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author:("Cui, yanzhou")
1.  Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: A review of 86 cases in China 
Summary
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a type of rare hereditary disease that affects connective tissue. PXE is found around the world, and its epidemiology in China is still unclear. A database search revealed that 86 patients in total were reported in China from 1985 to 2013. The vast majority of these reports concern single, sporadic cases. This review summarizes the clinical characteristics of PXE and its treatment in China. The hope is to provide a reliable basis for studies on the incidence of PXE and for formulation of relevant policies in the future.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2014.01011
PMCID: PMC4214240  PMID: 25364647
Rare diseases; prevalence; clinical features; literature search
2.  China launched a pilot project to improve its rare disease healthcare levels 
China is facing the great challenge of serving the world’s largest rare disease population. It is necessary to develop a specific medical plan to increase the levels of optimal prevention, diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases under the existing clinical service structures in China. In 2013, China launched its first pilot project focused on 20 representative rare diseases. A national network including approximately 100 provincial or municipal medical centers has been established to enable collaboration on rare diseases across China. The main objectives for this project are to develop and apply medical guidelines and clinical pathways for rare diseases, to establish a rare disease patient registry and data repository system, and to promote molecular testing for rare genetic disorders. This project also emphasizes building close links among the collaborative network, clinicians on the frontlines in basic medical services institutions and rare disease patient organizations. Primarily, this project expects to develop an actionable medical services plan to increase the delivery of quality healthcare for individuals and families living with rare diseases in China within five years.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-9-14
PMCID: PMC3937133  PMID: 24468030
3.  The molecular and cellular basis of Apert syndrome 
Summary
Apert syndrome (AS) is a rare genetic and congenital disease characterized by craniosynostosis and syndactly of hands and feet. AS patients generally require lifelong management, however there are still no effective treatment methods except surgery. In recent years, research has made great progress in the pathogenesis of AS. FGFR2 mediates extracellular signals into cells and the mutations in the FGFR2 gene cause AS occurrence. Activated FGFs/FGFR2 signaling disrupt the balance of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis via its downstream signal pathways. However, how the pathways transform the balance is not well understood and contradictions have occurred in different studies. In this review, we'll focus on these problems to get a better understanding of AS pathogenesis.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2013.v2.4.115
PMCID: PMC4204555  PMID: 25343114
Apert syndrome; FGFR2 gene; pathogenesis; signal pathways
4.  Investigating citrullinated proteins in tumour cell lines 
Background
The conversion of arginine into citrulline, termed citrullination, has important consequences for the structure and function of proteins. Studies have found PADI4, an enzyme performing citrullination, to be highly expressed in a variety of malignant tumours and have shown that PADI4 participates in the process of tumorigenesis. However, as citrullinated proteins have not been systematically investigated in tumours, the present study aimed to identify novel citrullinated proteins in tumours by 2-D western blotting (2-D WB).
Methods
Two identical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels were prepared using extracts from ECA, H292, HeLa, HEPG2, Lovo, MCF-7, PANC-1, SGC, and SKOV3 tumour cell lines. The expression profiles on a 2-DE gel were trans-blotted to PVDF membranes, and the blots were then probed with an anti-citrulline antibody. By comparing the 2-DE profile with the parallel 2-D WB profile at a global level, protein spots with immuno-signals were collected from the second 2-DE gel and identified using mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitation was used to verify the expression and citrullination of the targeted proteins in tumour cell lines.
Results
2-D WB and mass spectrometry identified citrullinated α-enolase (ENO1), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), keratin 8 (KRT8), tubulin beta (TUBB), T cell receptor chain and vimentin in these cell lines. Immunoprecipitation analyses verified the expression and citrullination of ENO1, HSP60, KRT8, and TUBB in the total protein lysates of the tumour cell lines.
