Most drugs have beneficial as well as adverse effects and exert their biological functions by adjusting and altering the functions of their target proteins. Thus, knowledge of drugs target proteins is essential for the improvement of therapeutic effects and mitigation of undesirable side effects. In the study, we proposed a novel prediction method based on drug/compound ontology information extracted from ChEBI to identify drugs target groups from which the kind of functions of a drug may be deduced. By collecting data in KEGG, a benchmark dataset consisting of 876 drugs, categorized into four target groups, was constructed. To evaluate the method more thoroughly, the benchmark dataset was divided into a training dataset and an independent test dataset. It is observed by jackknife test that the overall prediction accuracy on the training dataset was 83.12%, while it was 87.50% on the test dataset—the predictor exhibited an excellent generalization. The good performance of the method indicates that the ontology information of the drugs contains rich information about their target groups, and the study may become an inspiration to solve the problems of this sort and bridge the gap between ChEBI ontology and drugs target groups.
Icariin has been mostly reported to enhance bone fracture healing and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis in ovariectomized animal model. As another novel animal model of osteoporosis, there is few publication about the effect of Icariin on osteoprotegerin-deficient mice. Therefore, the goal of this study is to find the effect on bone formation and underlying mechanisms of Icariin in osteoprotegerin (OPG) knockout (KO) mice. We found that Icariin significantly stimulated new bone formation after local injection over the surface of calvaria at the dose of 5 mg/kg per day. With this dose, Icariin was also capable of significantly reversing OPG-deficient-induced bone loss and bone strength reduction. Real-time PCR analysis showed that Icariin significantly upregulated the expression of BMP2, BMP4, RUNX2, OC, Wnt1, and Wnt3a in OPG KO mice. Icariin also significantly increased the expression of AXIN2, DKK1, TCF1, and LEF1, which are the direct target genes of β-catenin signaling. The in vitro studies showed that Icariin induced osteoblast differentiation through the activation of Wnt/β-catenin-BMP signaling by in vitro deletion of the β-catenin gene using β-cateninfx/fx mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that Icariin significantly reverses the phenotypes of OPG-deficient mice through the activation of Wnt/β-catenin-BMP signaling.
Objective. To investigate VIP effect on the cytotoxicity of NK cell to gastric cancer cells in vitro and the relation between the effect with the NKG2D signal molecules in NK cells. Material and Methods. NK cells were purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Before and after NK cells were incubated with VIP or its antagonist (D-p-Cl-Phe6,Leu17)-VIP, we detected the cytotoxicity of NK cells to MKN45 gastric cancer cells by MTT and detected the expressions of NKG2D, DAP10, and NF-κB proteins and mRNAs in NK cells by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR in those conditions. Then we analyzed the effect of VIP and its antagonist on the cytotocicity of NK cell to gastric cancer cells and on expressions of NKG2D, DAP10, and NF-κB signal molecules in NK cells. Results. VIP could inhibit the cytotoxicity of NK cells to MKN45 cells and could inhibit the expressions of NKG2D, DAP10, and NF-κB in NK cells. However, (D-p-Cl-Phe6, Leu17)-VIP could reverse those effects. Conclusions. The VIP inhibited the cytotoxicity of NK cell to MKN45 cells which might get through inhibiting the expressions of NKG2D signal molecules in NK cells. This may be one mechanism of gastric cancer cells escaping organism immune clearance.
