Ascaridomorph nematodes threaten the health of humans and other animals worldwide. Despite their medical, veterinary and economic importance, the identification of species lineages and establishing their phylogenetic relationships have proved difficult in some cases. Many working hypotheses regarding the phylogeny of ascaridomorphs have been based on single-locus data, most typically nuclear ribosomal RNA. Such single-locus hypotheses lack independent corroboration, and for nuclear rRNA typically lack resolution for deep relationships. As an alternative approach, we analyzed the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of anisakids (~14 kb) from different fish hosts in multiple countries, in combination with those of other ascaridomorphs available in the GenBank database. The circular mt genomes range from 13,948-14,019 bp in size and encode 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes. Our analysis showed that the Pseudoterranova decipiens complex consists of at least six cryptic species. In contrast, the hypothesis that Contracaecum ogmorhini represents a complex of cryptic species is not supported by mt genome data. Our analysis recovered several fundamental and uncontroversial ascaridomorph clades, including the monophyly of superfamilies and families, except for Ascaridiidae, which was consistent with the results based on nuclear rRNA analysis. In conclusion, mt genome analysis provided new insights into the phylogeny and taxonomy of ascaridomorph nematodes.
Strict selection of patients for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy could effectively improve the success rate of surgery. This study aimed to understand the required skills and the efficacy of mini-PCNL in the treatment of five types of upper ureteral calculi. Data collected after X-ray analysis and B mode ultrasound from 633 patients with upper ureteral and renal pelvis calculi who underwent B ultrasound-guided lithotomy was reviewed, including the following: type I, upper ureteral or renal pelvis calculi with moderate hydronephrosis (154 cases); type II, upper ureteral or renal pelvis calculi with severe hydronephrosis (157 cases); type III, upper ureteral or renal pelvis calculi without hydronephrosis (61 cases); type IV, renal pelvis calculi, one or two renal calyx calculi (206 cases); and type V, renal staghorn calculi (55 cases). Operations on 611 cases were successful. The treatment method for five patients was converted to open surgery. Twelve cases were treated by indwelling double-J tube retro-catheterization and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Five patients gave up the treatment. The rate of calculus clearance was 82.3 %, and the rate of residual calculus was 17.6 %. Selective renal artery embolization was performed in nine cases. Hydropneumothorax occurred in nine cases. No intestinal fistula occurred, and no patient had to undergo nephrectomy. The difficulty and the curative effect of the operation were different because the types of calculi varied. Selection of the procedure based on the different types of calculi could effectively improve the success rate of the procedure, reduce complications, and shorten the learning curve.
Minimally invasive nephrolithotomy; Types of calculus; Upper ureteral and renal calculi; Renal staghorn calculi; Hydronephrosis
To investigate the involvement of hsa-microRNA-195-5p (miR-195) in progression and prognosis of human prostate cancer (PCa).
qRT-PCR was performed to detect miR-195 expression in both PCa cell lines and clinical tissue samples. Its clinical significance was statistically analyzed. The roles of miR-195 and its candidate target gene ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1 (RPS6KB1) in PCa progression were confirmed based on both in vitro and in vivo systems.
MiR-195 downregulation in PCa tissues was significantly associated with high Gleason score (P=0.001), positive metastasis failure (P<0.001) and biochemical recurrence (BCR, P<0.001). Survival analysis identified miR-195 as an independent prognostic factor for BCR-free survival of PCa patients (P=0.022). Then, we confirmed the tumor suppressive role of miR-195 through PCa cell invasion, migration and apoptosis assays in vitro, along with tumor xenografts growth, angiogenesis and invasion in vivo according to both gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments. Additionally, RPS6KB1 was identified as a novel direct target of miR-195 through proteomic expression profiling combined with bioinformatic target prediction and luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, the re-expression and knockdown of RPS6KB1 could respectively rescue and imitate the effects induced by miR-195. Importantly, RPS6KB1 expression was closely correlated with aggressive progression and poor prognosis in PCa patients as opposed to miR-195. Furthermore, we identified MMP-9, VEGF, BAD and E-cadherin as the downstream effectors of miR-195-RPS6KB1 axis.
The newly identified miR-195-RPS6KB1 axis partially illustrates the molecular mechanism of PCa progression and represents a novel potential therapeutic target for PCa treatment.
prostate cancer; microRNA-195; ribosomal protein S6 kinase; 70kDa; polypeptide 1; tumor suppressor; prognosis
The invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae pose an enormous threat to children under 5 years of age. However, routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines could aid in reducing the incidence of IPDs. The purpose of this clinical trial is to assess the non-inferiority of the investigational 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) to the currently licensed 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7).