Conclusions
The citrullination of these proteins suggests a new mechanism in the tumorigenic process.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-11-260
PMCID: PMC3851430  PMID: 24099319
Citrullination; Peptidylarginine deiminases; Tumour
5.  Advances in research on and diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia in China 
Summary
Achondroplasia is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease. Research on achondroplasia in China, however, has received little emphasis. Around 80–90% of cases of neonatal achondroplasia result from mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) according to polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Recently, genetic research on achondroplasia in China made a major breakthrough by revealing two novel mutations located on the FGFR3 gene, thus helping to complete the pathological molecular map of achondroplasia. There are still, however, unknown aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia. This review will summarize advances in research on and the clinical diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia in China.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2013.v2.2.45
PMCID: PMC4204580  PMID: 25343101
Rare diseases; gene mutation; chondrodystrophia fetalis; chondrodystrophic dwarfism
6.  A comparative proteomics study on matrix vesicles of osteoblast-like Saos-2 and U2-OS cells 
Summary
Matrix vesicles (MVs) play an important role in the initial stage of the process of bone mineralization, and are involved in multiple rare skeletal diseases with pathological mineralization or calcification. The aim of the study was to compare the proteomic profiling of osteoblast-like cells with and without mineralization ability (Saos-2 and U2-OS), and to identify novel mineralization-associated MV proteins. MVs were extracted using ExoQuick solution from mineralization-induced Saos-2 and U2-OS cells, and then were validated by transmission electron microscopy. A label-free quantitative proteomic method was used to compare the protein profiling of MVs from Saos-2 and U2-OS cells. Western-blots were used to confirm the expression of MVs proteins identified in proteomic studies. In our proteomic studies, we identified that 89 mineralization-related proteins were significantly up-regulated in Saos-2 MVs compared with U2-OS MVs. We further validated that two MVs proteins, protein kinase C α and ras-related protein Ral-A, were up-regulated in MVs of Saos-2 cells compared to those of U2-OS cells under mineralization-induction. Our findings suggest that protein kinase C α and ras-related protein Ral-A might be involved in bone mineralization as MVs components.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2013.v2.2.59
PMCID: PMC4204581  PMID: 25343104
Matrix vesicle; osteoblasts; mineralization; proteomics
7.  Study and analysis of the state of rare disease research in Shandong Province, China 
Summary
As the world's most populous country, China has the world's largest number of rare disease groups in terms of prevalence. However, the country has no system of registering cases of most rare diseases, so there is very little documented information on the epidemiology of those diseases. The purpose of this study was to study the state of rare disease research and survey doctors in Shandong Province regarding their level of awareness of rare diseases. Types of rare diseases and numbers of cases were tallied and their geographical distribution over the decades was analyzed. Eight hundred and twenty-four doctors in tertiary hospitals and maternity and child care hospitals were surveyed by questionnaire. Data were descriptively analyzed and a map of disease distribution was created. Articles about rare diseases were retrieved from the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database to provide pertinent data. This study yielded 5,749 cases of 323 different types of rare diseases. The survey found that doctors lack awareness of research on rare diseases. An authoritative and information-rich platform for rare disease research is urgently needed. Key steps are to study epidemiological and statistical techniques and then obtain available data to provide a basis for the definition and regulation of rare diseases in China.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2012.v1.4.161
PMCID: PMC4204566  PMID: 25343091
Rare diseases; awareness survey; descriptive analysis
8.  A systematic review of genetic skeletal disorders reported in Chinese biomedical journals between 1978 and 2012 
Little information is available on the prevalence, geographic distribution and mutation spectrum of genetic skeletal disorders (GSDs) in China. This study systematically reviewed GSDs as defined in “Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders (2010 version)” using Chinese biomedical literature published over the past 34 years from 1978 to 2012. In total, 16,099 GSDs have been reported. The most frequently reported disorders were Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, fibrous dysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, multiple cartilaginous exostoses, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), osteopetrosis, achondroplasia, enchondromatosis (Ollier), and osteopoikilosis, accounting for 76.5% (12,312 cases) of the total cases. Five groups (group 8, 12, 14, 18, 21) defined by “Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders” have not been reported in the Chinese biomedical literature. Gene mutation testing was performed in only a minor portion of the 16,099 cases of GSDs (187 cases, 1.16%). In total, 37 genes for 41 different GSDs were reported in Chinese biomedical literature, including 43 novel mutations. This review revealed a significant imbalance in rare disease identification in terms of geographic regions and hospital levels, suggesting the need to create a national multi-level network to meet the specific challenge of care for rare diseases in China.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-55
