A pilot study of adults who had onset of juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) in childhood, before current therapeutic approaches, to characterize JDM symptoms and subclinical cardiovascular disease.
Eight adults who had JDM assessed for disease activity and 8 healthy adults (cardiovascular disease controls) were tested for carotid intima media thickness and brachial arterial reactivity. Adults who had JDM and 16 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy metabolic controls were evaluated for body composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids, insulin resistance, leptin, adiponectin, proinflammatory oxidized high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and nail-fold capillary end row loops.
Adults with a history of JDM, median age 38 years (24–44 years) enrolled a median 29 years (9–38 years) after disease onset, had elevated disease activity scores, skin (7/8), muscle (4/8), and creatine phosphokinase (2/8). Compared with cardiovascular disease controls, adults who had JDM were younger, had lower body mass index and HDL cholesterol (P = .002), and increased intima media thickness (P = .015) and their brachial arterial reactivity suggested impairment of endothelial cell function. Compared with metabolic controls, adults who had JDM had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, P = .048, P = .002, respectively; lower adiponectin (P = .03); less upper arm fat (P = .008); HDL associated with end row loops loss (r = −0.838, P = .009); and increased proinflammatory oxidized HDL (P = .0037).
Adults who had JDM, 29 years after disease onset, had progressive disease and increased cardiovascular risk factors.