Methods and analysis
1040 infants will receive a three-dose series of either PCV13 or PCV7 at ages 3, 4 and 5 months, respectively, and a booster dose at 12–15 months. Primary end points are the percentage of participants reaching a serotype-specific IgG concentration of ≥0.35 µg/mL and the IgG antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) measured 30 days after the primary immunisation. Secondary end points include the percentage of vaccine recipients reaching a serotype-specific IgG concentration threshold of 1.0 µg/mL, the percentage of participants reaching the pneumococcal opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) titre threshold of 1:8, and the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of OPA measured 30 days after primary and booster doses. The number of standard IgG responders and IgG GMCs measured 30 days after the booster immunisation will also be determined. To evaluate differences between two groups, the sequential testing of the non-inferiority of PCV13 for the seven common serotypes and its effectiveness in treating the six additional serotypes will be performed.
Ethics and dissemination
Ethics approvals have been granted by the Ethics Committees at the three provinces involved in this study: Shanxi, Henan and Hebei. The trial will be reported in accordance with the CONSORT guidance.
Trial registration number
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; Sequential test; Non-inferiority
Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). All samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies.
Steamed bread; Sourdough; Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE); Solid-phase microextraction (SPME); Purge and trap (P&T)
Metastasis involves epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal–epithelial transition. Ovol2 belongs to the Ovo-like family (Ovol) of evolutionarily conserved zinc-finger transcription factors that regulate gene expression in various differentiation processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that Ovols affect mesenchymal–epithelial transition by inducing the expression of miR-200 in a range of human cancers. Downregulated Ovol2 expression is involved in the invasion and metastasis of breast and prostate cancers, but little is known about its expression and prognostic value in other cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was designed to explore the clinical and prognostic significance of Ovol2 in patients with HCC. The expression of Ovol2 in tumor samples from patients with HCC and HCC cell lines was examined using Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of EMT-related markers, including E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and vimentin, were detected in relation to Ovol2 expression. The prognostic significance of Ovol2 in patients with HCC was statistically analyzed by Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analyses. Ovol2 expression was significantly lower in HCC tissues than in adjacent noncancerous tissues. Low expression of Ovol2 was detected in HCC tissues with poor histological differentiation, microvascular invasion, and cirrhosis. A significant relationship was observed between Ovol2 and EMT marker expression levels. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that overall survival was significantly worse in patients with HCC with low Ovol2 expression, indicating that Ovol2 deletion was an independent predictor of unfavorable prognosis in patients with HCC. Elevated Ovol2 expression may suppress HCC cell invasion and metastasis via restricting EMT.
Ovol2; hepatocellular carcinoma; prognosis; epithelial–mesenchymal transition; mesenchymal–epithelial transition
Phyllanthus niruri L., a well-known medicinal plant, has been used as a folk antitumor remedy in the worldwide scale. However, the antitumor components in P. niruri have not been reported. In order to verify the antitumor components of P. niruri and the plants which have the high content of these components, we isolated the antitumor components with bioguided fraction and isolation, by different chromatographic methods from the ethyl acetate fraction of P. niruri., and identified them as ethyl brevifolincarboxylate and corilagin by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR, and mass spectrometric analyses. Cell cytotoxicity assays showed that corilagin has broad-spectrum antitumor activity, a better antitumor potential, and lower toxicity in normal cells. Besides, the coefficient of drug interaction (CDI) of 10 μM corilagin and 20 μM cDDP reached up to 0.77, which means corilagin can promote the antitumor activity of cDDP. Furthermore, by the extensive screening among 10 species of plants reported to contain corilagin, we found that Dimocarpus longan Lour. has the maximum content of corilagin. In conclusion, corilagin is the major active antitumor composition in P. niruri. L. on HCC cells and has high content in D. longan.