PMCID: PMC3492206  PMID: 22913777
Rare diseases; Genetic skeletal diseases; China; Bibliographic study
9.  Rare diseases research in China: Opportunities, challenges, and solutions 
Summary
Rare diseases research in China can be traced back to the 1980s. Currently, control of rare diseases has become a national concern. This paper describes developments concerning rare diseases in China with regard to epidemiology, case registration, basic research, establishment of medical networks, and orphan drugs. A national program for rare disease research is being implemented in China to promote international cooperation in the future.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2012.v1.1.10
PMCID: PMC4204592  PMID: 25343065
Rare disease; China; development; epidemiology
10.  Identification of a germline mutation in the HRPT2 gene in a Chinese family with parathyroid carcinomas 
Summary
This study reported a family with primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid carcinoma and investigated the pathological and genetic features of family members. Three members of the family had clinical manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism and tumors in the neck. All three patients underwent parathyroidectomy, thyroidectomy and level-VI neck dissection and were definitively diagnosed based on pathology. The index case was a patient that was found to have parathyroid carcinoma on the right side and parathyroid adenoma on the left side. The other two patients had local tumor recurrence and metastasis to distant organs. A germline mutation in the HRPT2 gene (Arg91Pro) was identified in all of the patients in this family. Study of the literature indicated that this is the first report of familial parathyroid carcinomas with an HRPT2 gene missense mutation. Results also indicated that HRPT2 may play an important role in the development of parathyroid carcinoma.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2012.v1.1.27
PMCID: PMC4204593  PMID: 25343069
Familial; parathyroid tumor; hyperparathyroidism; HRPT2
11.  Phosphate/Pyrophosphate and MV-related Proteins in Mineralisation: Discoveries from Mouse Models 
During the process of matrix vesicle (MV)-mediated initiation of mineralisation, chondrocytes and osteoblasts mineralise the extracellular matrix by promoting the seeding of basic calcium phosphate crystals of hydroxyapatite (HA) along the collagen fibrils. This orchestrated process is carefully regulated by the balanced action of propagators and inhibitors of calcification. The primary antagonistic regulators of extracellular matrix mineralisation are phosphate (Pi) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Studies in mouse models and in humans have established critical roles for Pi/PPi homeostasis in biomineralisation. In this review, we present the regulators of Pi/PPi, as derived from animal models, and discuss their clinical relevance to physiological and pathological mineralisation.
doi:10.7150/ijbs.4538
PMCID: PMC3372882  PMID: 22719218
Mineralisation; Matrix vesicles; PPi; Pi; MV-related proteins; OPN.
12.  Increased expression of carbonic anhydrase I in the synovium of patients with ankylosing spondylitis 
Background
One of the most distinctive features of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is new bone formation and bone resorption at sites of chronic inflammation. Previous studies have indicated that the hyperplasia and inflammation of synovial tissues are significantly related to the pathogenic process of AS. The present study used a proteomic approach to identify novel AS-specific proteins by simultaneously comparing the expression profiles of synovial membranes from patients with AS, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA).
Methods
Synovial tissues were collected from the hip joints of patients with AS and knee joints of patients with RA or OA (n = 10 for each disease) during joint replacement surgery. Proteins extracted from the synovial tissues were separated by 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE), and the proteins with significantly increased expression in the AS samples were subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis. The results were verified using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Levels of the candidate proteins in synovial fluids from knee joints (n = 40 for each disease) were measured using ELISA.
Results
The proteomic approach revealed significantly increased expression of carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) in the synovial membrane of patients with AS as compared with the RA and OA tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis confirmed the findings described above. The ELISA detected a higher level of CA1 in synovial fluids from patients with AS than those with OA. The mean value of the CA1 level was also higher in AS patients as compared with RA patients. This study also detected increased expression of alpha-1-antitrypsin in the synovial tissues from AS patients, which is in agreement with other reports.
Conclusion
In vitro experiments by other groups indicated that CA1 catalyzes the generation of HCO3- through the hydration of CO2, which then combines with Ca2+ to form a CaCO3 precipitate. Calcification is an essential step of bone formation. Substantial evidence indicates that carbonic anhydrase also stimulates bone resorption. Hence, overexpression of CA1 in the synovial tissues of AS patients may promote improper calcification and bone resorption in AS.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-279
PMCID: PMC3012668  PMID: 21143847

Results 1-12 (12)