Objective. In our previous study, we found that some miRNAs were deregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including miR-183. However, the expression of miR-183 in the progression of benign liver diseases to HCC and its correlation with clinicopathologic factors remain undefined. Methods. MiR-183 expression was measured in normal controls (NC) (n = 21), chronic viral hepatitis B or C (CH) tissues (n = 10), liver cirrhosis (LC) tissues (n = 18), HCC tissues (n = 92), and adjacent nontumor tissues (NT) (n = 92) by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results. The expression levels of miR-183 were significantly higher in HCC than in NT, LC, CH, and NL (P = 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.011, P < 0.001, resp.). The upregulated miR-183 in HCC was correlated with TNM stage (P = 0.042) and cirrhosis (P = 0.025). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that miR-183 expression was not associated with the survival of HCC patients. However, miR-183 yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.808 with 59.8% sensitivity and 91.8% specificity in discriminating HCC from benign liver diseases (CH and LC) or NC. Conclusions. The upregulated miR-183 may associate with onset and progression of HCC, but not with the patient survival. A further research is needed to determine the potential of miR-183 as biomarker for HCC.
In this study, the two-step PV method of immunohistochemistry was used to determine livin protein expression in HCC tissues, pericarcinoma tissues, hepatitis/hepatic cirrhosis tissues, and normal hepatic tissues, and livin protein expression was detected in the blood plasma of patients with HCC before and after surgery, subjects with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatitis, and healthy blood donors using ELISA. Livin protein expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues than that in normal hepatic tissues and hepatitis/hepatic cirrhosis tissues, with no significant difference between HCC tissues and pericarcinoma tissues. The HCC patients with positive livin protein expression had a significantly higher survival rate than those with negative livin protein expression. Livin protein expression was significantly higher in the blood plasma of patients with HCC before and after surgery and in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatitis than that in healthy blood donors, whereas livin protein expression in the blood plasma of patients with HCC was not significantly different from that of patients with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatitis. Livin protein expression in HCC tissues did not correlate with that in the blood plasma of the same HCC patients. Livin protein expression may be a potential, effective indicator for assessing prognosis in patients with HCC.
This paper presents the microfabrication of an acoustic impedance gradient matching layer on a spherically-shaped piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. The acoustic matching layer can be designed to achieve higher acoustic energy transmission and operating bandwidth. Also included in this paper are a theoretical analysis of the device design and a micromachining technique to produce the novel transducer. Based on a design of a lead titanium zirconium (PZT) micropillar array, the constructed gradient acoustic matching layer has much better acoustic transmission efficiency within a 20–50 MHz operation range compared to a matching layer with a conventional quarter-wavelength thickness Parylene deposition. To construct the transducer, periodic microcavities are built on a flexible copper sheet, and then the sheet forms a designed curvature with a ball shaping. After PZT slurry deposition, the constructed PZT micropillar array is released onto a curved thin PZT layer. Following Parylene conformal coating on the processed PZT micropillars, the PZT micropillars and the surrounding Parylene comprise a matching layer with gradient acoustic impedance. By using the proposed technique, the fabricated transducer achieves a center frequency of 26 MHz and a −6 dB bandwidth of approximately 65%.
PZT film; ultrasonic transducer; micromachining; acoustic impedance
Understanding what governs community assembly and the maintenance of biodiversity is a central issue in ecology, but has been a continuing debate. A key question is the relative importance of habitat specialization (niche assembly) and dispersal limitation (dispersal assembly). In the middle of the Loess Plateau, northwestern China, we examined how species turnover in Liaodong oak (Quercus wutaishanica) forests differed between observed and randomized assemblies, and how this difference was affected by habitat specialization and dispersal limitation using variation partitioning. Results showed that expected species turnover based on individual randomization was significantly lower than the observed value (P < 0.01). The turnover deviation significantly depended on the environmental and geographical distances (P < 0.05). Environmental and spatial variables significantly explained approximately 40% of the species composition variation at all the three layers (P < 0.05). However, their contributions varied among forest layers; the herb and shrub layers were dominated by environmental factors, whereas the canopy layer was dominated by spatial factors. Our results underscore the importance of synthetic models that integrate effects of both dispersal and niche assembly for understanding the community assembly. However, habitat specialization (niche assembly) may not always be the dominant process in community assembly, even under harsh environments. Community assembly may be in a trait-dependent manner (e.g., forest layers in this study). Thus, taking more species traits into account would strengthen our confidence in the inferred assembly mechanisms.