Tanshinone IIA is a chemical compound extracted from the root of traditional Chinese herb Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Tanshinone IIA has been suggested to possess anti-inflammatory activity and antioxidizing capability. Recently, accumulating results have indicated the antitumor activity of tanshinone IIA; thus, it has attracted increasing attention. In addition, tanshinone IIA has been indicated to attenuate ischemia/reperfusion induced renal injury (I/RIRI); however, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms involved in this process. In the present study an I/RIRI rat model was used to analyze the effects of tanshinone IIA on myeloperoxidase (MPO), TNF-α and IL-6 activities using ELISA kits. Furthermore, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), cleaved caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein expression levels were evaluated using western blot analysis. The results indicated that tanshinone IIA protected renal function in I/RIRI rats. ELISA demonstrated that tanshinone IIA significantly reduced MIF, TNF-α and IL-6 activities in I/RIRI rats. Western blot analysis showed that tanshinone IIA significantly suppressed MIF, cleaved caspase-3 and p38 MAPK protein expression levels in I/RIRI rats. The present results suggest that tanshinone IIA pretreatment attenuates I/RIRI via the downregulation of MPO expression, inflammation, MIF, cleaved caspase-3 and p38 MAPK.
tanshinone IIA; ischemia/reperfusion induced renal injury; myeloperoxidase; inflammation
Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is common in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but management of clinically negative DTC is controversial. This study evaluated primary tumor size as a predictor of LNM. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for DTC patients who were treated with surgery between 2002 and 2012 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, to determine the association of tumor size at 10 mm increments with LNM. A predictive model was then developed to estimate the risk of LNM in DTC, using tumor size and other clinicopathological characteristics identified from the multivariate analysis. We identified 80,565 eligible patients with DTC in the SEER database. Final histology confirmed 9,896 (12.3%) cases affected with N1a disease and 8,194 (10.2%) cases with N1b disease. After the patients were classified into subgroups by tumor size, we found that the percentages of male sex, white race, follicular histology, gross extrathyroidal extension, lateral lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis gradually increased with size. In multivariate analysis, tumor size was a significant independent prognostic factor for LNM; in particular, the odds ratio for lateral lymph node metastasis continued to increase by size relative to a 1–10 mm baseline. The coefficient for tumor size in the LNM predictive model waŝ0.20, indicating extra change in log(odds ratio) for LNM as 0.2 per unit increment in size relative to baseline. In conclusion, larger tumors are likely to have aggressive features and metastasize to a cervical compartment. Multistratification by size could provide more precise estimates of the likelihood of LNM before surgery.
differentiated thyroid cancer; size; lymph node metastasis; risk; SEER
All seven members of the genus Orthobrachia Warren, 1895 are recorded, with description of a new species from Sichuan Province, China and N. Thailand, including Orthobrachia
latifasciata (Moore, 1888) and Orthobrachia
flavidior (Hampson, 1898) from northern India, Nepal and China, Orthobrachia
tenebrosa Yazaki, 1992 from Nepal and India, Orthobrachia
owadai Yazaki, 1992 from India, Orthobrachia
simpliciata Yazaki, 2002 from China, and Orthobrachia
maoershanensis Huang, Xin & Wang, 2003 from South China. A key to the Orthobrachia species is provided, along with a distributional map of all nominal species. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in Hunan Agricultural University (China), South China Agricultural University (China) and Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig (Germany).
hirowatarii sp. n.; Sichuan province; taxonomy
Gastric cancer (GC) is a prevalent cancer, which remains incurable, and therefore requires an alternative treatment method. Celecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that targets cyclooxygenase-2, and exhibits anticancer effects. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-GC mechanism of celecoxib using bioinformatics methods. Gene expression datasets GSE56807 (GC tissues and normal gastric tissues) and GSE54657 (celecoxib-treated and non-treated human GC epithelial AGS cells) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Two groups of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using limma package in R language. The criterion for GSE56807 was a false discovery rate of <0.05, while that for GSE54657 was P<0.01. Overlapping DEGs from the two datasets were screened out. Subsequently, pathway enrichment analysis was performed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery software (P<0.1; gene count ≥2). In addition, the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) among the overlapped DEGs were obtained based on IntAct, Database of Interacting Proteins, Biomolecular Interaction Network Database and Human Protein Reference Database. Finally, a PPI network was visualized using Cytoscape software. A total of 137 overlapped DEGs were obtained, and DEGs with opposite regulation directions in the two datasets were significantly enriched in focal adhesion and leukocyte transendothelial migration. Subsequently, a PPI network of overlapped DEGs was constructed. Comprehensively, a total of 8 key DEGs [cysteine and glycine rich protein 1 (CSRP1), thrombospondin 1 (THBS1), myosin light chain 9 (MYL9), filamin A (FLNA), actinin alpha 1 (ACTN1), vinculin (VCL), laminin subunit gamma 2 (LAMC2) and claudin 1 (CLDN1)] were upregulated in GC tissues and downregulated in celecoxib-treated cells. In conclusion, celecoxib may exhibit anti-GC effects by suppressing the expression of CSRP1, THBS1, MYL9, FLNA, ACTN1, VCL, LAMC2 and CLDN1, and inhibiting leukocyte transendothelial migration and focal adhesion. However, relevant experiments are required to confirm the conclusion of the present study.
