell lines carrying floxed Fam20c allele can offer valuable tools for the study of the roles of Fam20c in the mineralization of dentin and bone. The limited capability of the primary odontoblasts and osteoblasts to proliferate necessitates the development of odontoblast and osteoblast cell lines serving as substitutes for the study of differentiation and mineralization of the odontoblasts and osteoblasts. In this study, we established and characterized immortalized mouse floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal and osteoblast cell lines. The isolated primary mouse floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts were immortalized by the infection of lentivirus containing Simian Virus 40 T-antigen (SV40 T-Ag). The immortalization of floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts was verified by the long-term passages and genomic integration of SV40 T-Ag. The immortalized floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal and osteoblast cell lines not only proliferated at a high rate and retained the morphology of their primary counterparts, but also preserved the dentin and bone specific gene expression as the primary dental papilla mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts did. Consistently, the capability of the primary floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts to mineralize was also inherited by the immortalized dental papilla mesenchymal and osteoblast cell lines. Thus, we have successfully generated the immortalized mouse floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal and osteoblast cell lines.
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is characterized by increased infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipokine derived from the immune complement system, which constitutes a link between adipocytes and macrophages, and is involved in energy homeostasis and inflammation. The purpose of the present study was to preliminarily investigate in vitro, whether functional α7nAChR in adipocytes may suppress ASP-induced inflammation and determine the possible signaling mechanism. Studies have reported associations between the expression of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Additionally, α7nAChRs are important peripheral mediators of chronic inflammation, which is a key contributor to health problems in obesity. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of exogenous ASP and α7nAChR on macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue and to examine the potential underlying molecular mechanism. Western blot analysis revealed that recombinant ASP increased the expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) by 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, nicotine significantly inhibited the production of ASP-induced cytokines via the stimulation of α7nAChR. It was also found that α7nAChR inhibited the ASP-induced activation of p38 kinase and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and the production of MCP-1 and KC. These data indicated that α7nAChR caused the inhibition of ASP-induced activation of p38 kinase and NF-κB to inhibit the production of MCP-1 and KC.
α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; acylation stimulating protein; p38 kinase; nuclear factor κB
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of the death worldwide. An increasing number of studies have found that autophagy is involved in the progression or prevention of CVD. However, the precise mechanism of autophagy in CVD, especially the myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury (MI/R injury), is unclear and controversial. Here, we show that the cardiomyocyte-specific disruption of autophagy by conditional knockout of Atg7 leads to severe contractile dysfunction, myofibrillar disarray and vacuolar cardiomyocytes. A negative cytoskeleton organization regulator, CLP36, was found to be accumulated in Atg7-deficient cardiomyocytes. The cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of Atg7 aggravates the MI/R injury with cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, myofibrillar disarray and severe cardiac fibrosis, most probably due to CLP36 accumulation in cardiomyocytes. Altogether, this work reveals autophagy may protect cardiomyocytes from the MI/R injury through the clearance of CLP36, and these findings define a novel relationship between autophagy and the regulation of stress fibre in heart.
autophagy; Atg7; myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury; CLP36; stress fibre