Loess Plateau; neutral theory; niche assembly; randomization model; variation partitioning
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1/Flt-1) is a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases, but its role in angiogenesis remains controversial. While germline Vegfr-1−/− embryos die of abnormal vascular development in association with excessive endothelial differentiation, mice lacking only the kinase domain are apparently healthy.
Methods and Results
We carried out Cre-loxP mediated knockout to abrogate the expression of all known VEGFR-1 functional domains in neonatal and adult mice, and analyzed developmental, pathophysiological, and molecular consequences. VEGFR-1 deficiency promoted tip cell formation and endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, and facilitated angiogenesis of blood vessels which matured and perfused properly. Vascular permeability was normal at the basal level, but elevated in response to high doses of exogenous VEGF-A. In the post-infarct ischemic cardiomyopathy model, VEGFR-1 deficiency supported robust angiogenesis and protected against myocardial infarction. VEGFR-1 knockout led to abundant accumulation of VEGFR-2 at the protein level, increased VEGFR-2 tyrosine phosphorylation transiently, and enhanced serine phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. Interestingly, increased angiogenesis, tip cell formation, vascular permeability, VEGFR-2 accumulation, and Akt phosphorylation could be partially rescued or suppressed by one or more of the following manipulations, including injection of VEGFR-2 selective inhibitor SU1498, anti-VEGF-A, or introduction of Vegfr-2+/− heterozygosity into Vegfr-1 somatic knockout mice.
Upregulation of VEGFR-2 abundance at the protein level contributes in part to increased angiogenesis in VEGFR-1 deficient mice.
angiogenesis; vasculature; VEGFR-1; VEGFR-2; retina
Post-transplant malignancy is the major cause of later death of recipients after liver transplantation. Tumor recurrence after liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the end stage of cirrhosis has been frequently encountered. However, de novo hepatocellular carcinoma originating from the liver allograft has only rarely been reported. Here we reported a case of de novo hepatocellular carcinoma developed 2 years after living donor liver transplantation for hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis with viral YMDD mutation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of de novo hepatocellular carcinoma in a liver graft with recurrent hepatitis B virus infection after liver transplantation for hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis with YMDD mutation. Moreover, the de novo cancer first presented as a lung mass with minimal liver involvement and was obscured by a pulmonary fungal infection.
De novo hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver transplantation; Living donor liver transplantation; Hepatitis B recurrence; YMDD mutation
To investigate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of L-serine, permanent focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery while monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF). Rats were divided into control and L-serine-treated groups after middle cerebral artery occlusion. The neurological deficit score and brain infarct volume were assessed. Nissl staining was used to quantify the cortical injury. L-serine and D-serine levels in the ischemic cortex were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography. We found that L-serine treatment: 1) reduced the neurological deficit score, infarct volume and cortical neuron loss in a dose-dependent manner; 2) improved CBF in the cortex, and this effect was inhibited in the presence of apamin plus charybdotoxin while the alleviation of both neurological deficit score and infarct volume was blocked; and 3) increased the amount of L-serine and D-serine in the cortex, and inhibition of the conversion of L-serine into D-serine by aminooxyacetic acid did not affect the reduction of neurological deficit score and infarct volume by L-serine. In conclusion, improvement in regional CBF by L-serine may contribute to its neuroprotective effect on the ischemic brain, potentially through vasodilation which is mediated by the small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels on the cerebral blood vessel endothelium.
Analyses of mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences in recent years challenge the current working hypothesis of Nematoda phylogeny proposed from morphology, ecology and nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences, and raise the need to sequence additional mt genomes for a broad range of nematode lineages.