celecoxib; gastric cancer; anticancer mechanism; pathway enrichment analysis; protein-protein interaction
Representatives of the trematode family Fasciolidae are responsible for major socio-economic losses worldwide. Fascioloides magna is an important pathogenic liver fluke of wild and domestic ungulates. To date, only a limited number of studies concerning the molecular biology of F. magna exist. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of F. magna, and assess the phylogenetic relationships of this fluke with other trematodes based on the mtDNA dataset.
The complete F. magna mt genome sequence is 14,047 bp. The gene content and arrangement of the F. magna mt genome is similar to those of Fasciola spp., except that trnE is located between trnG and the only non-coding region in F. magna mt genome. Phylogenetic relationships of F. magna with selected trematodes using Bayesian inference (BI) was reconstructed based on the concatenated amino acid sequences for 12 protein-coding genes, which confirmed that the genus Fascioloides is closely related to the genus Fasciola; the intergeneric differences of amino acid composition between the genera Fascioloides and Fasciola ranged 17.97–18.24 %.
The determination of F. magna mt genome sequence provides a valuable resource for further investigations of the phylogeny of the family Fasciolidae and other trematodes, and represents a useful platform for designing appropriate molecular markers.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1699-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Fascioloides magna; Fasciola; Mitochondrial genome; Phylogenetic analysis
Renal peritubular interstitial fibroblast-like cells are critical for adult erythropoiesis, as they are the main source of erythropoietin (EPO). Hypoxia-inducible factor 2 (HIF-2) controls EPO synthesis in the kidney and liver and is regulated by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) dioxygenases PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3, which function as cellular oxygen sensors. Renal interstitial cells with EPO-producing capacity are poorly characterized, and the role of the PHD/HIF-2 axis in renal EPO-producing cell (REPC) plasticity is unclear. Here we targeted the PHD/HIF-2/EPO axis in FOXD1 stroma-derived renal interstitial cells and examined the role of individual PHDs in REPC pool size regulation and renal EPO output. Renal interstitial cells with EPO-producing capacity were entirely derived from FOXD1-expressing stroma, and Phd2 inactivation alone induced renal Epo in a limited number of renal interstitial cells. EPO induction was submaximal, as hypoxia or pharmacologic PHD inhibition further increased the REPC fraction among Phd2–/– renal interstitial cells. Moreover, Phd1 and Phd3 were differentially expressed in renal interstitium, and heterozygous deficiency for Phd1 and Phd3 increased REPC numbers in Phd2–/– mice. We propose that FOXD1 lineage renal interstitial cells consist of distinct subpopulations that differ in their responsiveness to Phd2 inactivation and thus regulation of HIF-2 activity and EPO production under hypoxia or conditions of pharmacologic or genetic PHD inactivation.
Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually carried out under general anesthesia. There were a few studies which have found spinal anesthesia as a safe alternative. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative events between spinal anesthesia and general anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from inception to January 2016) for eligible studies. The primary outcome was the visual analogue scale score. Secondary outcomes included postoperative nausea and vomiting and urine retention 24 hours postoperatively. We calculated pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence interval using random- or fixed-effects models. Results. Eight trials involving 723 patients were listed. Meta-analysis showed that patients in spinal anesthesia groups have lower visual analogue scale score 24 hours postoperatively. There were significant decreases in the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in spinal anesthesia group when compared with general anesthesia group (odds ratios: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.19–0.76; P = 0.006) with heterogeneity accepted (I2 = 13%; P = 0.33), while urine retention rate was increased in patients with spinal anesthesia (odds ratios: 4.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–19.71; P = 0.02) without any heterogeneity (I2 = 0%; P = 0.98). Conclusions. Spinal anesthesia may be associated with less postoperative pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting compared with general anesthesia.
Perfusion of the penumbra tissue below the flow threshold for functional disturbance but above that for the maintenance of morphological integrity is the target for therapy in acute ischaemic stroke. The measurement of the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) may provide a direct assessment of tissue viability, so that irreversible tissue damage and penumbra can be reliably identified. By using an asymmetric spin echo single-shot echo planar imaging (ASE-SSEPI) sequence, the quantitative OEF was obtained in the ischaemic brain tissues of canine models with internal carotid artery occlusion. TTC staining, which delineated the regions of infarct and penumbra, was used for defining the corresponding regions on OEF maps. The threshold of the OEF to discriminate the infarct cores and penumbral tissues was then determined according to the OEF values at different times. With repeated-measures ANOVA, the OEF of the infarcted regions was found to be time dependent. An OEF greater than 0.48 best predicted cortical infarction at 1.5 hr, with an area under the receiving operating characteristic curve of 0.968, a sensitivity of 97.5%, and a specificity of 92.5%. Our results may be helpful in the evaluation of tissue viability during stroke events.
The aim of this study was to analyze reasons why open surgery was done after percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty.
Patients (587 vertebral bodies) treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty in the Xi’an Honghui Hospital of Shanxi Province from January 2008 to January 2012 were retrospectively analyzed and 13 patients were enrolled in the study. These 13 patients had serious adverse events after percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Their average age was 64.5 years old. Nine patients had spinal cord injury and 4 had nerve root injury. All the patients underwent open surgery within 4–12 h after definitive diagnosis.
All 13 cases were followed up (average time 14.1 months, range 3–47 months). Reasons for open surgery included cement extravasation (6 cases, 46.2%), puncture mistake (3 cases, 23.1%), and false selection of indications (4 cases, 30.8%). At last follow-up, skin feeling was better than that before open surgery in 4 cases with nerve root injury, and muscle strength recovered to grade 5 (3 cases) and grade 4 (1 case). In 9 cases with spinal cord injury, 7 patients improved and 2 remained at the same ASIA level.
The main reasons for open surgery after percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty were cement extravasation (the most common reason), puncture mistake, and false selection of indications.
Conversion to Open Surgery; Postoperative Complications; Spinal Injuries; Vertebroplasty
Aberrant expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) proteins alters human immunoresponse and promotes tumor development and progression. We assessed the expression status of PD-1 and PD-L1 in spinal chordoma tissue specimens and their association with clinicopathological characteristics of patients. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 54 patients with spinal chordoma were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression. The association of the expression levels of PD-1 and PD-L1 with clinicopathological variables and survival data were statistically analyzed. Lymphocyte infiltrates were present in all 54 patient samples. Of 54 samples, 37 (68.5%) had both positive PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in tumor cell membrane. Moreover, 38 (70.4%) and 12 (22.2%) had positive PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), respectively. Tumors with positive PD-L1 expression were significantly associated with advanced stages of chordoma (p = 0.041) and TIL infiltration (p = 0.005), and had a borderline association with tumor grade (p = 0.051). However, positive tumor PD-L1 expression was not significantly associated with local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) or overall survival (OS). PD-1 expression in TILs was associated with poor LRFS (χ2 = 10.051, p = 0.002, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis showed that PD-L1 expression only in TILs was an independent predictor for LRFS (HR = 0.298, 95% CI: 0.098-0.907, p = 0.033), and OS (HR = 0.188, 95% CI: 0.051-0.687, p = 0.011) in spinal chordoma patients. In conclusion, PD-L1 expression in TILs was an independent predictor for both LRFS and OS in spinal chordoma patients. Our findings suggest that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for the immunotherapy of chordoma.
Spinal chordoma; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; PD-1; PD-L1; prognosis
Realgar (As4S4) has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); it has the advantages of no drug resistance and oral administration. Nevertheless, its poor solubility has been an obstacle to its bioavailability, requiring high-dose administration over a long period. We investigated whether crushing realgar crystals to the nanoscale and encapsulating the particles in a water-soluble polymer in one step using hot-melt extrusion would increase the bioavailability of As4S4. Raw As4S4 (r-As4S4) and water-soluble polymer were processed via co-rotating twin screw extrusion. The resulting product (e-As4S4) was characterized by SEM, XRD, and DLS. The cytotoxicity and therapeutic effects of e-As4S4 were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. The results show that e-As4S4 dissolved rapidly in water, forming a stable colloid solution. The average size of e-As4S4 particles was 680 nm, which was reduced by more than 40-fold compared with that of r-As4S4. The bioavailability of e-As4S4 was up to 12.6-fold higher than that of r-As4S4, and it inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells much more effectively than did r-As4S4, inducing apoptosis and significantly reducing the infiltration of HL-60 cells into the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. This in turn prolonged the survival of AML mice.