We sequenced the complete mt genomes of three Ascaridia species (family Ascaridiidae) that infest chickens, pigeons and parrots, respectively. These three Ascaridia species have an identical arrangement of mt genes to each other but differ substantially from other nematodes. Phylogenetic analyses of the mt genome sequences of the Ascaridia species, together with 62 other nematode species, support the monophylies of seven high-level taxa of the phylum Nematoda: 1) the subclass Dorylaimia; 2) the orders Rhabditida, Trichinellida and Mermithida; 3) the suborder Rhabditina; and 4) the infraorders Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha. Analyses of mt genome sequences, however, reject the monophylies of the suborders Spirurina and Tylenchina, and the infraorders Rhabditomorpha, Panagrolaimomorpha and Tylenchomorpha. Monophyly of the infraorder Ascaridomorpha varies depending on the methods of phylogenetic analysis. The Ascaridomorpha was more closely related to the infraorders Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha (suborder Rhabditina) than they were to the other two infraorders of the Spirurina: Oxyuridorpha and Spiruromorpha. The closer relationship among Ascaridomorpha, Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha was also supported by a shared common pattern of mitochondrial gene arrangement.
Analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences and gene arrangement has provided novel insights into the phylogenetic relationships among several major lineages of nematodes. Many lineages of nematodes, however, are underrepresented or not represented in these analyses. Expanding taxon sampling is necessary for future phylogenetic studies of nematodes with mt genome sequences.
Mitochondrial genome; Ascaridia; Nematode; Gene arrangement; Phylogeny
The whipworm of humans, Trichuris trichiura, is responsible for a neglected tropical disease (NTD) of major importance in tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Whipworms also infect animal hosts, including pigs, dogs and non-human primates, cause clinical disease (trichuriasis) similar to that of humans. Although Trichuris species are usually considered to be host specific, it is not clear whether non-human primates are infected with T. trichiura or other species. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome as well as the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of Trichuris from the François’ leaf-monkey (langur), and compared them with homologous sequences from human- and pig-derived Trichuris. In addition, sequence comparison of a conserved mt ribosomal gene among multiple individual whipworms revealed substantial nucleotide differences among these three host species but limited sequence variation within each of them. The molecular data indicate that the monkey-derived whipworm is a separate species from that of humans. Future work should focus on detailed population genetic and morphological studies (by electron microscopy) of whipworms from various non-humans primates and humans.
Sini decoction is a well-known formula of traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used to treat cardiovascular disease for many years. Previously, we demonstrated that Sini decoction prevented doxorubicin-induced heart failure in vivo. However, its active components are still unclear. Thus, we investigated the active components of Sini decoction and their cardioprotective mechanisms in the in vitro neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cell line models of doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that treatment with higenamine or -gingerol increased viability of doxorubicine-injured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, combined use of higenamine and -gingerol exerted more profound protective effects than either drug as a single agent, with effects similar to those of dexrazoxane, a clinically approved cardiac protective agent. In addition, we found that treatment with doxorubicin reduced SOD activity, increased ROS generation, enhanced MDA formation, induced release of LDH, and triggered the intrinsic mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway in cardiomyocytes, which was inhibited by cotreatment of higenamine and -gingerol. Most importantly, the cytoprotection of higenamine plus -gingerol could be abrogated by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. In conclusion, combination of higenamine and -gingerol exerts cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity through activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Higenamine and -gingerol may be the active components of Sini decoction.
Hypertension induces cardiovascular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Infiltrated macrophages are critically involved in this process. We recently reported that inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2), which hydroxylates the proline residues of hypoxia‐inducible factor‐α (HIF‐α) and thereby induces HIF‐α degradation, suppressed inflammatory responses in macrophages. We examined whether myeloid‐specific Phd2 deletion affects hypertension‐induced cardiovascular remodeling.