The mitochondrial GTPase mitofusin-2 (MFN2) gene encodes a mitochondrial membrane protein that can induce apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as validated in our previous research. However, little is known of the clinical significance of MFN2 expression and its signaling pathways in HCC.
MFN2 mRNA expression in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 115 patients with HCC was investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. The association of the MFN2 mRNA expression level with clinical and pathological parameters was evaluated statistically, while a comparative microarray analysis was used to identify MFN2 signaling pathways in HepG2 cells.
MFN2 was significantly (p < 0.0001) downregulated in HCC tissues. Low MFN2 expression was significantly correlated with sex and preoperative alpha-fetoprotein (p < 0.05). Both a Kaplan–Meier survival curve and multivariate analyses showed that MFN2 was related to overall survival. A comparative gene expression microarray revealed 211 upregulated (58 %) and 153 downregulated (42 %) genes. Eighteen pathways were identified as the most significant pathways correlated with MFN2.
Low MFN2 expression in HCC indicated a worse overall survival. Crucial signaling molecules such as PI3K-AKT, cytokine receptor, and focal adhesion may participate in MFN2-mediated signaling pathway changes in HCC.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12957-016-0922-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
MFN2; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Overall survival; Network function
Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.
(±)-Modafinil (MOD) is used clinically for the treatment of sleep disorders and has been investigated as a potential medication for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of (±)-MOD for addiction is inconclusive. Herein we used animal models of self-administration and in vivo microdialysis to study the pharmacological actions of R-modafinil (R-MOD) and S-modafinil (S-MOD) on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior, and mechanisms underlying such actions. We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long–Evans rats. As Long–Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long–Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The in vivo brain microdialysis assays demonstrated that R-MOD alone produced a slow-onset moderate increase in extracellular DA. Pretreatment with R-MOD dose-dependently blocked nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both naive and nicotine self-administrating rats, suggesting a DA-dependent mechanism underlying mitigation of nicotine's effects. In conclusion, the present findings support further investigation of R-MOD for treatment of nicotine dependence in humans.
Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin–dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladaptbed hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis.
We have performed measurements of Raman scattering, synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and visible transmission spectroscopy combined with density functional theory calculations to study the pressure effect on solid triphenylene. The spectroscopic results demonstrate substantial change of the molecular configuration at 1.4 GPa from the abrupt change of splitting, disappearance, and appearance of some modes. The structure of triphenylene is found be to stable at high pressures without any evidence of structural transition from the x-ray diffraction patterns. The obtained lattice parameters show a good agreement between experiments and calculations. The obtained band gap systematically decreases with increasing pressure. With the application of pressure, the molecular planes become more and more parallel relative to each other. The theoretical calculations indicate that this organic compound becomes metallic at 180 GPa, fueling the hope for the possible realization of superconductivity at high pressure.
To investigate whether vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) improves myocardial survival and cardiac stem cell (CSC) function in the ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) heart and promotes CSC mobilization and angiogenesis.
Methods and results
One hour after myocardial ischemia and infarction, rats were treated with recombinant human VEGF-B protein following 24 h or 7 days of myocardial reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after myocardial I/R, VEGF-B increased pAkt and Bcl-2 levels, reduced p-p38MAPK, LC3-II/I, beclin-1, CK, CK-MB and cTnt levels, triggered cardiomyocyte protection against I/R-induced autophagy and apoptosis, and contributed to the decrease of infarction size and the improvement of heart function during I/R. Simultaneously, an in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R)-induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury model was used to mimic I/R injury model in vivo; in this model, VEGF-B decreased LDH release, blocked H/R-induced apoptosis by inhibiting cell autophagy, and these special effects could be abolished by the autophagy inducer, rapamycin. Mechanistically, VEGF-B markedly activated the Akt signaling pathway while slightly inhibiting p38MAPK, leading to the blockade of cell autophagy and thus protecting cardiomyocyte from H/R-induced activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Seven days after I/R, VEGF-B induced the expression of SDF-1α and HGF, resulting in the massive mobilization and homing of c-Kit positive cells, triggering further angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the infracted heart and contributing to the improvement of I/R heart function.
VEGF-B could contribute to a favorable short- and long-term prognosis for I/R via the dual manipulation of cardiomyocytes and CSCs.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12967-016-0847-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cardiac stem cells; VEGF-B; Mobilization; Apoptosis; Angiogenesis