Methods and Results
Myeloid‐specific PHD2‐deficient mice (MyPHD2KO) were generated by crossing Phd2‐floxed mice with LysM‐Cre transgenic mice, resulting in the accumulation of HIF‐1α and HIF‐2α in macrophage. Eight‐ to ten‐week‐old mice were given NG‐nitro‐L‐arginine methyl ester (L‐NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. L‐NAME/Ang II comparably increased systolic blood pressure in control and MyPHD2KO mice. However, MyPHD2KO mice showed less aortic medial and adventitial thickening, and macrophage infiltration. Cardiac interstitial fibrosis and myocyte hypertrophy were also significantly ameliorated in MyPHD2KO mice. Transforming growth factor‐β and collagen expression were decreased in the aorta and heart from MyPHD2KO mice. Echocardiographic analysis showed that left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced ejection fraction induced by L‐NAME/Ang II treatment in control mice were not observed in MyPHD2KO mice. Administration of digoxin that inhibits HIF‐α synthesis to L‐NAME/Ang II‐treated MyPHD2KO mice reversed these beneficial features.
Phd2 deletion in myeloid lineage attenuates hypertensive cardiovascular hypertrophy and fibrosis, which may be mediated by decreased inflammation‐ and fibrosis‐associated gene expression in macrophages. PHD2 in myeloid lineage plays a critical role in hypertensive cardiovascular remodeling.
fibrosis; hypertrophy; hypoxia; macrophages; migration
The number of patients developing esophageal cancer after gastrectomy has increased. However, gastric remnant is very rarely used for reconstruction in esophageal cancer surgery because of the risk of anastomotic leakage resulting from insufficient blood flow. We present a case of esophageal cancer using gastric remnant for esophageal substitution after distal gastrectomy in a 57-year-old man who presented with a 1-month history of mild dysphagia and a background history of alcohol abuse. Gastroscopy showed a 1.2 cm × 1.0 cm bulge tumor of the lower third esophagus with the upper margin located 39 cm from the dental arcade. Computed tomography of the chest showed lower third esophageal wall thickening. The patient underwent en bloc radical esophagectomy with a two-field lymph node dissection of the upper abdomen and mediastinum via a left-sided posterolateral thoracotomy through the seventh intercostal space. The upper end of the esophagus was resected 5 cm above the tumor. The gastric remnant was used for reconstruction of the esophago-gastrostomy and placed in the left thoracic cavity. The patient started a liquid diet on postoperative day 8 and was discharged on the 10th postoperative day without complications. In this report, we demonstrate that the gastric remnant may be used for reconstruction in patients with esophageal cancer as a substitute organ after distal gastrectomy.
Gastric remnant; Distal; Gastrectomy; Esophageal cancer; Substitution
In the present study, we used a focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion rat model to investigate the protective effects of Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction (XXMD) on neurovascular unit and to examine the role of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt pathway in this protection. The cerebral ischemia was induced by 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Cerebral infarct area was measured by tetrazolium staining, and neurological function was observed at 24 h after reperfusion. DNA fragmentation assay, combined with immunofluorescence, was performed to evaluate apoptosis of neuron, astrocyte, and vascular endothelial cell which constitute neurovascular unit. The expression levels of proteins involved in PI3K/Akt pathway were detected by Western blot. The results showed that XXMD improved neurological function, decreased cerebral infarct area and neuronal damage, and attenuated cellular apoptosis in neurovascular unit, while these effects were abolished by inhibition of PI3K/Akt with LY294002. We also found that XXMD upregulated p-PDKl, p-Akt, and p-GSK3β expression levels, which were partly reversed by LY294002. In addition, the increases of p-PTEN and p-c-Raf expression levels on which LY294002 had no effect were also observed in response to XXMD treatment. The data indicated the protective effects of XXMD on neurovascular unit partly through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway.
Graves’ disease (GD) is a common autoimmune disease involving the thyroid gland. The altered balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GD. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) is important for interleukin-17 (IL-17) signal activation and a potent chemoattractant for Th17 cells. Meanwhile, Osteopontin (OPN), a broadly expressed pleiotropic cytokine, has been implicated in GD through inducing Th1-involved response to enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, but little is known about the role of OPN in regulating CCL20 and IL-17 signaling.
This study sought to explore the possibility of CCL20 level as a biomarker for GD, as well as investigate the role of OPN in regulating CCL20 production.
Fifty untreated GD patients, fifteen euthyroid GD patients, twelve TRAb-negative GD patients and thirty-five healthy control donors were recruited. OPN, CCL20 and other clinical GD diagnosis parameters were measured. CD4+T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using antibody-coated magnetic beads. Enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine CCL20 expression level.
We found that the plasma CCL20 level was enhanced in GD patients and decreased in euthyroid and TRAb-negative GD patients. In addition, CCL20 level correlated with GD clinical diagnostic parameters and plasma OPN level. Moreover, we demonstrated that recombinant OPN and plasma from untreated GD patients increased the expression of CCL20 in CD4+T cells, which could be blocked by OPN antibody. Furthermore, we found that the effect of OPN on CCL20 expression was mediated by β3 integrin receptor, IL-17, NF-κB and MAPK pathways.
These results demonstrated that CCL20 might serve as a biomarker for GD and suggested the possible role of OPN in induction of CCL20 expression.
Thysanoplusia orichalcea multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (ThorMNPV) has high virulence to Trichoplusia ni and Pseudoplusia includens larvae, with a potential for biological control of insect pests. The genome of ThorMNPV was sequenced and found to be 132,978 bp, with a G+C content of 37.9%. There are 145 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), encoding proteins of 50 or more amino acid residues with minimal overlap. Of the 145 ORFs, 141 appeared to be homologous to those of Autographa californica MNPV (AcMNPV). In comparison to AcMNPV, 9 ORFs of AcMNPV were absent in ThorMNPV, including the superoxide dismutase (sod) gene.
Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3a (HvAV-3a), a member of the family Ascoviridae, has the highest diversity among ascovirus species that have been reported in Australia, Indonesia, China, and the United States. To understand the diversity and origin of this important ascovirus, the complete genome of the HvAV Indonesia strain (HvAV-3g), isolated from Spodoptera exigua, was determined to be 199,721 bp, with a G+C content of 45.9%. Therefore, HvAV-3g has the largest genome among the reported ascovirus genomes to date. There are 194 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins of 50 or more amino acid residues. In comparison to HvAV-3e reported from Australia, HvAV-3g has all the ORFs in HvAV-3e with 6 additional ORFs unique to HvAV-3g, including 1 peptidase C26 gene with the highest identity to Drosophila spp. and 2 gas vesicle protein U (GvpU) genes with identities to Bacillus megaterium. The five unique homologous regions (hrs) and 25 baculovirus repeat ORFs (bro) of HvAV-3g are highly variable.
Despite the genotype 4 has become the dominant cause of hepatitis E disease in China, none antigen derived from genotype 4 of hepatitis E virus (HEV) was used in current commercial anti-HEV immunoassay, and the serological reactivity of antigen derive from genotype 4 is not well-charactered.
We expressed and purified the 4 main immuno-dominant epitopes derived from genotype 1 and 4 including ORF2 (410-621aa) of genotype 4, ORF3 (47-114aa) of genotype 4, ORF2 (396-606aa) of genotype 1 and ORF3 (56-123aa) of genotype 4.
The ORF2 of genotype 4 displayed good diagnostics performance according to ROC analysis using in-house panel, and the immunoassays based the ORF2 of genotype 4 was then developed to detect the anti-HEV IgG antibodies and evaluated further in 530 anti-HEV IgG positive specimens and 380 negative specimens. The sensitivity and the specificity is 98.1% (520/530) and 94.7% (360/380) for immunoassay based on ORF2 of genotype 4, 96.6% (512/530) and 92.6% (352/380) for commercial immunoassay based on genotype 1. It is noted that all of the positive samples will be detected by combing two assays together. The anti-HEV immunoassays based on genotype 4 are in accordance with Chinese anti-HEV national standard,and show an good agreement of 95.8% with commercial assay (kappa=0.913, P=0.014).
The immunoassay based on ORF2G4 displays good performance, and combining assay based on genotype 1 together with genotype 4 will benefit the HEV diagnosis in large scale samples.
HEV; ORF2; ORF3; Genotype; Immunoassay
Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction (XXMD) is an effective prescription in the treatment of ischemic stroke, but the mechanisms involved are not well known. In the present study, 120 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham control (sham), ischemia and reperfusion (IR), and IR plus 15, 30, and 60 g/kg/day XXMD. The stroke model was induced by 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. The brain lesion areas were evaluated by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, and neurological deficits were observed at different time points after reperfusion. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption was evaluated by assessing brain water content and Evans blue content. Pathological changes in BBB ultrastructure were observed with transmission electron microscopy. MMP-9, -2, and VEGF expression levels were quantitatively determined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. We found that XXMD (60 g/kg/day) treatment reduced cerebral infarct area, improved behavioral function, and attenuated ultrastructure damage and permeability of BBB following ischemia and reperfusion. Moreover, XXMD downregulated the expression levels of MMP-9, -2, and VEGF. These findings indicate that XXMD alleviates BBB disruption and cerebral ischemic injury, which may be achieved by inhibiting the expression of MMP-9, -2, and VEGF.
Several studies suggest that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess antitumor properties; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, microvesicles (MVs) are considered as a novel avenue intercellular communication, which may be a mediator in MSCs-related antitumor effect. In the present study, we evaluated whether MVs derived from human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) may inhibit bladder tumor T24 cells growth using cell culture and the BALB/c nu/nu mice xenograft model. CCK-8 assay and Ki-67 immunostaining were performed to estimate cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to assess cell cycle and apoptosis. To study the conceivable mechanism by which hWJMSC-MVs attenuate bladder tumor T24 cells, we estimated the expression of Akt/p-Akt, p-p53, p21 and cleaved Caspase 3 by Western blot technique after exposing T24 cells to hWJMSC-MVs for 24, 48 and 72h. Our data indicated that hWJMSC-MVs can inhibit T24 cells proliferative viability via cell cycle arrest and induce apoptosis in T24 cells in vitro and in vivo. This study showed that hWJMSC-MVs down-regulated phosphorylation of Akt protein kinase and up-regulated cleaved Caspase 3 during the process of anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis in T24 cells. These results demonstrate that hWJMSC-MVs play a vital role in hWJMSC-induced antitumor effect and may be a novel tool for cancer therapy as a new mechanism of cell-to-cell communication.
Spirocerca lupi is a life-threating parasitic nematode of dogs that has a cosmopolitan distribution but is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. Despite its veterinary importance in canids, the epidemiology, molecular ecology and population genetics of this parasite still remain unexplored.
The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of S. lupi was amplified in four overlapping long fragments using primers designed based on partial cox1, rrnS, cox2 and nad2 sequences. Phylogenetic re-construction of 13 spirurid species (including S. lupi) was carried out using Bayesian inference (BI) based on concatenated amino acid sequence datasets.
The complete mt genome sequence of S. lupi is 13,780 bp in length, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes, but lacks the atp8 gene. The gene arrangement is identical to that of Thelazia callipaeda (Thelaziidae) and Setaria digitata (Onchocercidae), but distinct from that of Dracunculus medinensis (Dracunculidae) and Heliconema longissimum (Physalopteridae). All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T. The content of A + T is 73.73% for S. lupi, in accordance with mt genomes of other spirurid nematodes sequenced to date. Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes by BI showed that the S. lupi (Thelaziidae) is closely related to the families Setariidae and Onchocercidae.
The present study determined the complete mt genome sequence of S. lupi. These new mt genome dataset should provide novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of this parasite, and should have implications for the molecular diagnosis, prevention and control of spirocercosis in dogs and other canids.
Spirocerca lupi; Spirocercosis; Mitochondrial genome; Gene organization; Phylogenetic implication